Skip to main content

Full text of "The Kymry : their origin, history, and international relations"

See other formats








Sometime Fellcnu of Jesus College, Oxford ; Senior Puhlic Examiner in Law and 

Modern History. 

Author of 'Treatise of Dogmatic Theology,' 'Sanctorale 

Catholkum, j 'Essay on the Communion of Saints,' 'Institi'tes of Canon 

Law,' ' The Pilgrimage to Rome, a Poem,' &c. 

'' Proximi oceano Kimbri parva nunc civitas, sed gloria inpens." Tacitus, Ger- 

mania, c. 37. 



[All Rights reserved.] 





Chapter I. The Kymry on the Continent of Europe ... i 

Chapter II. The Kymry in Pre-historic Britain ... 25 

Chapter III. Character and Manners of the early Kymry ... 49 

Chapter IV. The Kymry under the Roman Empire ... 63 

Chapter V. The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry ... 75 

Chapter VI. The later Welsh Princes ... ... 88 

Chapter VII. Welshmen on the Continent ... ... 96 

Chapter VIII. Ecclesiastical Sketches ... ... 103 

Chapter IX. Mediaeval Literature of the Kymry ... ... 117 

Chapter X. Later Literature of Wales ... ... 124 

Appendix. No. I. Greek-Kymric Vocables ... ... 133 

Appendix. No. II. Latin-Kymric Vocables ... ... 15c 

Appendix. No. III. Ancient Gallic Vocables, preserved by the 

Classic Writers ... ... ... ... ... 206 

Appendix. No. IV. Kymric Affinities with the Basque or 

Euskara ... ... ... ... ... ... 209 

Appendix. No. V. Kymric Affinities with the Sanskrit 212 
Appendix. No. VI. Greek Proper Names retained in or ex- 
pounded by the Kymric or Gadhelic (Erse) ... ... 215 

Appendix. No. VII. Gallic and British Proper Names ex- 
pounded through the Kymric ... ... ... 218 

Appendix. No. VIII. Geographical Traces of the Westward 

Migrations of the Kymry from their Asiatic Cradle ... 221 
Appendix. No. IX. Latin Names of Persons retained by the 
Kymry, including those of the later Roman Empire, and 

Greek Names therein occurring ... ... ... 276 

Appendix. No. X. Griffith Roberts's Prologue ... 218 

Appendix. No. XL French-Kymric Vocables ... ... 283 

Appendix. No. XII. English-Kymric Vocables ... 292 


The subject of the antiquities and foreign relations of the Kymry 
seems to admit of a more interesting treatment than it has hitherto 
received. The few scholars who have handled it generally fail in 
acquaintance with foreign literature ; and their ambition has too 
often led them to acquiesce in a dreary isolation and a barren 

The very term nationality now serves as a pretence for a fierce 
attack on institutions, and a corresponding defence not always 
conducted with temper nor with an absolute regard for truth. 
The temper now roused in Wales is the Nemesis pursuing the 
neglect of later times. Time was when a Roman Catholic self- 
exiled from Cambria could dedicate a Grammar to the noble 
William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, as to one who spoke pure 
Welsh. Of late, how rarely find we one of the landed gentry who 
even attempts a barbarous utterance of it ! Some of the ornaments 
of the Church, Welshmen by blood, have studiously slighted it. 
Yet Griffith Roberts, Vicar-General of Milan, could say : 

" I beseech every native Kymro to pay due regard to the 
Welsh language ; so that none may say of any of them, that it 
was a sin ever to breed them on the milk of a Kymraes's breast, 
for that they wished no better to the Welsh tongue." 

Most Welsh scholars have employed their time on the pro- 
duction of grammars and dictionaries. The Hebrew learning of Dr. 
John Davies of Mallwyd seems to have influenced his countrymen 

vi. The Preface. 

to accept the Puritan atavism of referring Welsh to the language 
of Moses as its fountain. I cannot admit even the plausibility of a 
theory which derives clearly Latin words, such as prcseb {praesepe) 
and ysgcler {sceleratus) from Ebus and Sakal. Edward Lluyd ap- 
pears to be the most candid and reasonable of Welshmen. A few 
hints in his Archaeologia Britannica suggested the present Work. 

Dr. Owen Pughe expounded the archaic Welsh of Aneurin and 
Taliesin, which otherwise would have remained unintelligible. He 
will even resolve terms of Greek origin, proper to Christianity, into 
Welsh elements. But he wisely contents himself with suggesting. 
John Williams, late Archdeacon of Cardigan, perceived traces of 
Kymric settlements in Italy ; I had sought to develop the idea 
more extensively before his essays came to my hand. The pa- 
triotism which I share with most of my countrymen may have led 
me into error, but it must take its own course. I may in this 
Work have given the reins too freely to my imagination ; perhaps 
the subject invited the indulgence. For have I not presumed to 
trace the Kymry " through all the bounds of Doric land," and 
" over Adria to the Hesperian fields, and o'er the Keltic roam'd the 
utmost isles"? {Paradise Lost, Bk. /"., lines 51Q 21.) May I 
hope the candid reader will respect a venture of patriotic sentiment, 
which seeks to construct a national memorial, but not at the ex- 
pense of others, nor to promote selfish ends ? 



1. The original 
home of the Euro- 
pean or Western 
Aryan family of 



In tracing the Kymry and their Keltic kinsmen the Gael to their 
origin, some would confess the problem insoluble, and thereby gain 
a cheap reputation for sound judgment. Re- 
garding such discretion as unfruitful, I would 
run the risk of being treated as a visionary. 
And so I avow that Mons^ Sylvain Bailly's theory 
finds favour with me; namely, that the original 
civilization of mankind was antediluvian in the high plateau of 
central Asia, whence it extended to India, Persia, and China; and 
that it was a favoured climate before the transposition of the polar 
axis of the earth. [Lettres sur VAtlantide de Platan, I77Q.] His 
argument is supported by the fact of the cycles of iq and of 600 
years being known to the ancients in those parts, the latter of 
which cycles is attributed by Josephus to the antediluvians. [See 
Count Carti, Lettres Americaines, 1788.] Modern discoveries coun- 
tenance this hypothesis. Sir Robert McClure found in Arctic lands 
an abundance of wood in places where now the willow and birch 
have to struggle for existence; and Webb had seen flourishing fields 
of corn at altitudes far exceeding the height of Mont Blanc* 

* Justin (lib. ii. c. 1) sensibly infers the prior antiquity of the Scythians over the 
Egyptians, because the higher regions of the world would be sooner habitable after a 
general deluge; and, in fact, the great rivers sprang from the highlands of Asia. 

2 Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 

The most homely incidents of a people's life will not be over- 
looked by a philosopher, who would judge of the relations or 
perhaps the original identity of nations now 
I. Itoois rrom widely separated by language, polity, and locality. 
Thus, when we find a farm-house in Turkestan 
presenting the well-to-do features of a comfortable English homestead, 
down to the shelves of clean earthenware and ornamented wardrobes; 
the village boys, in their hob-nailed boots, cutting out slides on the 
frozen roadside pond; the extremely fair women, recalling the crea- 
tions of Rubens; it is indeed difficult to treat all this as accidental. 
[Mr. Robert Shaiv^s Travels, i86g.~\ Sir Joseph Hooker noticed in 
Tibet a child playing with a popgun of bamboo : he had seen men 
in India for hours flying kites, and had got a jew's-harp from Tibet. 
[Himalayan Journal, 1849.] Athenaeus (c. 23) notices the pipes a 
span long used by the Phoenicians, and their shrill mournful sound. 
It is uncertain whether the Keltic Highlanders brought their bag- 
pipes from the East in the dawn of history or derived them from 
the Phoenician intercourse with Britain. 

The multiplication of families, and the necessity of finding 

ampler provision for them, leading to separation and emigration, is 

familiar to all from the example of Abraham 

3. How they came and Lo ^ and the rels of their herdsmen. 

to emigrate. 

These causes would operate before the ambition 

of the earliest princely dynasties filled the world with rapine and 
destruction. But these more obvious reasons did not always actuate 
mankind in their infancy. Imagination played a more important 
part than moderns are apt to admit; although even now the pendu- 
lum has swung widely from the prosaic motives of the eighteenth 
century. Full faith in the destinies of the Slav race works power- 
fully to their fulfilment; and the present condition of Europe belies 
the flattering dreams that made a Palace of Crystal the fitting 
exponent of the unity of mankind. I think we may trace the 
motive which impelled the Hindu-Aryas eastward to the sunrising. 
" Our great and ancient sires," says Vama-deva, " set out to seek 
the light in its source." [Rig-Veda, translated by Langlois, p. 2J7.] 

Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 3 

Two centuries before Christ, we are told, a Chinese explored the 
eastern seas to find the elixir of immortality. [Michel Chevalier, 
Mexico Ancient and Modern, /. 143 49.] And an impostor per- 
suaded an emperor that he possessed ingredients (he unkindly forgot 
to name them !) mingled with vermilion, which would produce a 
drink whereby Ngan-ki-seng, who dwelt in an isle of the sea, had 
already lived more than a 1000 years. [Annals of China, translated 
by Moyrt'a dc Mai/lac.} Our age of Progress hath its knaves as well 
as the Juventus mundi; but they are by no means so picturesque. 

M. Viollet-le-Duc contends that the possession of the horse and 
the employment of timber in building are marks distinctive of the 

Aryan family of mankind. The Aryan cherishes 
4. Westwards. 

timber as having served for the abode of primi- 
tive heroes, as a memento of a race that issued out of the northern 

mountains and forests of Asia. This will apply to those who first 
pressed on westwards from Balkh or Bactra, which was built by 
Kayamurs the founder of the Persian monarchy, still believed to 
be one of the earliest peopled portions of the earth. Aryana, the 
home of the Aryas, ' the honourable or pure race, 1 was in Bac- 
triana; and their name is connected with Iran or Persia in the east 
and with Erin or Ireland in the west, with the Persians' ancient 
name of Artaioi [Herodotus, VII. 61] and the Hebrew Elam or Air- 
yama, with Plato's Er the Armenian and the German Ehren. The 
noble Persians of old were the most chivalrous people of antiquity, 
the finest horsemen, and the most dignified and refined in manners. 
It is a pleasure to think of the near relation their language bore to 
our own Teutonic as well as Keltic. The elder Cyrus is smiled on 
by Heaven in Holy Scripture as its chosen instrument; and the 
younger still lives in the pure Attic speech of Xenophon. Carte 
the historian assigns the fruitful lands of Hyrcania and Bactriana to 
Gomer the son of Japhet; and Pomponius Mela places the Chomari 
and Cimmerii above the Caspian Sea. Travellers vie with each 
other in extolling the glorious fertility of Hyrcania or Mazanderan. 
[See Jean Straws. A.D. 16/O; Jean Chardin: Fraser : Sir Alex. 
Barnes.] "The high and hard brown features of the peasantry 

4 Origin, &c, of the Kytnry. 

often reminded" Mr. Fraser "of those of Scotland." {Travels, 
A.D. 1822.] When the early emigrants reached the Caspian Sea, 
we may imagine how, as they marked the line of light playing on 
the waves towards the burning west, they longed " to tread that 
golden path of rays, and thought 't would lead to some bright isle 
of rest." Certainly the term ' UywenyddJ which in Welsh desig- 
nates the glowing western horizon, suggests the sound and meaning 
of ' llawenydd] or joy. 

The traditional lore of the Kymry, embodied in the Triads, 

designates Hu Gadarn, or Hesus the Mighty, as the hero who first 

conducted them from the Land of Summer 

5. Antiquity of /Qw/ad yr Hav) to the isle of Britain, and 
such emigration. 

taught them to plough land. We are not told 

where that summer land was (I venture to treat as an unauthorized 
gloss the parenthetic addition of " where Constantinople now is "), 
nor where the lesson was conveyed. But bearing in mind the mys- 
terious terms applied to their demigod by the later Welsh poets, I 
am led to think they allude to some primoeval benefactor of remote 
antiquity, if not to the Pater Ipse co/endi, the Parent of all 
culture, the good God who never left His wandering children with- 
out manifold tokens of His care. The land of summer denoted a 
more genial clime, which the Kymry had quitted. It might be the 
South of France; it might even be that ancient Thrace, " where 
Constantinople now is," the land of Keltic princes, of Rhesus and 
Medocus (Rhys a Madoc); but it ever pointed eastward to the 
cradle of their forefathers. Iolo Goch styles the hero "emperor of 
land and sea, and life of the world, who after the deluge held the 
strong-beamed plough, showing to man that it was the best and 
singular art with the faithful Father;" while another resolves the 
myth into a parable of God, saying, " He is our lord and myster- 
ious God; a particle of lucid sunshine is His chariot; He is greater 
than the worlds." We are carried back to Asia, to days of Eld, 
when the later Aryas of the East and West were yet one family. 
Hear how Sobhari addresses the Twilights in words closely akin 
to those of the Kymric bards: "Ye erst gave to Man the light of 

Origin, &c. t of the Kymry. 5 

heaven; ye taught him to labour with the plough and to sow 
barley ! " u Come not from the far-off country to make us depart 
from the paternal life which Manou has traced for us ! " [A'ig- 
Veda, pp. 4/6, 422.] Diodorus Siculus, to mark the extreme 
antiquity of the inhabitants of Atlantis, says they M were un- 
acquainted with cereals, because they had separated from the rest 
of mankind before those fruits were shown to mortals." [Book F.] 
Now barley was the only cereal with which the Guanches were 
acquainted [Humboldt, Aspects of Nature, p. i"Ji\\ and it is called 
by Pliny " the most ancient kind of food." [Nat. Hist. L. xiiii. 
c. 7.] I consequently infer that the invention of the plough and 
of barley-food was antecedent to the first emigration westward 
whether of Iberians (Basques) or Kelts, as they had knowledge 
thereof in common with the eastern Aryas and the Turanians. In 
connexion with this I must remark how " this best and singular 
art " of ploughing was held in honour by the Incas of Peru. The 
Marquis De Beauvoir lately (March 25, 1867) saw "the gilt plough 
and the sacred harrow with which the Emperor of China yearly 
traces the furrow to call down the blessings of Heaven upon the 
seed-time and harvest." [Voyage round the World.] 

I have hinted that the Summerland of the Kymry ever retreats 

eastward to Asia. It is connected with the strange name of Deffro- 

bani. Scholars have striven to detect it under 

6. Analogy of some Greek guise on the shores of the Euxine. 
the Hindu-Aryas , , . , 

and thp "Kelts an un P romisin g locality tor a land of summer. 

It must have been a Kymric rendering of 
Taprobane, or Ceylon, the golden land of Parvaim. [2 Chronicles, 
Hi. 6.] Many points of connexion exist between the Kymry and 
the Hindii-Aryas. Not only does the language applied to Hu 
Gadarn recall the pantheistic hymn to Indra in the Rig-Veda, 
" This world ye see is he " [Langlois, p. Jji] ; " the thousand 
magic appearances" of Indra, the illusive apparitions of the Braminic 
gods, are preserved in the Triads ; the Manou of the Hindus is 
the original of the Menw, son of the Three Cries, in the Mabin- 
ogion; the Alpeii-gluh, that most lovely rose-red flush of the Alpine 

6 Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 

summits long after the valley sunsets, described by Kalidasa, at 
least 50 B.C., was known to the Kymry of Cornwall by the truly 
poetic name of Haul y meirw, a the Sun of the dead;'' the Indian 
cairns of Malabar are simply identical in shape with those found 
in Britain and Armorica; the doctrine of the Transmigration of 
souls and the practice of human sacrifices prevailed in Britain as 
in India; and a passage in the Appeasing of Lludd by Taliesin 
might tempt us to assume (with Mr. Godfrey Higgins) the relation 
of the Druids with Arya priests from the north of India, were it 
not that the Phoenicians and cognate Hivites offer a nearer 
analogue. The passage runs thus: "Men of the land of Asia and 
of the Hivites, a prudent perfect folk of an unknown country, 
ample their robes; who is equal to them?" " Gwyr gwlad yr 
Asia, a gwlad Gavis, Pobl pwyllad enwir, eu tir ni wys, Amlaes eu 
peisiau, pwy eu hevelys ? " 

Before proceeding further, I must glance at the traditions pre- 
served by the Kymry of the Deluge and other fearful cataclysms 
that have changed the face of the globe. One 

7. Traditions f ^ e Triads mentions, as one of three awful 

of the Deluge and of . c , _ , 

4.x. 7** . events, the eruption of the Ocean or Llyn 

other cataclysms. v y 

L/ion, " The Lake of Floods," and immersion 
of all lands, so that all men were drowned, save Dwyvan and 
Dwyvach, who escaped in a bare ship; adding that by them Britain 
was repeopled. I conceive this to be a later form of the legend, 
and that its simpler original refers to the ship of Nevydd Nav 
Neivion, which bore in it male and female, when the Lake of 
Floods broke out. It looks like a tradition of Noah's Ark ; and 
taken in connexion with legends of most remote climes, which 
reproduce the Hebrew tale with variations suggested by localities, 
(as when the Mexican Tezpi sends out the humming-bird instead of 
the dove), leaves little room for doubt. But the Kymry bore in 
remembrance a secular catastrophe by fire. They spoke of " the 
terror of the torrent fire, when the earth split up to its depth, and 
most things living were destroyed." The terror of such a cataclysm 
is brought home to us in a lively manner by the Codex Chimal- 

Origin, frV., of the Kymry. 7 

popoca of Guatemala, saying that, " While a rain of sand fell, they 
saw the tetzoutii boil and form rocks of a red colour." [Brassrur 
de Bourbourg, Histoire des Mcxh ains, crV., /. 427.] Whence did 
the Kymry derive these traditions ? I think, from Egypt. While 
pro? lay as or cycles of mundane catastrophes caused by the destruc- 
tive action of the four elements occur among the Hindus, the 
Mexicans, and the ancient Etrurians [Humboldt, Researches, 1'<jI. I. 
pp. /6, jo, 245], in the Egyptian and Kymric tradition the deluges 
alternate with conflagrations. \Plato s Ttmaeus.] Strabo says the 
Druids, while maintaining that the world was imperishable, held 
that fire and water would prevail at last. 

The Hindus are rich in traditions of submerged continents. 
They tell of Lanca, a continent embracing Madagascar, the Maldi- 
ves, Ceylon, and southern India, and separated 
8. Traditions of the by a sea from the Himalayas; of Suxda, whose 

A , . , fragments exist in Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and 

other submerged 

continents tne Moluccas [Janus Bircherode, Schediasma 

de Novo Orbe non nwo or Ttfj-rj Tifuuov, cap. 

I2~\\ and of Atai.a sunk in the ocean, which Krishna visited by 

cutting a strait and went to the land of Maha-Sweta or ' great 

silver.' Atala appears to me to mean the Atlantis of Plato. 

the subject of so many beautiful dreams; and the land of silver 

may be Spain. If (as Buffon holds) the Arctic Ocean of old 

communicated with both the Euxine and Caspian Seas; if the 

Aegean Sea was formed by the submersion of Lvktonia; if the 

great African desert of Sahara was once an inland sea, perhaps 

the Tritonian lake described by Diodorus; if the Mediterranean once 

reached the volcanic rocks of Auvergne, and was drained by the 

bursting of what was the Isthmus of Gibraltar [Albert Gaudry\\ 

we may imagine how the displacement of these vast waters effected 

the ruin of Atlantis. Some have treated the account Plato gives 

us of Atlantis as ' a noble lie.' But the concurrence of patient 

investigators, ancient and modern, convinces me of its substantial 

correctness. The ten kings answering to the Sujfetes of Carthage; 

the midnight deliberations like the American custom " before a 

8 Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 

large common fire " [John Halhett] ; the blue robes (a colour 
still affected in the Azores) [Henriques, Bullar]; the description 
given of the capital, recalling that of the African Lixos in Pliny; 
the appreciation of copper, "fine copper, precious as gold" [Ezra 
viii. 2J\ a metal which now produces a magnificent show in 
lances that shine with the glow of flaming torches [Schweinfurth, 
Heart of Africa, II. 4j] ; all are touches which would hardly have 
occurred to an Athenian bent on framing a romance. That honest 
soldier-historian Ammianus Marcellinus not only accepts the account 
of Atlantis, " an island in the Atlantic Sea larger than Europe, 
torn away into the dark deep " [xvii. 7, ij], but also seems to 
allude to it as a source of migration into Gaul, speaking of some 
"from the outermost isles, driven from their seats by the inunda- 
tion of the fervid sea " [xv. p, /]. If, as I think probable, the 
Atlantic islands are remains of Atlantis, may not some of the 
American tribes, as well as the Cambolectri, Alpine mountaineers, 
called Atlantic by Pliny (" qui Atlantici cognominantur '," Nat. 
Hist. III. 4), and the Guanches, have been refugees from the vast 
cataclysm, for the South of France and northern Africa must have 
previously been under water ? 

Many considerations point to a possible connexion of the 

Guanches or primitive inhabitants of the Canary Isles with the 

Iberians and Kelts. Aluise Da Ca' da Mosto, 

9. The Guanches in the 15th century, found them with fair 

and their possible flaxen h and their bodies stained green 
relations with the 

Kelts &c rec ^> anc * y e ^w with juice of herbs, as the 

Britons painted themselves blue. In Gomera 

they wore their goatskins coloured with red or violet. Mrs. 

Murray lately reports mummies with red-brown hair; and the 

sacred reliquary of Camaxtli, the deified hero of Tlascala in Mexico, 

was found to contain fair hair [Brasseur de Bourbourg], not 

black like that of the Aztecs. 

In Fuerteventura, their stone temple was a circle of stones like 

those of Karnac and Stonehenge. Their singing was plaintive like 

the Welsh. Their speed in climbing steep rocks, as seen by Sir 

Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 9 

Richard Hawkins, A.D. 1593, reminds us of Giraldus Cambrensis' 
picture of the bare-footed Kymric prince Kyneuric ap Rhys. The 
king of Gaidar was crowned, seated on a consecrated stone, like 
that of Scone in Scotland. A Briton would fain translate as 
GtoaUog the name of the hero of Gomera Gualhegueya, who saved 
his companions by leaping on a shark's back and stifling him. 
They sang of him, " He was brave that day ! " [ Webb and 
Bcrt/iclot, I. 114.} They had small clay pipes, similar in every 
respect to those found in old kistvaens in Ireland, and were 
acquainted with smoking, though it may not have been tobacco. 
Their skulls are of a well-formed Caucasian race. [Sir W. Wilis 
Wilde, A.D. 18J7.] The custom of polyandry or a woman's being 
the wife of several brothers in rotation obtained among the 
Guanches as among the ancient Britons [Caesar, De Bella Gallico, 
V. 5] and the modern Tibetans; a circumstance which, taken with 
the extreme antiquity of the Kymry, may imply some relation 
between those primitive races.* Moreover, I invite attention to the 
following Guanche terms with their British equivalents: 

Aemon, ' water '=Avon, 'river.' 

Ahof and Achemen, ' milk ' = Huven, 'cream.' [M and V being commutable 

A /to, 'the sun '=Haul. 

Ben-tayca, a mountain in Ferro deemed sacred= Pen-teg, 'fair head." 

Luna and Aguyan, ' a dog '=Cwn, ' dogs.' 

Enac, 'evening '=Heno, 'to-night.' 

Gantgo, ' a milk pail '=Can. 

Gomera, the island so called =from the same root as Kymry. 

Guanar-teme, ' the prince '=Gwanar, ' lord.' 

Guanche, ' fair '=Gwyn, 'fair, white.' 

Guang, 'a boy'=Ieuanc, 'young.' 

Hara, 'a sheep '=Hwrdd, 'a ram." 

* Polybius informs us that the same custom obtained in Sparta. Fragmenta 
Va/icana, it'. 384. It was doubtless induced by the peculiar circumstances of that 

military state. 

io Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 

Nor may I forget to notice the Irish traditions concerning Tir 
Hudi, the land of illusion, and O'Breasail, turned by the Greeks 
into Basileia, the royal island of the Gods, a submerged portion of 
Ireland, often rising to the sight of enthusiastic dreamers; which 
lured S. Brandan from the cloister, and tempted learned inquirers 
to connect it with Plato's ' noble lie.' [Vallancey, Introd. to 
Vindication of Ancient Hist, of Ireland, p. 52; and Whitehurst, 
Inquiry into the Original State and Formation of the Earth, p. 258. 
The latter specially dwells on the existence of subterraneous fires 
under the Atlantic Ocean.] 

The institution of religious women living in community in the 
Isle of Canary and endowed with privilege of sanctuary, called 
Magadas, whose long white ^ robes and amber ornaments connect 
them with the Druids, may have been akin to the Gallicenac off 
the coast of Britanny, of whom Pomponius Mela tells such fairy tales 
of enchantment, though the Guanches entertained a simpler faith 
than that of the Keltic race. I think these remnants of Atlantis, 
the Elysian Fields of the Hellenes, the Fortunate Islands of 
Horace, were in truth the Gwerddonau Llion, the Green Isles of 
the Ocean, which the Kymry peopled with the Fairies (Tylwyth 
Teg) and departed heroes, in quest whereof Gavran ab Aeddan 
with his faithful followers disappeared for ever, and where Havgan 
{summer-shine) king of Fairyland still lavishes his superb laurels and 
Hesperian fruit on the land of Doramas the brave.* 

Justly to conceive the wild enjoyment of physical existence, 

when Man was yet in his springtime, and Nature warm with 

divine breath overflowed with life, we must 

10. The Kelts' pro- transport ourselves into the primitive world, as 

cress from the East ., n s* , * ,.,. , r , 

traced in Caucasia. Maunce De Guenn has done in hls " onderful 

work, called the Centaur. We trace in the dawn 

of history a wide dissemination of various races of men, who must 

originally have obeyed the wild impulse of curiosity and the 

transport of animal life, which constitutes the child ' the father 

* The orange and the laurel attain to perfection in the Atlantic islands. 

Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 1 1 

of the man.' Among the earliest of those roving Centaurs we 
already distinguish the Kimmerioi, whom I will presume to read 
Kymry, placed in the imagination of the Greeks of Homer's age far 
west beyond the river Ocean, that cloudy west, which they converted 
into a land of perpetual darkness. About as long a time after 
Homer as has now elapsed since the Reformation, the father of 
history Herodotus, B.C. 450, say, places the Kelts " beyond the 
Pillars of Hercules, bordering on the Kynetae, who dwelt farthest 
westward of Europeans." [//. JJ.] In the language of later times 
these would be the Veneti of Armorica who dwelt furthest west of 
Gallia Keltica, in their own tongue Gwyndyd and Gwyddyl. But 
it must be noticed that a kindred tribe of these Gwyndyd were in 
Homer's age settled in Paphlagonia (he calls them Henetoi) [Iliad 
II. 852], whence they emigrated into Italy under Antenor and 
founded the state, still a living name, Venice. The vanguard of 
the race were Gael, or Galli, who long preceded the march of their 
brother Kymry, whose movements are related by Herodotus. But 
their presence in the various countries which they traversed west- 
wards is, I submit, amply testified by the geographical names 
transmitted to us; particularly those of rivers, which I exhibit 
elsewhere. In leaving the far east, they must have occupied a 
country south of the Caucasus, extending from the river Araxes to 
the Palus Maeotis or Sea of Azof, where Herodotus remarks on 
the many places yet bearing the name of Kimmerian in his time. 
In that land they must have practiced the Aryan fashion of timber 
constructions. An old English traveller in Armenia, A.D. 1 58 1, 
observes: " Here the houses are built of fir-trees, like unto the 
houses in the Alpes." [Pure has, II. 1417} They had left far 
behind them the stupendous Roof of the World, the Indian Koosh, 
whose ancient name of Hemodus retains their speech denoting it 
Y-man-dd, the place of snow.* They had crossed the great 
river Iaxartes or Sihoon, which to them perhaps was Ia-sarth, 
" the ice serpent," and Seiont, which now laves the regal castle 

* Man-oii is still a fine mountain overlooking the charming vale of Festiniog. 

12 Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 

of Caernarvon. They possibly occupied Quaris, a city on the 
Oxus, which seems purely Kymric, Caerwys-ar-Wysc. The Oxus 
would conduct them to the Caspian Sea, when they would 
traverse the rich land of Hyrcania and cross the Socanda or 
Sychan, ' the dry river.' Arrived in Armenia, they again behold 
the snows on mount Niphates, derived from nyv, nives, snows. 
There was Balisbiga, Bal-ysbig, the spiked summit. They would 
advance to Albania and Iberia, countries still retaining in the west 
their primitive names of Albany and Iberione, Alban ac Iwerddon, 
as the Kymry term the Scottish Highlands and Ireland. In 
Albania the river Auxan reproduces the name of the Oxus or 
Usk; and the Udon, Ud-on, ' resounding water ' retains its own 
in the Odon in Normandy. Involved in the Caucasus they cross 
the black summit (Gor-ddu) of the Gordyaean mountains, where we 
find the Dandari ' dwellers under the oaks ' (Dan-dar) ; a name 
which retains the Druidical refrain of Hob i deri dan do, which 
the swineherd sang to invite his charge to shelter beneath the 
oaks. Let us descend the water-shed (Parth-e-dwr) of Partedorus 
into Colchis, and cross the rivers Dyriodorus, Dur-dwr, the iron 
water, the Adienus, Addien, fine, and the Isis or Usk, dear to 
the lovers of letters and romance, as the cradle of learning and 
chivalry. The rude fort of Borgys might be the bwrch or burg of 
Kelts or of Teutons. The Kimmerian chersonese or Crimea pro- 
claims its former indwellers; but the famous name of Bala-klava is 
not so well known as the ally of the Balas and Ballys of Ireland, 
Wales, and the Isle of Man. Gemelli-Carreri visited " the big 
village of Bala" in Turkey, January 5, 1694. We then come to 
the Palus Maeotis or Sea of Azof, which is written Maietis by 
Herodotus, and so the Pwll-Maith, the long tedious lake, fully 
deserves the name from its muddy shallows. If, as Pliny tells us, 
its Scythian or Gothic name Temerinda signified Mother of the sea, 
its meaning to a Kelt would be Tem-mer, the stagnant expanse. 

There in Sarmatia we have the hoarse river Corax (Croch) 
and the loud Totordanes [Ammiauus Marcellinus, xxii. 2Q\, which 
a Kelt would derive from Dwrdan, noise. There is yet a Durdan 

Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 13 

in Normandy. The Alani in the vicinity would in Irish be 
termed Alain, white or fair. But, wherever the Kelts wandered, 
three or four root-terms denoting rivers are sure to occur. They 
are Ab or, as it would be sounded, Av, and Aw (meaning in 
Welsh flmving motion), which the Latin developes into Amnis, the 
Welsh into Avon, ' a river.' Perhaps, its primitive form would be 
Aa, an imitation of the flow of water, retained in the Aa of France 
and Holland. The next form Ab we find in the vaunted Abana 
of Damascus, the Abas of Armenia, the Punj-ab or five rivers of 
India, and the Abus or Humber in England. The Amnias of 
Bithynia and the Amana or Ohm of Hesse in Germany belong to 
the Latin amnis; while the Evenus of the Troad and of Aetolia. 
the Anio of Latium, the Oanus of Sicily, the Aenus or Inn of the 
Tyrol, the Gaves of the Pyrenees, the Auvona or Yonne of France, 
and the numerous Avons of Britain preserve the Kymric Avon. 
[Tacitus couples Auvona, the Bristol Avon, with the Severn.] 

The next class group under the Irish root-word East or Uisck, 
meaning water. This is numerous, as is shown by the Axon in 
Lycia, the Oscios in Thrace, the Axios in Macedonia, the Oescus 
and Escamus in Moesia, the Oxula (Ossola) and Aroscia in Italy, 
the Oaxes in Crete, the Axona in France, and the Isca in Britain, 
now expressed as Exe, Axe, Usk, and Esk. Perhaps I may add 
the Osca and Escua of ancient Spain, though towns; and opine, 
that Euscaldunac (as the Basques term themselves) may refer to 
their settlement on the Sea, Wysc-al-dun-awc, ' the race dwelling 
by the water.' A softened form prevailed, as we see by the Isis 
of Colchis, the Aous of Macedonia, the Aesis of Italy, the Oise of 
France, and the Isis and Ouse of England. I at present omit to 
notice the compound names relating to the root Easg. 

The third class of derivatives belong to the root-word, Dwr in 
Welsh, Dobhar in Irish, Hydok in Greek, all meaning water. I 
take the Irish to be its earliest form, preserved by the Macedonian 
river Doberus and the torrent Doveria on the Simplon. Closer to 
the Greek are the Dora of Piedmont, the Doron of Savoy, the 
Dore of France (an affluent of the Allier), and our Herefordshire 

14 Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 

Dore. Kymric in sound are the Tyras of Bessarabia, the Atyras 
of Thrace, the Turias of Arragon ["Ad CeltiberosT Plin. Hi. 4], 
the Autura or Eure of France, the Duranius or Dordogne, the 
Durius of Portugal and England, now the Douro and the Dart, and 
the Adour of Gascony, in Sussex the Adur. Possibly the Tiber 
or Tevere belongs to this class. With the Kymric prefix Ys, 
which answers to an emphatic ' It is,' the grand Danube becomes 
Ister, ' Ysdwr ' (// is wafer), and is allied to the Italian Stura and 
the many English Stours. 

Lastly, we have the Irish root-word Ach, wafer, in Latin 
Aqua. Few rivers, comparatively, are related to this term: but we 
have Acis in Sicily; the Akesines in India and Sarmatia, which to 
a Welsh ear proclaims itself Ach-iesin, fair water/ and the Medua- 
cus of Venetia, Byron's ' deep-dyed Brenta,' in Welsh Mawdd-ach, 
' the expanding water,' a name expressed by the Kentish Medway, 
and by my own native stream, the Mawddach of Merioneth. 

To this root we refer the Achaei, the men of Achaia, the sea- 
environed Peloponnese. On a review of all these facts I am led 
to think that as the ancestors of the Gael and the Latin nations 
are found geographically further west, so, as is seen, in priority of 
nomenclature, did they also precede the Kimmerian and Greek 
kinsmen in their westward migration. 

I have sought in the nomenclature of rivers and mountains 

some grounds for inferring the occupation of the country east of 

the Euxine Sea by Kelts or Kymry at a very 

'. . ,_. earlv period; because I find abundant traces of 

Asia Minor. 

their presence, which any temporary irruption 

in later times will never suffice to explain. That that region was 

for long the home of the Kymry is certain from Herodotus's clear 

words: "The land the Scythians now dwell in is said to have been 

of old that of the Kimmerioi." [L. IV. c. //.] He then proceeds 

to tell of one of those tribal displacements, so common in barbaric 

Asia; how the Massagetae pushed on the Scythians, and they in 

turn threatened the Kimmerioi. who chose to avoid by flight an 

unequal conflict. Thus early began the inveterate duel between 

Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 15 

the Kelt and the Teuton, the Kymry and the Saxons. This 
established historic event occurred B. Christ 635; when the Kimmer- 
ian chief Lygdamis, whom by help of the Irish I would call Luchd- 
amusadh, the archer (Callimachus), took Sardis, and held it eighteen 
years. 1 may be told by 'the philosophy of history' that our 
Kimmerioi were not Kymry, nor even a nation, but a temporary 
association of warlike tribes like the much later Franks in Gaul: 
but we find Homer about B.C. 962 places his Kimmerioi in the 
extreme west of Europe. Their migration westward must then 
have taken place long before historic memorials. To follow them 
westward, we must imitate the later Kimmerioi, " who in their 
flight ever pursued the seaboard." [Herod. IV. c. 12.] M. Adolph 
Pictet assigns to the Kelts the line of migration I myself have 
traced, with the sole exception that he makes them follow the 
shores of the Euxine north instead of southwards. [Origines Indo- 
Europcens, p. 5/.] We meet with the Pontic rivers Sidenus, or 
Sid {circling); the Iris, or ir, fresh (it is still called in Turkish 'the 
green river'); and the Halys, perhaps Heli, the briny. We pass 
Blaena {Straho) or Blaenau, the frontier, into Paphlagonia, where 
the Henetoi or Gwyndyd had settled before the Trojan war; and 
traverse the Bithynian rivers Rhyndacus, Rhintach, the indented, 
Rhebas, Rhev, the big, Sangarius, Sain-gar, of pleasant sound, and 
the lake Ascanius, whose name is clearly the Irish Easgann, an eel. 
Eryannos in Mysia will be Eirian. the bright river. We come to 
the world-wide renown of the Granicus, Granig, the lustrous river. 
and the Scamander in the Troad; the latter Ysgavn-dwr, truly a 
scanty water, seeing Xerxes' army drank it dry. That lofty head- 
land Sigeum is in Irish Suighe, a seat or coign of vantage, whence 
we discern the sacred towers of Troy or Pergama, a name retained 
in the Italian Bergamo, the Welsh Brig, a sum/nit, and the 
German Berg, a hill. There is Mount Ida, the haunt of fabled 
gods. Coelius Rhodiginus says the name means a mountain with 
a wide view. It still, as Y Wyddva, designates the peak of 
Snowdon. At its foot dwelt the Idaei Daktyli, the Gwyddyl 
Dathyl or famous woodmen. Hereby were the mountains Gargarus, 

1 6 Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 

Gaer-garw, the rude fort, and Pindasus, Pen-das, the head of the 
massive range. Further south in Lydia, again to be occupied by 
Kymry, we meet with rivers of Keltic sound, the Cogamus, Cog- 
avon, echoing river, Halesus, Hallt-wysc, briny water, and Pactolus, 
Paith-61, straight track. Perhaps the name of the Lydian king 
Ardys B.C. 678, and of Ardiaeus the Pamphylian tyrant of remote 
antiquity [Plato, De Republic A. \ may be interpreted by the Irish 
Arddwy, governor. In Caria we have the rivers Glaucus, Glas, the 
blue, Cludrus, Llwyd-dwr, gray water (if it be not identical with 
the British Lleder and Lodore), and the Telmedius, Telmydd, the 
running stream. Besides, some words of the old Carian tongue 
remain to us, ' Labrys ' signified a hatchet \Plutarch\ and Llabir is 
an old Kymric word for a sword. ' Alam ' was a horse, and Llam 
is the Welsh for a leap. Pass we into Lycia; we are in the land 
of Olen the most ancient of poets, whom we may identify with the 
Keltic Alon, the author of musical cultivation. Here, too, a word 
has escaped the ruins of Time. It is Ulamos, in the Magyar alma, 
in the Erse ubhal, in Welsh aval, an apple. In the Lycian 
remains of Tlos (W. tlos, beautiful?) Sir Charles Fellows saw a 
resemblance to the mullioned windows of old England; Dr. Clarke 
noticed in the Troad the raised dais, panelled wainscot, and high 
latticed windows of an English manor-house; another (Lieut. Spratt) 
at a village wedding pronounced the dance to be like a Highland 
reel, and the air like a Scotch strathspey on a bagpipe. The steep 
bluff of Cragus could only be the Kymric Craig, the rock, eminently; 
Myra and Limyra, Llim-myr, the smooth sea, were towns by the 
sea; the mount Amanus in Cilicia is the Keltic Avan, high; Crug, 
the mound, would be the mount Corycus in Ionia, Cilicia, and 
Crete; Pindenissus in Cilicia, the reduction of which nattered the 
vanity of M. Tullius Cicero, may be Pendinas, the head fortress, 
the British name of St. Ives in Cornwall, and of Pendennis castle 
by Falmouth. I reserve the Keltic province of Galatia, so Keltic 
that it retained its own tongue in S. Jerome's time (A.D. 340 
420), and so brings our modern Kelts in contact with S. Paul's 
disciples, to be dealt with separately. 

Origin, &"c, of the Kymry. 17 

The traces of the Kelts multiply as we follow them westwards. 

Some, who have not examined the matter, may be sceptical when 

told of their close connexion with the primitive 

' . _ Greeks, and even shocked by their pretended in- 

central Europe. 

fluence on the most beautiful language and the 

most intellectual race in the world. But the earliest Pelasgians had 

not attained to the perfect speech of Sophokles and Plato, and M it 

is very probable that the ancient Greek aspiration was much coarser 

and rougher" than that preserved in after-times. [H. N. Coleridge, 

On the Study of the Greek classic /hets, />. 224.] The Cyclopean 

ruins of Tiryns in Argolis have remained in their present state 

above 3000 years, and exhibit lancet arches almost as ancient as 

the time of Abraham. Dr. Clarke inclines to believe them of Keltic 

origin from their resemblance to Stonehenge. [Travels, \'<>l. I'/. 

<(//>/>. 7, 8.] My vocabulary of Greek and Welsh words will amply 

vindicate my contention; and I can at present notice only a few 

vestiges of the Kymry in Greece. Apia, from the Kymric root 

Aw, or Av, Ap, ' water,' that is, ' the water-environed land,' was 

the name of the Peloponnese prior to the arrival of the Achaei. 

Perhaps it is meant by Taliesin's gwlad Gavis, coupled with Asia, 

as the land whence came the long-robed Druids. The broad 

Aegean they would term Mor-aig from aig, the sen. Byron sings 

of the isles of Greece. " Eternal summer gilds them yet ; " and 

Samos seems derived from the Irish ' Samh,' in Welsh ' Haw' 

summer. Among the Cyclades, Oliaros would share with Uliaros 

(now the isle of Oleron in France) the parent-word Uliar, denoting 

humidity. At Delos the goddess of dreams was Bri/o, Breuddwyd, 

a dream. Sailing between Attica and Laconia they would encounter 

the Myrtoum mare. Mor-mwrth. the hammering sea. The island 

of Aegina denotes in Irish Aighe. a hill ; and if immortal Athens 

was named from Athene the goddess of wisdom, the Irish Aithne 

again denotes knowledge. The Attic headland Skiradium is Ysgyr- 

ryd, the rough, and answers to the Skirrid in Monmouthshire. 

Now we come to what I regard as a sure proof of the presence of 

Kelts in Greece. The gulf between Athens and Corinth was called 

1 8 Origin, cfc, of the Kymry. 

from Saron, the ancient name of an oak, because it was beset 
with groves of oak. {Pliny IV. 5) Dar or Daron signifies oaks 
in Welsh, as does ' zero ' in Breton, but in composition only. 
Saronidai was an old Greek term for the Druids, meaning men of 
the oak; and Sarron a Keltic king, Daron, oaken, was, probably, a 
Druid. (Diodorus.) Cnacadium a mountain of Laconia (Pausa- 
tiias) is the Irish Cnagaidh, protuberant ; we find yet in Radnor- 
shire Cn wee-las, the green knoll. Skillus, the picturesque retreat of 
the historian Xenophon in the Peloponnese, is the Irish Scealp, 
the cliff: and perhaps, as Laconia and ' the isles of Elishah ' were 
famous for ' blue aud purple ' (Ezekiel xxvii. 7), and those violet 
seas could be lavish of their treasure, as the false queen suggests to 
Agamemnon (Aeschylus), I may not greatly err in deriving Corcyra 
from the Irish Corcor, purple* Advancing northward through 
Macedonia into Thrace, which I regard as a Keltic settlement, and 
passing the rivers Hebrus, Tibesis, and Oskios, which are yet 
represented in Wales by the Hyver (by Nevern), the Teivi, and 
the Usk, we arrive at the snowy Mount Haemus, the Haiv or snow- 
drift, under its Turkish name Bal-cann, equally Welsh, meaning 
the white peak, the object of European interest. Its offshoots are 
the Ismarus, Ysmawr, the great, and Orbelus, Oervel, the cold. 
Beneath it is the town of Uscudama (if not too bold a guess), 
Wysc-ud-avon, the river of loud water. We meet with the Drugeri 
(Pliny), Drwg-wyr, evil men; the Odrysae, Godrewys or borderers 
(from Godre a border, and the plural termination l wys'); and the 
Odomantes, to do them no injustice, Odd-mant-wys, men of the 
projecting lip. The Skordiskoi were confessedly of late Gallic origin, 
remnants of Brennus's invading host. The Diana of the Thracians 
was Bendis (Strabo), in Irish Baindia, the goddess. Beside the 
Rhys and Madoc already noticed, we have Scuthes, Saethydd, the 
archer, the name of many Thracian princes; Sadales, Sadiawl, the 
firm ally of Pompey the Great (Caesar); and Rhescuporis (Tacitus, 
Annates, II. 64), perhaps Rhys-cu-por, Rhesus the beloved lord; and 

Ek ttovtov tociScos. Homer, Odyss. V. I. 56. See Appendix No. I. 

Origin, &c. t of the A'vmry. 19 

Rhoemetalkes, Rhwyv-e-talch. the shattering ruler. We proceed 
by Dardania, Dar-dan, the oak-land of Moesia, and the towering 
height of mount Skomios (Ysgwn) mentioned by Thucydides. 
Reaching the briny waters of Lake Hal-///vr/.v (Hallt-myr) we 
embark on the mighty Danube, and fall in with the Sygynnai, a 
people whose name signified 'merchants' (Herodotus); perhaps from 
Sygannu, ' to mutter, to chaffer.' You may hear the busy folk in a 
French market-town, buzzing like myriads of insects. Mounting 
the Danube, behold its fine tributaries, the Hungarian Teyss, 
Tibiscus or Teivi-w ysc, and the Marissus, Maros or Mawr-wysc, the 
great water; on the other hand the Carinthian Save, allied to the 
Sow of India and of Stafford, in (Cymric Saw, the obstructing river, 
and the Draw, " violentior ainnis " Pliny terms it (iVat. Hist. If I. 
25), Trews, ' the sharp river' The name of Solva, a Romano- 
Keltic town above the Drave, still lives in Pembrokeshire. The 
city of Gran has two Keltic names Bregetium (Molemy), an ancient 
fortress on a high rock, which would be Bre-ceth, the dark mount; 
and a later, Strigoniuni, Ystry-gwvn. the white or fair dwelling. 
In Austria we have the Roman town of Scarabantia (Pliny), Esgair- 
pant, the bend or depression in the hill range. Mount Ketius, the 
Kahlenberg by Vienna, is Mynydd-ceth, 'the dark mountain'; the 
river Juvavus or Salza, Iou-avon, the river of Joie. Southward 
beyond the Terglou, the Tri-gledd, three swords or peaks of the 
Julian Alps we encounter the Carni, so called from Cam, a stone 
heap, the dwellers in the stony Karst; and descend to Tergeste, 
Ter-gest, the fair round expanse, the modern Trieste hemmed in 
by the Karst and open only to the Adriatic* 

We have now pursued the Centaur's course, and traced our 

Kelts to the land of the evening star, to Hesperia, the West. At 

the head of the Adriatic is Yenetia, or Gwyn- 

13. The Kelts in cJd sett i e( j m i ater ages by fugitives from 

Western Europe. 

Troy, as they say. Perhaps the Vennonetes 

* AV.</ means in Welsh a plate among mountains with but one outlet. Sa, 
V (iCst near Portmado* , and Hergest in Herefordshire. 

20 Origin, &c, of the Kymry. 

of the Vintzgau in southern Tyrol were Gwyndyd like the Veneti. 
Re-inforced long after by the Galli Senones of France, the Kelts 
became masters of two thirds of Italy. But in a pre-historic period 
they seem to have been throughout the Peninsula. Whether the 
Volsci were related to the Belgae of Gaul and Britain, I cannot 
say: but the Osci, so called for their broad speech, seem to get 
their name from the Welsh root Wsg, that which opens. How well 
do the chief cities of Italy harmonize with Keltic roots ! Imperial 
Rome derives from the Greek Rhome, the Welsh Grym, strength. 
Milan or Mediolanum, built by the Gauls {Pliny III. iy), was at 
first Mai-Ian, the clearing or place in the plain. It is still in 
German Mailand. If we sought a Keltic name suited to its 
modern splendour, it might be Meddv-lan, the delicate town. How 
admirably does Genoa express its position at the bend where the 
two Riviere trend east and west ! For Genoa, like Geneva and 
Genabum (Orleans), is but the Irish Cean-abhan, the head of the 
river, the Welsh Pen-avon. The grand features of nature, the 
Alps and the Apennines, express to the Kelt their snowy height and 
eminence. Vesuvius would be Gwes-wv, moisture (lava) in motion. 
The vocable Wysc abounds in Piedmont in the form of Asca. 
[J5. G. Anzasca, Calasca, Verzasca, Biasca, Novasca.] I venture 
to interpret the Lacus Verbanus, Lago Maggiore, as Llwch Gwerdd- 
van, the lake of the green hills; that of Lugano, as Llwch Llug- 
gain, lacus lucis candidae, the bright lake; that of Como, the Lacus 
Larius, as Llwch Llariaidd, the gentle lake; and that of Garda, the 
Lacus Benacus, as Llwch Ben-aig, the head-water of the Mincio. 
How characteristic the names of the Keltic rivers in Italy ! The 
P6 or Padus was so called from the pades, in Welsh ffawydd, 
beeches growing near its source. The Ticinus, a river grievous by 
its inundations, with its tributary the Blenio, as also the Athesis, 
were called Dygyn, Blin, Aethwysc, words denoting the trouble they 
occasioned. The foaming Mincio must have been Mynych, frequent] 
from its impetuosity. The torrent Quirna on the Simplon is 
identical with the Guirna of Hindostan and the Chwernwy, a 
tributary of the Irvon in South Wales; but the Welsh reveals its 

Origin, cfr., of the Kvmrv. 21 

meaning of Chwyrn, rapid. If we wont seawards to the west, we 
should be led to pursue the Ligurian Kelts, who have given their 
names to Lloegyr (England) and Liguria, along that hones-path. 
which might express Int-e-mel-ium (Hynt y mel) or Vintimiglia; 
but in approaching Gallia, y Ore Gal, the chief settlement of the 
Kelts, we meet with their traces everywhere; and having touched 
Switzerland and Spain we will close this long excursion. At 
Geneva, which was Cean-abhan, the head of the lake, as Pennilucus, 
Pen-llwch, the head of the loch, was the Roman port at the upper 
end of it, we are on the Lacus Lemanus, Llwch Llivon the lake of 
Hoods, so called from "the blue rushing of the arrowy Rhone."' 
The Italians must have been preoccupied by the Arthurian romance, 
when they called the city Ginevra after Arthur's queen Guenevere 
(Gwen-hwyvar). So have I seen a Castello di Mcrlino mirroring 
its snows in a green Alpine tarn at the head of the Val d' Antrona; 
and a pass traversed by Hannibal became the Mont du Chat Artus, 
the mountain of Arthur's Cat. (Paradin, Savote.) Let us indulge 
our fancy in a Keltic tour round Mont Blanc. We leave on the 
right the Mount Saleve. It is justly termed in Irish Sal, in Welsh 
Sawdyl, the heel or extremity, from its precipices; on the left, the 
Brezon, which is synonymous with the Welsh Breiddyn. Onwards 
we come to Nant-arpenaz and Nant-Bourant; the one Nant-ar-pen- 
wys, the hollow by the water-fail; the other, Nant-Brwnt. the toil- 
some hollow, which it certainlv is. Attendant on the Monarch of 
mountains are the Brevent, the windy summit (Bre-wynt); unless it 
be Pen-vre, the head summit; and the Buet, Bu, the bull. Proudest 
of the glaciers is Brenva, which I would willingly believe to be 
Brenn-va, the royal place. There too is Tal-efre, Tal-geivr, the 
jutting rock of the chamois; and Mont Tacul, Taccl, the arrow. 
East of Mont Blanc is the Cramont, called so from its rocks 
(creigiau). The lake Combal towards the Mount of Jupiter (the 
Great S. Bernard) may have been Cwm-Beli. Bclinus' combe, whose 
worship is indicated by the Sylva Belini, Belitfs wood, near Lau- 
sanne. We descend to the valley of the Rhone by the Forclaz, a 
verdant pass, which is the green fork (Fforch-las). We pass under 

22 Origin, crV., of the Kymrv. 

the Dent de Morcles in the Valais, the Dant-mor-cledd, the tooth 
of the great sword. Under the Dent du Midi is Lake Lioson, 
Lliaws-on, abundant water. Again on Lake Leman we are at 
Chillon, Cil-llon, the pleasant recess; opposite is Meillerie, which 
for its beautiful name deserves to have the lark (Meilierydd) for 
its sponsor. At Vibiscum, Cwm-wysc, we again detect the 
Keltic wysc. 'Sweet Clarens' is Claer-wen, bright. Lausanne or 
Losanna the Irish renders L6s-an, the water's end. We close 
with fair Montbenon, Mwnt-benn-on, the mount at the head of 
the ivater. 

The Kelts advanced along the shores of the Mediterranean, 
and were known by the name of Ligurians. They were intrepid 
seamen, worthy of being the progenitors of Christopher Columbus. 
They will again appear in Britain, and bequeath their name and 
spirit to England, the Keltic Logres {Milton, Paradise Regained) 
or Lloegyr. From Aquitania, the modern Gascony and Guienne, 
called from its many rivers Ach-tan, the spread of water, they 
would cross the ' Bryniau ' or Pyrenees beneath the towering 
Canigou, Cann-ig-wy, the white terrible place, or, as M. Bullet has 
it, Cann-gwddwv, the ivhite or snowy neck or ridge. To the South 
they would find a race more ancient than themselves, the unsub- 
dued Iberians or Basques; they, too,- had come from the Caucasus, 
but were now Cantabri, called, I suggest, from Caint-tavar, the 
spreading reach of land; for I cannot believe Biscay was their 
Cvnta-vro or aboriginal land, as Lluyd holds. Here the two races 
combined, or were so mixed up as to be called Kelt-iberians by 
the Latin writers. It is perilous to advance Keltic claims in the 
land of the Euscaldunac; but I will observe that some names of 
their princes seem Keltic. Such I regard Abelux, E-belauc, the 
warlike, a. chief opposed to Scipio (Livy), with Albutius and his 
betrothed Indibilis, the. objects of Scipio's generosity, {Arrian) who 
might be Elwyddan and Tudvil in Kymric. The mountain range 
of Idubeda is Y du-bedw, the dark birch {Pliny III. J). Talavera 
(in Castille) is pure Welsh, Tal-aber, the head of the confluence of 
the Tagus and the Alberche; and Cape Finisterre is Artabrum 

Origin, crY., of the Kymry, ix 

promontorium, Pcnrhyn Aberarth or Arthvar, the fell headland. 

The British familiar names of the Avon, Tamar, Monnow, Towy. 

Teivi, Llugwy, and Dee already distinguished rivers in the 

Peninsula. The tribe of Praesamarci arc marked ' Keltic ' 

by Pliny; they got their name from their Pres-march or fleet 

steeds. The people of the province of Alemtejo in Portugal were 

also known as Kcltici; one of their towns was Turobrica, Dwr- 

brig, waters end. Another tribe in Baetica stvled 'Keltic' bv 

Plinv was the Mirobrigenses, Myr-brig. dwellers on the sea 

dunes. Bordering on the Kelticoi, in the forests of Tartessus 

Gargoris or Gorgwr, chief] the oldest king of the Kynetae 

(Gwyndvd) first discovered th- way to gather honey {Justin, 

XLIV. 4)\ and I would imagine that Arganthonius king of 

Tartessus, who lived a hundred and fifty years (Pliny, Strabo), 

won from his silvery hair the name of Argann-tonn, the 

glistering zcai e . 

It may seem needless to discuss the notion of the Kelts having 

passed through North Africa. But Nennius and the Irish scholars 

will derive their Scottish ancestors from Egvpt 

14. Were the Kelts bv of Spain; and the authoritv of Tacitus 

in Africa? J 

persuades me to accept the Iberian origin of, at 

least, the Silures of South Wales. Baron Bunsen favours the 

notion, as supported by a few etymons. An ingenious inquirer 

derives the river Nile from the Erse Neimeamuil. hcarenly, blue. 

The Lake iMoeris seems to be W. Mor, the sea. The Egyptian 

goddess of art and industry, Neith. is connected with the Greek 

net/io. the Welsh nvddu, to spin.' Thermuthis the daughter of 

Pharaoh, who protected the infant Moses, might be Termud, silent ; 

an epithet suited to that mysterious land. If the Iberians or Ligu- 

rians reached Spain by way of Libya, they might have termed the 

Libyans so from lleb, pale yellow, the Moorish complexion. The 

Irish would interpret the Gaetuli as Gaoidheal, dwellers in the bush. 

(M. le Baron De Bclloguet.) The Garamantes may imply Garm- 

maint, loud outcry, or Garmwynion, horsemen. (E. Lhuyd.) In 

Mauritania we have the river Mulucha, moloch, tumultuous, and the 



of the Kviurv 

Lixus or Llugwy, bright water. Dyrys or Diryn was the name of 
a portion of mount Atlas, if not the Peak of Teneriffe; otherwise 
Duryn, a beak or snout, as we speak of the Naze and the Cap du 
Gris-Nez. Abyla opposite Gibraltar implies an Alp or highland. 
The Phoenicians gave to Cadiz the name of Gaddir or Gadeira, 
meaning like the Welsh ' Cader ' a fort or castle. 



We have now " fled over Adria and the Hesperian fields, And o'er 

the Celtic roam'd the utmost isles." [Paradise Lost, Book /.) 

Gallia, so called from Gal, the open dis-afforested 

_ ' . , . . plain, was reduced to cultivation by tribes more 

Britain; probable ' 

survival of Saurians. advanced in civilization than the ruder Kelts 
who dwelt in the hash as trappers and fisher- 
men. The latter were called Gwyddyl from their life in the wood- 
lands. I avoid dwelling on France or Gallia, because its Keltic 
origin is incontestable; the proofs are abundant; and my aim is to 
illustrate only a portion of the race, the Kymry, as the Welsh still 
call themselves. To them their Armorican brethren are still Britons 
(Brython); their Gaelic or Irish cousins are Gwyddyl, Kelts; their 
English supplanters, Saxons (Saeson,) but England remains Lignria 
(Lloegyr). To believe their traditions, the Gwyddyl or Gael appear 
as tribes, some hostile, some friendly, but ever subordinated to the 
primary claim of possession advanced by the Kymry. I must think 
that the westerly position of the Irish Kelts implies rather that 
they, and not the Kymry, have the best title to priority of settle- 
ment. Weird traditions exist of aboriginal dwellers so barbarous 
that the foxes were their dogs and rude stone heaps their cabins. 
But I judge this must refer to a dark consciousness of some 
Turanian stragglers who preceded the Kelts. Britain, we are told 
in the Triads, was known to the Gauls of the continent (Y Gal 
Gre) by the name of Clas Meiddyn, the Green spot of the cliffs 
before the Kymric settlement ; afterwards Y Vel Ynys, the honey 
island. I suppose the name really was Y Wenn Ynys, the white 
island or Albion. It later on was called Prydain, Britain, after an 

2i> The Kynirv in Pre- historic Britain. 

heros eponymos, Prydain ab Aedd Mawr, a hero whose existence is 
a myth. The Kymry found the island, not only the home of 
wolves and bears, but also of the ychain bannawc, loild bulls or 
buffaloes like the Urus of the Hercynian forest ; and it was infested 
by the formidable Avanc, whose capture was a principal feat of the 
Kymric chief Hu Gadarn. This, I presume, indicates the survival 
of gigantic saurians in the ample swamps of Britain, and is con- 
nected with similar legends e.g. of the Tarasque which S. Martha 
in Provencal story drew out of the Rhone, and of those weird 
monsters (Gwydd Ellyll,) which a Triad describes in terms (banawg, 
ednyvedawg drythyll, a melyn) that would tinge with horror Mr. De 
Quincy's wildest dream. [Confessions of an English Opium-eater.) 

The account of themselves rendered by the Kymry of Britain 
makes them consist of three tribes of the same stock, who came 

over as peaceful settlers, eschewing wrong and 

2. The original ., r . . . , , 

_ . . ., & ,, oppression ; the Kymrv (in a restricted sense), 
Kymric tribes; the 

Kymry. the Lloegrwys, and the Brython. The two last 

are made to come from Aquitania (Gwasgwyn) 

and Armorica (in a large sense,) in other words, the coast of France 

from the Pyrenees to the Rhine. Though bearing names implying 

they were seamen (Liguria, Llyr, the sea) and plaided warriors, they 

are distinctly said to have issued from the primitive stock of the 

Kymry, and to have coalesced into one nation with the tribe 

which bore the name of their common ancestors. This leading 

tribe, they say, came over the hazy sea (Mor Tawch) under the 

conduct of Hu Gadarn, or Hesus the Gallic war-god, from an 

undefined country designated as. the summer-land. Caesar confirms 

the tradition as it relates to their Gallic origin, and calls the people 

Britanni. Not a single Roman or Greek writer seems to know 

the name of Kymry, nor was it emploved by the Saxons. To 

them the Britons were Welsh, (Gallici, Wylysce) ; an offshoot of 

the continental Gauls, whose likeness they shunned and whose lack 

of energy they despised.* With the Irish and Gael, the Welsh are 

* " Inertia Gat/orum." Tacitus, Germama c. 28. 

The Kymry in Pie- historic Britain . 27 

always Rrcathnach. The Armoricans always call themselves Bre'zon, 
' Britons.' We know not how the Britons called themselves in 
their own tongue, while the Roman empire stood: their earliest 
monuments date a century or more after the fall of the empire; but 
from that period they have down to the present persistently called 
themselves Kymry. M. Aurelien De Courson ingeniously supposes 
they adopted the name in the sense of Aboriginal Britons, as a sort 
of protest against Anglo-Saxon intruders. But this savours of a plea 
set up in a law-court to estop encroachments. The debate between 
the two nations was maintained in a ruder fashion, and I think it 
more probable that the name which the Britons inherited from 
their Kimmerian ancestors was never forgotten during the past, and 
that it asserted itself vigorously when the framework of Roman 
polity disappeared. One of the latest French Keltic scholars M. 
Valroger offers no explanation of the term Kymry, (as De Courson 
does,) nor notices the remains of Keltic speech in northern Europe 
(as given by Pliny,) nor explains why the Kimmerioi (if German) 
are found in the extreme west by Homer and Herodotus. I bow 
to the authoritv of Tacitus, when, recalling the former splendour of 
the Kimbri (of Denmark) in conflict with the Romans, he says it 
took over two centuries to set about conquering Germany; [Germ. 
c - 37) thereby implying that he took the Kimbri for Germans. 
Yet when I read in Pliny that in the language of these Kimbri 
the Northern Ocean was called Morimarusa, the sea of the dead, 
and find it pure Welsh (Mor-marwys.) I cannot resist concluding 
that either the Kimbri were Kymry, or else that in remote times 
the tongues of Kelt and Goth agreed. This conclusion is fortified 
by the fact that, according to Hecataeus, the name the Scythians 
(Goths) gave the same Ocean was Amalchium, signifying congealed; 
and in Welsh Mwlwch means a concrete mass. (P/inv.) It 
is not impossible that some of the Kimmerioi. who retired from 
their Asiatic home before the onset of the Scythians, took a 
northern course, which the pursuers afterwards followed under the 
conduct of Odin from the Sea of Azof to the shores of the Baltic. 
Preciselv on the Baltic we find the Aestvi (or Esthonins.) whose 

28 The Kymry in Pre- historic Britain. 

language approached the British, and who termed their valued 
amber Glesum (Glwys, the beautiful thing) {Germ. c. 45) Their 
adventurous neighbours the Goths seem to derive their name from 
the Erse Gaoth, the sea; they were pirates. Treva (pure Welsh) 
was the Kimbric name of Hamburg. In the North, a promontory 
termed by Pliny ' Keltic ' was Lytarmis, perhaps Llwyd-armes, the 
hoary presage of weather. Indeed Tacitus himself points out how 
slight a barrier the Rhine proved to prevent the Gauls and 
Germans from mutual encroachment, and how the Helvetii and the 
Boii were confessedly Kelts. {Germ. c. 28.) Perhaps the Catti (or 
Hessians) might be mixed Kelts. Their name seems to be Cad-wyr, 
warriors. One of their princes was Catumerus, or Cadvor, the 
great warrior. A bishop of Metz was Caddroe, or Cadwr, warrior. 
The ancient tribe of Condroz near Liege were the Catuaci, or Cad- 
gwawch, the war-cry men. The Hainaulters were Nervii, or Ner- 
wyr, the strong men. Those of Brabant were the Levaci, Llevawc, 
the shouters. They of Louvain were Grudii, from Gryd, a war- 
hoop. Two Belgic princes occur with names clearly Kymric ; 
Catualda, or Kadwal (Tacitus, Annates II. 62.) and Boduognatus, 
Buddug-nawdd, victorious auspices (Caesar,) whom Antwerp honours 
with a statue. The lake that afterwards became the Zuyderzee in 
Holland was of old known as Flevum, Lliv, the flood. At 
Domburg in Zealand an inscription was found to Nehalenia, the 
Keltic goddess of the briny sea (Nyv-halen.) The coastmen of 
ancient Belgium were called Menapii from their dwelling on the 
waters edge (Min-av). This array of facts may, perhaps, justify 
a conjecture that the Kymry were meant by the Gambrivii, whom 
Tacitus mentions as among the true and ancient factors of the 
nation more recently termed 'German.' (Germ. c. 2.) But, 
assuming the Kymry came to Britain from the north, I am 
persuaded they came thus gradually and by the narrowest passage, 
not from the Kimbric peninsula. When Caesar [De Bello Gallico 
II. 2Q~\ makes the Atuatici among the continental Belgae of 
Kimbric origin, he would hardly have done so, had all the Gallic 
Belgae been equally of Kimbric descent, that is, Kimbric of Jutland. 

The Kymry in Pre-kistortc Britain. 2q 

Next to the Kymry, whether from priority of settlement or 

larger occupation of territory I cannot tell, but certainly in order, 

come the Lloegrwys or Ligurian Kelts, who 

3. The original came over from Aquitania and appear to have 

\ r ' admitted foreign elements t<> some extent; and 

Lloegrwys and 

Brython. therefore, perhaps, were on the whole less 

homogeneous and loyal to their stock than the 
other two tribes. While the Kymry glory in the untarnished 
lustre of Caractacus, and the Brython bred the heroes of Gododin 
and of the Strath-clyde, the Lloegrwys have to bear the infamy 
of Vortigern. They were less successful than the Kymry in 
maintaining their independence ; and their last foothold of liberty, 
Cornwall, was wrested from them centuries before the extinction of 
Kymric autonomy. The Cornish knight Sir Tristram occupies no 
enviable position in the legends of chivalry. The cause of this 
difference may be the completer subjection to Rome of the southern 
Britons. The rude mountains, the inhospitable sea, have ever been 
more kindly to liberty than the affluent ease of the lowlands. But 
the Lloegrwys had long been inured to the citizenship of the world. 
They had acquired the elegant tastes of the cultured Romans, as 
the Aquae Solis of Bath and the hypocausts of Uriconium still 
witness. Claudia Rufina had wedded the senator Pudens, and was 
complimented by Roman poets. But, I imagine, a foreign strain 
in their blood rendered them less sternly patriotic than the Kymry. 
I conjecture that that foreign strain proceeded from intermixture in 
Aquitaine with the Basques: but the consideration of this must be 
reserved for the following section. 

Third of the Kymric tribes were the Brython, who came from 
Armorica or Llydaw ; not the Armorica restricted to the peninsula 
that yet bears the name (Britanny,) but the Ar-e-mor or seacoast 
of north-western France, Gallia Belgica. They seem to have been 
more closely identified with the Kymry, and in later times 
reproduced Kymric features in their continental settlement. This 
view accords with Caesar's account. Bearing regard to the identity 
of religion, their speech ' not very different,' and their behaviour in 

;o The Kymry in Pre- historic Britain. 

courting, and presently shrinking from ' danger,' he believed the 
Southern Britons were Gauls, who still bore the names of those 
' cities ' or ciwdawd whence they came to Britain for plunder. 
Such were the Parisii settled on the Seine and the Humber ; the 
Atrebates of Artois and Berkshire ; and the Belgae of the north of 
France and the west of England. Pliny notices a tribe of Britanni 
along with the Ambiani. (Nat. Hist. IV. 1 6.) It may be that 
Taliesin alludes to them in these lines ; " Morini Brython rhyddaro- 
ganon, A medi heon am Havren avon." But more remains ; 
Dionysius Periegetes notes Britanni south of the Rhine. Pliny 
{XXV. :. 6.) remarks with astonishment a medicinal plant of Fries- 
land that was in his time called Herba Britannica. A chain of 
hills there is Brettenberg. Near Ems are vast heaths called 
Bretansche Heide. The old name of Mons in Hainault was 
Bretten. At the mouth of the Rhine by Katwijk was the fort of 
the Britons, Brettenburg. At Domburg in Zealand was found an 
inscription to the Keltic goddess of the briny sea, Nehalenia, Nyv- 
halon. Ecbert of Holland, archbishop of Treves (ioth cent.) was 
styled E. de Britannia. {De Belloguet.) 

To conclude; the result of my inquiries implies the relation i. 
of the Lloegrwys with the Ligurians of Italy and Gaul. 2. of the 
Silures with the Iberians or Basques of Spain. 3. of the Kymry 
or Britons with the Gauls of the continent, but especially with the 
Belgae and Britanni of the lower Rhineland. 

The red hair and large limbs of the Caledonians convinced 

Tacitus they were of Germanic origin; a Triad classes the 'ciwdawd 

Kelyddon' in the North, first of three protected 

4. As reported tribes that came to Britain without arms or 

by the Romans: The assault by consent of the R The second 
non-Kymric tribes. 

was " the Gael stock (Yr al Wyddyl,) and in 

Albany they remain." The third was the men of Galedin, who 

came in bare ships to the isle of Wight, when their country sank 

beneath the sea. Lluyd suggests they were from Holland; but 

their landing in Wight points to a catastrophe in the Pays de 

Caux on the opposite coast; they were ' viri Caletini.' The whole 

77//' Kymry in frc-kistoric Britain. 31 

subject is involved in difficulties. If we accept the account given 
by the later Kymry, it offers no explanation of the origin of the 
Gwyddyl or Gael, who certainly occupied South Britain long before 
the Brython, whom Caesar encountered. I venture to suggest that 
they occupied the place assigned by the Brython to themselves 
under the name of 'Kymry' in the Triads; and that the three 
tribes relate to 1. Kimmerians who arrived at a very early period; 

2. Kimmerians who arrived from the shores of the Mediterranean; 

3. Kimmerians who came from (iaul and the Baltic. It is said 
that the Picts in Scotland were from Scandinavia. They are 
called Gwyddyl Ffichti, painted (rael or dwellers in the bush, to 
distinguish them from the true Gaelic stock from Ireland, that is 
to say, Yr al Wyddel. But Lluyd has given a Pictish poem, 
which is simply very barbaric or archaic Welsh. Their princes 
Ougen (Owain) and Talargan (Tal-arian), A.D. 736 750, have 
Kymric names. Another foreign race were the Korannyeid or 
Coritani dwelling by the Humber, who are charged with being 
ready traitors of the Kymry, and with uniting with the Romans 
and Saxons. This will help to explain how the Angles so easily 
overran eastern England. If the Korannyeid be derived from corr, 
a (hvarf, they were probably dark squat people of Ligurian origin, 
regarded with aversion by the Kymry. Mr. Price (Carnhuanawc) 
says they were so clever as to ken every speech the wind fell in 
with, and their mintage was arian corr: a tradition of the superior 
intelligence of the Ligurian race ! The Triads make them come 
from Pwyl, Apulia in Italy; and Pliny curiously notices in South 
Italy the Corani, " a Dardano Trojano orti." (TV. H. III. 5.) 
De Belloguet erroneously cites Owen Pughe as assigning the first 
place to the Coritani among the settlers in Britain, according to 
an old tradition, " which only admits the Britons after them, 
making no mention of the Kymry." The truth is that the 
tradition relates to seven hostile occupations, beginning with the 
Coraniaid, then Draig Prydain, ' the Dragon of Britain ' (whatever 
that was!), and ending with the Romans and Saxons. The painted 
faces and black curly locks of the Silurians of South Wales as well 

32 The Kymry in Pre-histortc Britain. 

as their situation over against Spain, made Tacitus believe they 
were Iberians, who had emigrated into Wales. Other facts point 
to the same conclusion. Dioscorides refers to Kourmi or cwrw, as 
a drink made of barley, used by the Western Iberians and the 
Britons. The Welsh of South Wales seem to have much affected 
lime or whitewash. I cannot but think the taste and practice 
came from the Basques or Iberians, from whom Tacitus derives the 
Silures. May it not be that they in turn humbly imitated the 
superb stucco of the Phoenicians, whose richly ornamented palaces 
in Malta so impressed Diodorus ? (Lib. V.) Davydd ab Gwilym 
calls on the summer to gild the castles of Glamorgan " white with 
lime." The Germans too sometimes applied a plaster so pure and 
resplendent as to resemble painting. (Tacitus, German. 16.) Henry 
of Huntingdon avers that there came people from Spain into 
Ireland, and that some of them remained who in his time still 
used the same speech and were called Navarri. He means the 
Iberians or Basques. (Lib. T.) It is remarkable that the Achau'r 
Saint affirm that some of the sons of Brychan of Brecknock 
(himself an Irish Kelt) went into Spain as Penrheithiau or chiefs 
of jurisprudence;* and when S. Vincent Ferrer (A.D. 1400) preached 
in Britanny, he was struck by the resemblance of the Breton charac- 
ter and that of the Keltiberians of Spain. (Sanctorale Catholicum. 
Aurelien De Courson.) 

Nennius confesses that the origin of the Scots was uncertain. 
He relates a strange tale of their encountering in mid-ocean a 
tower of glass, and perishing in the attempt to investigate it. 
They may have been deceived by a mirage. A visionary Island of 
S. Brandan is sometimes seen in the latitude of the Canaries. Or 
the tale may relate to a Druidical myth of the Isles of the Blessed, 
which is preserved among the American Zuni, presumed descendants 
of Madoc of Wales; and the Triads say that Merlin and his bards 
went to sea in a house of glass. We tread on firmer ground, 

* Their names were Pascen, Neffai, and Pabiali, born of a Spanish mother.- 
Wm. Owen, Kambrian Biography. 

The Kymry in Pre- historic Britain. 33 

when we are told that the sons of Liethan occupied Menevia, 
Gower, and Kidwelly, till they were expelled by Kunedda Wledig 
and his sons. This is confirmed by a poem of Howel ab Owain 
Gwynedd, who mentions Rheged and Caer-liwelydd as being in 
South Wales. He had ridden thither from Kerry. But as Caer- 
liwelydd certainly was Carlisle, and Rheged in the north of England 
or in Galloway, the names must have been applied by the men of 
Kunedda to their new settlements in Wales; as so many Welsh 
names were revived in Britannv, among them Kerdluel or Liywel 
or Carlisle. Tacitus agrees with Caesar as to the Gallic origin of 
the Belgae, the most numerous tribe of the Brython. Plutarch 
tells how Cato the elder and Sulla had red hair and blue eyes, like 
the Gauls. The type still survives in Wales. The Irish, thought 
Plutarch, differed little from the Britons, and not for the better. 
(Agricola, ii, 24) The geographer Mela, who confesses his means 
of information imperfect, pronounces them " ignorant of all virtues, 
and void of piety to a degree;" a charge which may turn to the 
honour of the Gwyddyl, seeing Pompey's finding the Holy of 
Holies at Jerusalem void of images made the Romans infer that 
the Jews were next door to atheists. Diodorus, before Mela, notes 
that the northern Britons towards Scythia, and those that dwelt 
in Erin, some of them, were cannibals. Anthropophagy was a 
Scythian custom; and I should thence infer that some of the 
northern tribes (such as the Attacotti) were from Scandinavia. 

Before the Britons reached their island-home, they had inherited 
or invented the essentials of primitive civilization. Some of their 

traditions resemble Semitic records of antedi- 

5. Traditions of , , v , , . XT . 

, ,*: , .,. luvian patriarchs. Nevydd nav Neivion, whose 

primitive civilizers. J 

ship saved the survivors of a deluge, may be 

a memory of Noah, unless the Triad intends indefinitely The 

Heavenly One, the Lord of lords. Gwyddon Ganhebon, " the first 

in the world that composed vocal song," and " whose stones had 

written upon them all the arts and sciences of the world," must, 

surely, be intended for Seth, whose inscribed tablets in Egypt are 

mentioned by Josephus, and whose name was borne by Sethos the 

34 The Kymry in Pre- historic Britain. 

Egyptian king. If a portion of the Kelts traversed Egypt, they 
would have been impressed by such monuments. 

In Idris the astronomer I discern a myth of Enoch, who is 
known to the Orientals as Edris. Under astronomy are veiled 
the pretences of astrology. Such was the knowledge of the stars, 
their nature and conditions, possessed by Idris, says the Triad, 
that he foretold what men desired to learn. Such astronomy, 
perhaps, Pliny was entitled to treat with little respect. {Nat. Hist. 
XVIII. 25) Not so, the simple music that soothed the infancy 
of mankind. " The ancient wisdom of the Greeks," remarks 
Athenaeus, " appears to have been chiefly devoted to music." 
Such musical wisdom was the endowment of Tydain-tad-awen, the 
Father of song, whom Owen Pughe regards as the Egyptian Taaut 
or Hermes Trismegistus; of Alon, who I think was the Olen of 
Lycia; and of Blegrwyd the ancient king, whom Geoffry of Mon- 
mouth pronounces 'incomparable' and 'the God of music,' and whom 
Thomas Walsingham oddly classes with Orpheus and Nero of 
Rome in respect of voice and skill in singing.* The connexion of 
Hu Gadarn with the invention of ploughing land has been already 
noticed: but it is difficult to imagine any Aryan race ignorant of 
ploughing, unless the Kymry had lost the art in the forests of the 
North and been barbarized into mere trappers and fishers, and Hu 
had succeeded in recovering it. The Armorican S. Iltutus before 
A.D. 480 introduced an improved method of ploughing. Many 
less important inventions were owing to the continental Kelts. 
The art of inlaying brass with silver, especially for the adorning 
of horse-trappings was the invention of the Bituriges. Others 
invented ploughs with wheels, hooped casks to preserve wine, 
barm produced from ale to ferment bread, the use of marl to 
enrich land. {Pliny, Nat. Hist.) Morddal, called in the Triads 
Gwrgweilgi, the seaman, clearly a foreigner, perhaps a Phoenician, 
taught the Kymry to work with stone and lime. Corvinwr, the 
bard of tall Keri of the white lake, first made a ship with sails 

* He calls him Bledgabred the Briton. 

The Kymry in Pre- historic Britain. 35 

and rudder for the Kymry. Coll mab Collvrewy first brought 
wheat and barley into Britain. Coel, a grandson of Caractacus, 
introduced a mill with wheels. A curious mill, with a wheel 
partly of iron, apparently made to work by magnetic action, was 
to be seen A.D. 1574; and the remains of such an one was found in 
Edeyrnion, says Dr. John Davies the lexicographer.* In a higher 
department of civilization, that of government and law, Menw 
appears to belong to remote antiquity. His name connects him 
with the Hindu Menu, Menes the first king of Egypt, Minos king 
of Crete, the Teutonic Mannus, and the Persian Mani. Prydain 
ab Aedd mawr, Britannns son of Aednus the great, is said to have 
ordained an elective monarchy, answering to the Greek Hegemonia 
and very much resembling the Imperial constitution lately set up 
in Germany, where the Emperor is Kaiser in Deutsch-land; this 
certainly corresponds with the rule adopted in Keltic Gaul; but 
Prydain, if he represents the Britanni of Gaul, as M. De Belloguet 
maintains, should not be son of the Aedui, for the Britanni, 
Ambiani, &c, were under the leadership of the Treviri. Dyvnwal 
Moelmud, about B.C. 400, and Bran ab Llyr, are said to have 
completed the work of their predecessor. Had the Kymry faith- 
fully adhered to the spirit of this constitution, they would have 
fared better. But the restless Keltic nature asserted itself. Tacitus 
observes that the government of kings had given way to that of 
chieftains; the result was faction, so that two or three 'states' 
(ciwdawd, civitates) would rarely combine to ward off a common 
peril; fighting singly, all were overcome. (Agrico/a, 12.) Pom- 
ponius Mela also notices, that, although the British chiefs were rich 
in land and flocks only, as was afterwards the case in Wales, yet 
the lust of dominion and desire to extend their possessions caused 
them often to molest one another. {III. 6.) 

The Kymry from the earliest period of their 
6 The Druids, their hist r to have ^^ dominated by a 

religion, gods, and J 

mythic personages, priestly caste, which offers a striking resem- 

* See Owen Pughe's Dictionary under Breuan. 

^6 The Kymry in Pre- historic Britain. 

blance to the Brahmins of India. In Gaul they appear to have 
superseded the more primitive and less organized rule of the 
chiefs of clans. This sacerdotal order was called Derwyddon 
or Druids, in Irish Draoith, after the oak or deru\ their 
sacred tree, without whose leaves they performed no religious 
rite. It procured them the name of Saronidae with the Greeks. 
They used the vervain as well in their incantations; as Taliesin 
sings, " A'n maglas blaenderw O warchan Maelderw," " A sprig of 
oak has ensnared us by Maelderw's incantation." They were 
regarded as enchanters by the Romans, as seems clear from the 
Augustan History, where a Gallic Druias or Druidess predicts to 
Dioclesian, then a private soldier, his future elevation to the 
purple; and from Mela, who tells how a college of Druid virgins 
in the isle of Sena assumed the forms of animals and procured 
favourable winds to the mariners. We here perceive the origin of 
the mediaeval fairies and enchanters. All are familiar with their 
devotion to the mistletoe, and the ceremonious employment of a 
golden falchion to gather it. The sacred isle of Mona, then dark 
with umbrageous oaks, and called Ynys Dywyll, the dark isle, was 
the Druids' favourite residence, such must have been that famous 
forest of Darnant in the romances of Perceforest and of Lancelot, 
which extended to the sea of Cornwall and of Sorelloys 
(Scilly).* Their place tf solemn assembly in Britain was Abury in 
Wiltshire, called Gorsedd-bryn-gwyddon, the throne of the wizards' 
hill; in France "the ancient famous religious Druids" had their 
chief abode at Dreux in the territory of the Carnutes. (Sir 
Nicholas Throckmorton. Calendar of State Papers, Foreign Series, 
June 24, 1560.) Even in Galatia, the Gallic emigrants met under 
an oak, as the Basques did under that of Guernica. For they 
termed their place of national assembly Dru-nemeton, or Derw- 
nyvedon, the sacred oak. According to Taliesin, the Druids' lore 
must have resented the fresh influence of their forest-life. He 
says, " Pan yw dien gwlith, A govwy hinon, A mel a meillion, A 

The name is pure Welsh, Dar-nanl, ihe brook or glen of the oaks 

The Kymry in Pte-historic Britain, 37 

meddgyrn meddvvon, Addwyn i ddragon Ddawn y Derwyddon." 
" When the dew lies still, and summer visits us, and the honey and 
trefoils, and the mead-horns are full, pleasing to the prince is the 
lore of the Druids." Caesar tells us that their teaching was oral 
and embraced all knowledge available to them, but chiefly astronomy 
and physical science. They taught their adepts a great number of 
verses, so that some remained learners twenty years. M. De la 
Villemarque in his Popular Songs of Britanny has preserved a 
Druid song sung in a place in Finisterre, in which scraps of 
matter are strung on numbers, as in the Welsh Triads. The 
Druid teaches the mab gwenn or child, there are "three beginnings 
and endings to man and an oak, three realms of Merlin, yellow 
fruit, bright flowers, laughing infants." " Tri derou ha tri divez, 
D'ann den ha d'ann derv ivez; Tri rouantelez-barr Varzin; Frouez 
melen, ha bleun lirzin, Bugaligou o c'hoarzin." {Aurelien De 
Courson, Histoire des Peuples Bretons, T. I. p. 57.) Above all 
the Druids taught the immortality and transmigration of souls; but 
whether it ended in Pantheism, I cannot resolve. The Metem- 
psychosis is taught in the Kad Goddeu (Battle of the Trees) of 
Taliesin; and in the Discourse between Arthur and his nephew 
Eliwlod transformed into an eagle. If they on this side approached 
the truth, a practice of human sacrifices and cannibalism was so 
revolting, that in Gaul it was forbidden by Tiberius Caesar. {Pliny 
XXX. I.) The motive of such atrocity must be sought in magic 
and in a supreme effort to procure Divine aid, as we find exemplified 
in Mesha king of Moab sacrificing his son in his utter distress. 
The same motive is assigned in the Popol Vuh to the elders of 
the Quiche nation, after their sufferings in icy regions ere they 
reached America. Cannibalism was practised in Erin {Diodorus) ; 
and we have already met with the formidable Attacotti near 
Glasgow. {Gibbon, Decline and Fall, &c, Vol. III. p. Jl6.) A 
gruesome example of incongruous religion is afforded us by the 
Triad, which speaks of Gwrgi Garw-lwyd, a Caledonian who united 
with Aethelfrid of Northumbria against the Kymry, and who 
practised anthropophagy with a singular reservation in favour of 

38 The Kymry in Pre- historic Britain. 

the Sunday. The birds of the ivhite lake (Adar y Uwch gwyn), 
with golden collars about their necks, may designate Attacottian 
cannibals decorated with the torques. If such at all existed, we 
can understand how Druidic sanctuaries presented portentous images 
of deformed lineaments and frightful aspect within deserted walls, 
which with rugged mountains and destructive rivers were objects of 
veneration to the Britons. (Gildas.) 

The religion of the Druids in its primitive aspect closely 
resembles that of the earliest races of men. The ancient inhab- 
itants of Ceylon, Diodorus tells us, venerated the all embracing 
Heaven and the Sun, and generally all the host of heaven. At 
the feast of the Sun in May the Peruvian Yncas invoked the 
Creator, the Sun, the Thunder, to multiply the people and grant 
them peace. [Rites of the Incas by Chris toval De Molina, trans- 
lated by Clements Markham.) So, we are told, Teutates, Duw-tat, 
the Father- God, was the chief divinity adored by the Gauls. Then 
we have Belenus or Belin, the sun-god, derived from the Phoenician 
Belus or Baal, whose river, Avon-Beli, was a name of the estuary 
of the Mersey, anciently Belisama, Beli-ys-avon; his Gallic name 
also was Grannus, in Irish Grian, the Sun. He seems to have been 
worshipped also as Belatucadrus, Bel-y-duw-cadr, Belt the mighty 
God. Taranis was the divinified thunder, and is mentioned by 
Lucan along with Hesus or Hu Gadarn, the special national god of 
the Kymry, venerated as their leader in emigration and the author 
of agriculture. He was sometimes identified with the Supreme 
Being, and figures in romance as Huon of Bordeaux ' emperor of 

Camulus (from the Irish Kama, the brave), was the Gallic 
Mars. In Welsh, Campus means the dexterous. Ogmios (from 
the Welsh Og-Hogyn, a youth, ' the strong ') was the Gallic 
Hercules. The magic caldron of Keridwen denoted the renovating 
power of Nature; to it Taliesin imputes his inspiration in the lines, 
" Mi a gevais awen O bair Keridwen." Olwen, too, was a Nature- 
goddess, in whose footsteps sprang up four white trefoils, whose 
hair was yellower than the flowers of the broom, and her flesh 

The Kymry in Pre-historic Britain. 39 

whiter than the foam of the wave. Her name, like the German 
Alvina, seems allied to the Alfar or elves. ( Ystori Kwllwch.) 
Gwenidw was the Kymric Leukothca, who daily drove ashore her 
white flock of waves. Margan was a goddess of the deep ("dwywes 
o annwvn;") which perhaps accounts for Morgaine la Faye being 
called the Lady of the Lake. Perhaps she may be identified with 
the Persian Peri Merjdn. Or, possibly, Gwenddydd, the day-star, 
the sister of Merlin, may have been adopted in romances as the 
sister of Arthur, and rendered through the German Morgen, 
morning, into Morgaine la Faye, the enchantress and mistress of 
Sir Lancelot. In Italian, the Fata Morgana gave celebrity to that 
lovely phenomenon of the Mirage, so well described by Father 
Angelucci in the Straits of Messina, Aug. 15, 1643. (Sivinburnc, 
Travels in the Two Sicilies.) The Kymry conceived of the Power 
of Evil as a female whose magic steed March Malaen conveyed 
witches through the air, as the Canon Law intimates of Hecate 
and Herodias, and as we read in the romance of Cleomades. 
Possibly Malaen came from the Latin Maligna. Arianrod, a star- 
goddess, was the mystic name given to the seven stars of Bootes 
by the Britons. It signified the silver wheel* Gwyn ab Nudd, 
Fair son of the Mist, was the happy name assigned to the 
illusion of the king of Faery {Buchedd Collcnn. Sanct. Catholicum); 
rendered, I conceive, by the romance-writers, in German as Elberich, 
in French as Alberon, Auberon, or Oberon, being a translation of 
Gwyn, the fair or white. He is classed by the Triads with Idris 
and Gwdion ab Don as one of the three astronomers of Britain. 
The latter seems to be Odin, borrowed from the Teutons. The 
milky way is his burg or caer, Caer-gwdion, the Valhalla of the 
Norsemen. But if borrowed, he was invested with a more pleasing 
character by the Keltic imagination, and is found associated with 
Math ab Mathonwy in conjuring by magic out of the blossoms of 
the oak, the broom, and the meadow-sweet the fairest damsel 
ever seen. (Mabinogion.) Taliesin treats them as enchanters, in 

* Caer-Arianrod castrum argenteae rotae. 

-|.o The Kymry in Pre-historic Britain. 

company with Eurwys and Eurion, and Euron and Medron, who 
perhaps were Druids living in tradition. Galiant, "the most skilled 
armourer of his time," was meant for Wayland smith, the Volundr 
of the Edda. ( Ystoryau Chyarlymaen.) 

The fact that minstrels and composers of poetic eulogies came 
next the priesthood in the Druidic hierarchy marks the antiquity 

of their system, and carries us back to the age 

7. The Bards: their of Homer He tells us the si met with 
ideal of civilization. 

honour and respect among all men. (Odyssea, 

VIII. 4, So.) The science of the old Kymry, like that of the 
early Greeks, lay in music. Diodorus Siculus, B.C. 50, says that 
the composers of lays among the Gauls, whom they call Bardoi, 
sing praises or invectives along with instruments resembling lyres. 
Robed in skyblue togas, the emblem of peace and heaven, they 
also acted the part of the Hellenic keryx, and sought to reconcile 
contending warriors. As among the early Greeks, they were 
respected, and sometimes richly rewarded. Llywarch Hen could 
boast of a cantrev and a hundred oxen, the gift of Rhun. Kyn- 
ddelw says, Rhiryd gave him a gift of ruddy gold, nothing less. 
''Kelenig rudd aur a roddai Riryd, Nym rhoddai a vai lai." A 
later bard boasts, that Rhys Gryg shed his gold into the bards' lap 
like full ripe fruit, But the expenditure of the West was neces- 
sarily mean, compared with that of ancient India. The Hindu- 
Aryas lived in the golden age. " The gifts of Prithousravas are 
magnificent," says Vasa, " that generous master has given me a 
golden car." {Rig-Veda, p. 434, translation by Langlois.) Another 
boasts of a gift of three hundred horses and ten thousand cows; 
he was a master of hyperbolic style. But mere material ease and 
wealth do not necessarily connote true civilization. The spiritual 
must control the material. The most ferocious nation of America, 
the Aztecs, whose imperial palace stank with human sacrifices, had 
the most refined taste in goldsmith's work; and their speech possessed 
inflexions expressing the respectful style. The Basques, Horace's 
' untamed Cantabrians,' have besides, a style to address children 
with and one suited to women. {Baudrimont, Histoire des Basques 

The Kymry in Pre- historic Britain. 41 

primitifs, p. 195) On the contrary, the gentle Guanches of the 

Canaries, unacquainted with wheat and the use of fire, were obliged 

by law to make way for every woman they met. The Keltic 

bards, too, rose superior to mercenary motives. They stigmatized 

the man who loved his appetite, wealth, and ease as one who was 

no patriot; they reckoned learning of equal dignity with the noblest 

descent; they declared there were three persons, whom everybody 

should look upon with respect, namely, he that looks lovingly on 

the face of the earth, on the exertion of art, and on little children; 

and they professed their delight in the increase of knowledge, the 

improvement of morals, and the triumph of peace over devastation 

and anarchy. 

I have ahead)' indicated the motives of fear, of curiosity, or of 

interest that impelled the barbarian nations of antiquity to quit 

their precarious settlements; how Lygdamis the 
8. Keltic migrations K to avoid the more pmverfu i G oths, 

to the East. ' ' 

poured his horde on the rich plains of Lydia 

from the Kymric settlement on the Palus Maeotis. More than a 
century later, Elico or Helig, a Helvetian merchant, was employed 
by an injured Etruscan to tempt an invasion of Italy by the Gallic 
Kelts with the luscious bribe of figs and grapes, of the wine and 
oil of that favoured land. {Pliny.) The children of Nature eagerly 
embraced the offer; and under the conduct of Sigovesus (Sig-was, 
the smasher) and Bellovesus (Bel-gwas, the warlike), Arvernian 
princes, established themselves in the fertile plain of the P6, 
founded the grand city of Milan, and were known as the Isambra 
(in Irish noble), a name corrupted into Insubres. They were 
followed by Gauls of Maine and Chartres, led by Elitovius (E-llid- 
wv, the hurricane), who founded Brescia and Verona at the expense 
of the Etruscans. Lastly, the Boii (in Irish Buidhe, the yellow- 
haired) and the Senones (a name derived from Sen or Hen, the old, 
the honoured) pushed forward and drove the Etruscans from their 
settlements on the Adriatic. {Livy.) Observe, how their princes' 
names still live in existing Keltic speech. Britomarus, a chief of 
the Isambra, is in Welsh Brith-mawr, the great painted warrior. 

42 The Kymry in Pre-historic Britain. 

(Livy.) And Moritasgus, a king of the Senones (Caesar), is 
Mortagh or Murdoch, an Irish name. I know not whether the 
similarity of sound in that of Omortag king of the Bulgarians, 
A.D. 824 (Eginhard), be accidental or not. 

A portion of these Gauls, following the auguries of the flight 
of birds, doubled the Adriatic, and scaling the Carnic Alps settled 
in Hungary. (Justin XXIV. 4.) B.C. 389 the Kelts of northern 
Italy under their captain, whose title (not name) was Brennus (the 
brenhin or king) took and burnt Rome, anticipating the equally 
transient success of Alaric and Genseric. Meanwhile the Kelts of 
the Danube inspired terror among neighbouring princes by their 
very name. Belgius (Bel-gwas, the warrior) defeated the Mace- 
donian king, B.C. 278. The brenhin, whose name we know not, 
followed up this success, and proceeded to attack the sacred shrine 
of Delphi in hope of plunder; with true Gallic levity he jestingly 
remarked how the rich gods should bestow on men what they had 
no need of. Unlike the austere Iberians of Spain, who would not 
violate their rich soil, unless the lightning tore out its golden 
ingots, and gave them as it were a gift from God. (Justin XLIV. 
J.) A severe hailstorm, aided bv terrors of the supernatural, the 
multiplied echoes and visions of the gods, saved the temple from 
violation. The defeated Gauls fled, some to Asia, some to Thrace, 
seeking their Pannonian home. One detachment under the name 
of Skordiskoi (in Welsh, Ysgorddion, strangers) settled at the 
confluence of the Danube and the Save. Another, the Tectosages,* 
found their way back to their western settlement at Toulouse. 
They were induced by a pestilence to cast their sacrilegious store of 
Grecian plunder into a lake; as the Yncas of Peru did with their 
coveted treasures. (Justin XXXII. J.) The gold of Toulouse became 
proverbial, as bringing ruin on its possessors. The defeat of the 
Romans by the Kymry in B.C. 101 was attributed to it. Some 
scholars refuse to identify the Kimbri allied with the Teutons, 
whom C. Marius defeated, with the Kymry and Kimmerioi of 

* Teith-sach, from their use of the plaid or over-all, journey-sack ? 

The Kymry in J 're- historic Britain. 43 

remote antiquity. Pliny (IV. c. 14) expressly classes them with 
the Teutons as inland Germans; " Ingaevones (Innwohners) quorum 
pars Cimbri, Teutones," &c. Suidas gives 'brigands' as the mean- 
ing nt the word Kimbri, and it may be of the Welsh root Cymmer- 
yd, t<> take or spoil; but if they were Germans, why are they not 
included under the generic name of Teutons- Deutsch ? Besides, I 
have shown from Tacitus that some Kelts were intermingled with 
Teutons in Germany; some words of their speech, preserved to us, 
are simply Welsh yet intelligible; and it is difficult to understand 
how Tacitus could write that the Kimbri were in his day ' a small 
estate, but their renown mighty,'* if they only formed an item in 
the Teutonic nationality. [See Appendix No. VII.] 

Few of the modern Kelts, Kymry, Brezonet, and Gael, are 
aware that the Apostle S. Paul addressed an Epistle to a people of 

their blood and kindred. Yet such is indubit- 

9. The Galatian , , iU c . o 

, ably the tact. So great an opinion was enter- 


tained in the East of the dash and prowess of 

the Kymry-Galls that no prince engaged in war without Gallic 

valour in his pay. (Justin XXV. 2.) And so Nicomedes king of 

Bithynia gained their support by the cession of a province called 

after them the Gallic Greece or Galatia. The settlers were from 

the South of France, the Tectosages, the Trocmi (Trwch-wyr, truces 

riri, ' desperadoes '), and the Tolistoboii (Tolws-tov-wyr, uproarious 

band or array). The leader of the first tribe was Leonorios, in 

Welsh Lluniwr, the marshal or disposer. (Strabo L. 12.) The 

name was afterwards borne by a Breton saint. One of the most 

interesting traditions connected with this colony is found in the 

Triads of the Isle of Britain, which relate that Ur Luyddawg, Ur 

the layer of hosts, a Scandinavian chief, doubtless of the kindred 

Kvmry of Jutland, for a stranger would not so easily have 

succeeded, came to Britain in the time of Gadial ab Erin (when we 

are not told), and by artifice procured succours of men and treasure 

to go on one of those marauding expeditions so dear to the Keltic 

* " Parva nunc li vitas >ed gloria ingens." Gam. ,-,-. 

44 The Kymry in Pre- historic Britain. 

spirit. They never returned, but went as far as the sea of Greece, 
and settling in the land of Galas and Avena became Greeks. The 
learned Lhuyd guessed Galas was Corfu; he could give no account 
of Avena, and he has been followed by later scholars. But the 
names, surely, indicate Galatia and Armenia the lesser; and the 
adventurers went to re-inforce their Keltic congeners. Many names 
of men and places in Galatia support its Kymric character. One 
of its kings, Deiotarus (Duw-tarw, the divine bull), was the subject 
of an oration of Cicero. His treasure-castle in Bithynia was 
Blukion (Blwch, a box or treasury). Brogitarus (Broch-tarw, the 
angry bull) was the Gallo-Greek priest of Pessinus. {Cicero.) 
Donilaus (Dyvnwal or Donald) was a Galatian prince on Pompey's 
side; Orgiagontis or Gwrgant, a Galatian king (Florus); Adiatorix 
was, perhaps, Aedd-twrch, the loud boar (Strabo); Centaretus, Kyn- 
drud, the chief brave, or Kyn-dardd, the first shot (Pliny); Poredorax, 
a Gaul slain by Mithridates, P6r-e-dorch, the lord of the chain or 
torques. (Plutarch) Camma (the crooked) avenged the murder of 
her husband Sinetus (Henydd ?) by poisoning his slayer Sinorix, 
Hein-rhi, chief of the swarm. Then there are the districts of 
Cammanene or Cam-maenan, the crooked slate rock, and Morimene 
bordering on Galatia, which I would fain connect with Morven the 
realm of Fingal. (Morben or Penmawr, the great headland) We 
find the mountains Gorbeus, Gor-van, high place, and Lithrus, 
Llethr, the steep. We have Gangra the seat of king Deiotarus, 
Gann-gra, the white gravel, perhaps white- washed in Iberian fashion; 
and I ask indulgence for my fancy in rendering Rosologiacum by 
Cwm-rh6s-g\vylla\vc, the combe of the gloomy moor. The manners 
of these Gallo-Greeks were those of the parent nation. One of 
their tetrarchs kept open house for a whole year, and even caused 
travellers to stay till they had dined at his table. It was a Gallic 
custom, says Caesar, to constrain travellers to tarry and answer 
questions, and to crowd about pedlars in small towns. The 
language of Galatia was that of the country about Treves in the 
fourth century, says S. Jerome. Kenones was a term used by the 
Montanist sectaries in Phrygia to denote the second rank in their 

The Kymry in Pre-historic Britain. 45 

hierarchy, below Patriarchs but above Bishops. Perhaps the Phry- 
gians borrowed it from the Keltic Galatians. Kynon in Welsh is 
'a chief; and I observe that Conon was the native name of the 
Isaurian emperor Leo IV. Cynon and Cynan were common Welsh 
names. Tasgodroungitai was the name given in the vernacular of 
Galatia to certain heretics, signifying ' men with a peg in their 
nose.' (S. Epiphanius) Probably, they snuffled like our old 

Not content with their indigenous traditions, the Kymry of 

Britain, after the Roman conquest, greedily affected kinship with 

the Masters of the World, to solace the wounded 

10. lne fabulous susceptibility of a vanquished people, and pos- 
Trojan origin of the 

Kvmrv sibly to secure the favourable regard of the 

Romans. How was this object to be effected ? 

They soon perceived that all the Roman culture flowed from 

Hellenic sources; and that by the irony of events the fountain of 

Hellenic inspiration, the immortal Iliad, derived through the silver 

tube of Virgil's melodious verse the praise of ' Troy divine ' as well 

as of its captors. Rome had adopted the myth of a Trojan descent 

through that correct but insipid hero, the pious Aeneas; all were 

ambitious of securing a fashionable ancestry; Padua adopted Antenor 

the Trojan, Lisbon the ingenious Ulysses, for their founders; the 

Kymry invented a descendant of Aeneas, Brutus Darian/as, ' of 

the blue shield,' who sailed from Italy and vanquished the giants 

of Albion. How deeply and how long this fable influenced the 

Kymric imagination may be judged by the fact, that Priam, 

Hectcr and his victor Achilles, Paris, and Helena, Aeneas and 

lulus, long lived in Kymric speech as Periv, Echdor ac Achelarwy, 

Peris ac Elen, Einion ac Iolo. Taliesin terms the Kymry Gwedd- 

illion Troia, ' relics of Troy.' When the Chronicler of Strata 

Florida would scatter wild flowers on the grave of the Lord Rhys 

of South Wales, A.D. 1197, he surpassed himself, when he made 

his hero a match to Achilles for strength of chest, a Hector for 

prudence, a Paris for beauty, an Ulysses for eloquence, and an 

Ajax for spirit. {Brut y Tywysogton.) A century later, Arch- 

4 6 The Kymrv in Pre- historic Britain. 

bishop Peckham laments, that the Welsh wore " too intent on 

dreams and fanciful visions, following the footsteps of Brutus, who 

advised by Diana's whisper entered Britain by dreaming;" and 

bids them in future boast, not of the vanquished Trojans, but of 

the Cross of the Lord Jesus, Who hath made all mankind one in 

His Blood. [A.D. 1284. Wilkins, Concilia.] [See Appendix 

No. VI.] 

On this sandy foundation did Gruffydd ab Arthur, commonly 

known as Geoffrey of Monmouth, erect a stately gallery of kings 

anterior to the subjugation of Britain by the 

11. The British kings R omans . From the pious credulity of un- 
before the 
Roman conauest critical ages we have fallen back on blank 

scepticism. Like Herodotus the Father of 
History, Geoffrey has been branded as utterly mendacious. But 
modern travel and research have vindicated the credit of Herodotus; 
and it is possible that after all the chronicler of British kings 
was not entirely fabulous. Tacitus says expressly of the Britons, 
" Formerly they obeyed Kings; now owing to Princes they are 
distracted by factions, nor is any circumstance more favourable to 
us than that they do not plan in concert." (Tacitus, Agricola 
c. 12.) Mr. Stephens has shown that Geoffrey was possessed of 
Armorican monuments procured by his philo-Kymric patron Walter 
De Mapes. It is hard to relinquish to the iconoclast those 
4 radiant shapes ' that have for so long tenanted our island, that 
have preceded the gorgeous series of mediaeval romance, and that 
have inspired some of the sweetest creations of Shakespeare, of 
Spenser, and of Milton. I will not insist that Abaris, the myster- 
ious Hyperborean who visited Greece in the mythic age, was a 
Keltic Druid, an Ivor or Avarwy. But I may be permitted to 
notice the names that are interwoven with our history and 
literature. The reader of Milton's Comus is familiar with Locrine 
the son of Brutus (Lloegrin), whose daughter Sabrina fled the 
pursuit " of her enraged step-dame Guendolene." Her mother 
Estrildis or Esyllt borrowed her name from Hersilia the wife of 
Romulus, and transmitted it to the Yseulte or Isolda of romance. 

The Kymry in Pre -historic Britain. 47 

Mombricius or Mymbyr gave his name to an old Italian writer, 
Boninus Mombricius, and to the city of Oxford. Rhun Baladyr- 
bras, of the stout shaft, was the original Sir Hudibras. Spenser 
and Wordsworth derived the beautiful tale of the true brothers 
Artegal and Elidure from the Brut of Arthal and Elidyr. Dun- 
wallo Molmutius or Dyvnwal Moelmud is always acknowledged as 
the source of Kymric legislation. His name lingered in Cumber- 
land as Dunmail. A Donoual bishop of Alet occurs A.D. 1127. 
(Cartn/airr de Redon.) In Scotland it is Donald. Bath was the 
city of king Bladud, or Bleiddyd. His son Llyr, Shakespeare*- 
' King Lear,' has supplied a text for one of the profoundest 
expositions of human nature. Belin and his son Lludd still live 
on the lips of men in Billingsgate and Ludgatc. Another son of 
Belin, Caswallawn or Cassivellaunus king of the Cassii is recorded 
in the narrative of Julius Caesar. That wonderful man must have 
deeply impressed the minds of the Britons, for they know the 
Romans simply as Kessarieid, Caesar's-men ; and in the romantic 
style of Kelts they termed his sword Yr Angeu Coch, Red Death. 
The Triads assign a cause for the invasion of Britain, very far 
removed from the politic motives that dwelt in the mind of Caesar. 
It appears that Caswallawn 's mistress Fflur (Flora) was carried off 
by Mwrchan the thief, a chief of the Gauls of Aquitaine, with a 
view to present her to Caesar. Caswallawn crossed the sea to 
recover her, accompanied bv his nephews Gwenwynwyn and 
Gwanar with a numerous host. Most of them never returned, 
but settled " among the Caesarians " in Gascony, which retains 
traces of their settlement, according to Lhuyd quoting Goudelin. 
Goyrans, Ganelu, Guitrad, Mouric, Goudelin, are the Gascon forms 
of Geraint, Kynddelw, Gwerthydd, Meurig, and Gwythelin: among 
names of places we have Chabanos or in Kymric Kevnau, the 
backs; Carabodas or Kae'rbedw, Birch-field; Garrigue or Kerrig, 
the stones; Vinnez or Gwynedd; Mont-audran or Mwnt-Aeddren 
{Mom Adriani); and Mont-esquieu or Mwnt-yscaw, the mount of 
elder trees. It was in revenge for this expedition, say the Kymry, 
that the Romans invaded Britain. Caesar himself tells us, it was 

4^ The Kvmry in Pre-historic Britain. 

in consequence of the naval aid the islanders afforded their brethren 
of Gwenet (Vannes) in Armorica. His expedition, though it 
stopped short of subjugation, yet proved to be the first sweep of 
the tide, which laid Britain open to future conquest. The Kymric 
princes, before the final success of Agricola, bowed before the 
Roman Caesar, and paid a light tribute on the exports from Gaul, 
ivory necklaces, amber, glass vessels, " and such rubbish." (Strabo.) 
Such a prince was Kunobelinus of the coins and of Roman history, 
the Cymbeline of Shakespeare. His name is still preserved by 
Llan-gynvelin in Cardiganshire and by Plou-gonvelin near Ouimper 
in Britanny. It is a semi-Gaelic form of the Welsh Pen-velyn, 
and means yclloiv-head. His son Adminius may be the later 
Welsh Ednyved, though W. Baxter renders the name by Adhvin- 
was, the man with the projecting lips. {Etymologicon Britannicum.) 
Far better known are his other children; the maidenly grace of 
Imogen, the ingenuous freedom of Arviragus and Guiderius in their 
sylvan solitude, who can forget ? The Kymric form of Imogen is 
Enogent, perhaps from the Latin Innocentia. Her brothers were 
Gweirydd and Gwydyr. Their refusal to pay tribute is said to 
have occasioned the invasion under the emperor Claudius. Juvenal 
thought the possible fall of Arviragus from his war-chariot a 
compliment to Domitian. (Satira TV.) He is said by Polydore 
Vergil to have granted land at Glastonbury to S. Joseph of 
Arimathea. His son Meirig was the Bericus of Roman history. 



I no not attempt to write a formal history of the Kelts in 

general, or of the Kymry in particular: my object rather being to 

exhibit such points as may serve to interpret 

. HUM er o e |.| ie | r character and place in the commonwealth 
Kelts ' 

of nations. The report of Diodorus, B.C. 50, 

concerning the Britons was, that thev were simple, and far removed 
from the guile and wickedness of modern times. So far from 
regarding the custom of polyandry, that is, of a woman serving as 
wife to a family of brothers (if such custom really existed among 
them ?), as a proof of special depravity in the Kymry, I should 
infer that it was a survival from some remote period and a conse- 
quence of some special pressure; seeing it existed among the most 
primitive and innocent race of men, the Guanches of the Canaries. 
But the custom probably obtained only among non-Keltic tribes in 
our island; and is the parent of the Pictish institution of succession 
by the mother's side. I think it must be conceded that the Kelts 
did not possess the virtue of purity to the extent that Tacitus 
credits the Teutons with. When a Roman empress ventured to 
reproach the wife of Argentocoxus (Ariant-goch, bright silver), a 
Caledonian chief, with the immorality of her countrywomen, the 
lady replied that the British women bestowed their favour on the 
noble and the brave, and were strangers to the filthy excesses of 
the Italians. {Xipliilin.) When the queen of the Brigantes Cartis- 
mandua forsook her husband Gwyddno (Venutius) in favour of his 

esquire Kadwal (Vellocatus), the public sympathy was enlisted in 

50 Character and Manners of the early Kymry. 

favour of the injured spouse.* Nennius marks hospitality as the 
Britons' distinctive virtue, anger as their special fault. To their 
simplicity and passion were allied a silly, vainglorious ostentation 
and excessive love of ornament. Their chiefs were loaded with 
gold chains, brilliant with dyed stuffs, and plastered with gold. 
(Strabo) The skeleton of Benlli Gawr was found under the 
Fairies' Hill near Mold, with a corslet studded over with some 
hundreds of beautiful amber beads and a filigree work of fine gold 
based on pure gold. (Robert Williams, Eminent Welshmen) It 
is remarkable that Homer describes a Phoenician merchant wearing 
a gold chain strung with amber. (Odyss. XV. 460) When 
Bituitus king of the Arverni (Bytheiad, the hound) fought against 
the Romans, it was in a silver car; he had his pack of bloodhounds 
with him, and boasted the foe could scarce serve them for a meal. 
His envoy was escorted by gasindi glittering with gold and purple, 
and beside him a bard sang to his crtvth the glory of the Arvernian 
king. [Morns. Panlns Orosins.) This levity of temper some- 
times led to tragical results. The Triads notice the battles of the 
Scrubs and of Arderydd in Scotland, arising from disputes about a 
doe with young, a lap-wing, and even a lark's nest. " Vetus 
Britannia jugi cruore madescit," " Ancient Britain drips with con- 
tinual bloodshed," became an adage. The saying applied most truly 
to the period, which Milton stigmatized as offering (among the 
Saxons) nothing but battles between kites and crows. This Keltic 
recklessness mingled with their notions of grandeur. A prince of 
Auvergne would rain his gold pieces on the public, and fill a huge 
vat with liquors for his guests. {Posidonins, apud Athenaeum.) 
Such a scene was exaggerated by the Provencal nobles before the 
Albigensian crusade, when they out of ostentation sowed a furrow 
with silver and slew their chargers. Ebriety was a natural result; 
as when " men went to Cattraeth, a freespoken throng, the green 
mead their dainty and their poison; three hundred combatting with 
weapons; and after the war-shout there was the silence" of death. 

* " Pro man to stadia civitatis." Tacitus, Hist. III. c. 45. 

Character and Manners of the early Kymry. 5 1 

Gwyr a aeth Gattraeth, oedtl ffraeth y llu, 
Glas-vedd eu hancwyn, a'u fjwenwyn vu; 
Trichant trwy beiriant yn catau, 
A gwedi elwch tawelwch vu. (Aneurin, Godtxini.) 

When Rein the Scot (i.e. of Ireland), a pretender to the throne of 
South Wales, A.D. 1020, led on his forces to battle, we are told 
it was " after the manner of the Scots, proudly and ostentatiously " 
(yn valch syberw) ; he was ' fearless,' but an arrogant ' challenger.' 
{Brut y Tywysogion.) Sawyl Ben-uchel, Saul lofty-head, is noticed 
in the Triads; but we are also told that his arrogance led to faction 
and conspiracy with the Saxons against the Kymry. As Mr. 
Matthew Arnold says, "Just the expansive, eager Keltic nature; 
the head in the air, snuffing and snorting." (On the Study of 
Keltic Literature.) A lively sketch of the bold, buoyant spirit of 
the Gael and their French descendants, rather than that of the 
Kymric race subdued by a strain of melancholy. 

A shrewd and honest observer in the reign of Julian, A.D. 
361, describes the Gauls in a way that brings before the eye scenes 
that occur even now in Keltic lands. He notes their tall stature, 
red hair, and threatening eyes; how greedy they were of quarrels; 
how foreigners could not abide a domestic encounter, when a lady 
with inflated neck and ponderous white arms administered kicks as 
well as cuffs to her less adroit spouse, quick as the strokes of a 
catapult. Even the voices of many of them, whether angry or 
not, seemed to menace the hearer. Glancing at their fondness for 
various drinks resembling wine, he notes with disgust the reeling 
motion of some of the lower class, whose senses were dulled by 
continual ebriety. But he praises their neatness of attire, where, 
as in Aquitaine, the poorest female was never seen in rags, as 
elsewhere. Above all, he commends the bravery of young and old, 
fortified by labour and a bracing climate; among whom was never 
found, as in Italy, a coward who cut off his thumb to escape 
military service. (Ammianus Afarcellinus, XV. 12. I.) I regret 
to say, that the Roman officer's account is confirmed by the Triad 
relating to Rhore Yawr and her sister-viragos in Britain. But, in 

52 Character and Manners of the early Kxmrv. 

fine, the leading feature in the Keltic character appears to me to 
be their indomitable love of freedom and a spirit of independence 
sometimes leading to a deplorable excess. We see it in the 
conduct of Seuthes the Thracian (whom I would almost pronounce 
a Kymro); banished from his home, he chose the life of a marauder 
rather than exist a pensioner on another's bounty, " looking fur- 
tively to his table like a dog." {Xenophon, Anabasis, VII 2.) 
We see it in the long resistance the Britons offered their Teutonic 
invaders, when the other provinces of the Roman empire fell an 
easy prey to the barbarians. Giraldus of Wales notes how his 
Kymric countrymen would speak boldly before kings and not be 
ashamed. This feeling goes far towards solving the problem, why 
the Anglican Church (too often the obsequious waiter on the 
providence of Kings) has to such a serious extent lost the sympathy 
of the people. Nor is it absent from the mental development of 
such as Scottus Erigena, Abailard, and Renan. The heresy of 
Morgan (Pelagius) proceeded mainly from the bardic influence, 
which Titan-like would fain escape from the constraint of a 
supernatural Power, which overruns the purposes of Man. M. De 
Belloguet sums up the characteristics of the Gallic and Ligurian 
elements in a masterly manner. They blend in the modern 
French and in a lesser degree the Welsh nature. The Gauls had 
a wild temper, wanted judgment, loved display, were proud of race, 
frank, hospitable, simple. The Ligurians had quick wit, eloquence, 
raillery {Tesprit Gau/ois), cunning, loved music and dancing, were 
boastful (the Gascon humour) and avaricious. 

We have already seen that Britain before the Roman conquest 

had been governed by Kings, rich only in flocks and extent of 

territory.* That form of government had given 

J1 wa y to tne presidence of petty chieftains. 


{Pomponius Mela III. 6. Tacitus, Agricola 

xii.) A kingship, so precarious in its origin, was bound to yield 

* Consult for the Welsh, Giraldus; for the Ligurians, Florus IT. j; for the 
Iberians and Silurians, Tacitus Ann. xii. j2. 

Character and Manners of the early Kymry. 53 

to the fluctuations of popular feeling. ' The nation of the Kymry, 
the voice of country and people,' was paramount, ' The voice of 
the country' is joined to 'monarchy' in the Triads, as forming 
gwernment; and the monarchy thus limited is declared in accord- 
ance with the regulation of Prydain ab Aedd Mawr, that is. the 
primaeval genius of the Kymric race. Not a trace is discovered of 
the Divine right, which was later on developed from Hebrew 
sources by the Catholic clergy, not altogether unnaturally, perhaps, 
yet with a singular oblivion of the sinister origin of the Israelitish 
monarchy under Saul. The pernicious refinements of the Imperial 
jurisprudence of Rome were, of course, unknown. Kymric royalty 
was declared to be " under the protection of the voice of the 
country;" and the old proverb, ' Trech gwlad nac arglwydd,' 'The 
country is stronger than the prince,' is cited in confirmation. It 
would seem indeed, that the Unbennaeth Prydain, The Monarchy 
of Britain, which was the subject of their national air which urged 
them to the battle, was nothing more than the Hegemonia of 
Agamemnon before Troy; for a Triad derives the right to command 
of Caractacus himself from a national convention distributed into 
the fragments of commote and cantrev, in a word, from universal 
suffrage. Such traditions were sure some day to wake up and 
disturb the creation of priests and jurisconsults. 

But, although the king's right to govern proceeded from the 
will of his free people, his divinity was guarded from violation by 
minute and whimsical penalties. Thus the laws of Howel Dda 
rates the fine for insulting the Prince of Aberffraw at a hundred 
kine for every cantrev belonging to him; a white bull with red 
ears to every hundred kine; and a gold rod as long as himself and 
equal in roundness to his little finger, and as thick as the nail of 
a husbandman who has served for nine years. The local primary 
chieftains were called Penhynaiv, chief of elders. Arthur, before 
his elevation as Emperor or Penteyrnedd, was Penhynaiv at Pen- 
rhyn Rhionydd in the North. In Wales a chief was called Cawr, 
in North Britain Piiodawr, in Loegria Gwledig. The Pencenedyl 
or chief of a clan was bound to support one of his clansmen; nor 

54 Character and Manners of the early Kymry. 

was he fit for the position, unless he possessed the power as well 
as will to fulfill his duty. A vast system of fines and payments 
prevailed, invented to check eternal feuds and to secure to the 
state its interest in men able to do it service. Even homicide was 
condoned on the principle of not crying over spilt milk, and of 
securing compensation. As Mr. Barnes well observes, " If exactness 
of laws be a token of civilization, then the Britons of the ninth 
century were more civilized than the Saxons." (Notes on Ancient 
Britain and the Britons, by Rev. Wm. Barnes, B.D.) Land was 
held of the king, and mortuaries paid to him, pretty much after the 
feudal fashion of later times. " The mountains and the forests the 
king reserved to himself as waste, so that he might receive exiles 
from beyond sea for his liegemen, and grant free gifts, and appro- 
priate the same to monasteries as eleemosynary land." ( Welsh Laws.) 
In Caesar's time there were men among the Gauls pledged to 
fight in their chieftains' cause, called Soldnrii. (Sawdwyr, from 

' Sawd,' war, battle) (De Bello Gallico, VI. 
3. Their military , Th are termed b p i yb j us Qaessatae, 
system. J J 

probably from Gwastrawd, equerry, and denote 

the semi-feudal associations of the ancient Gauls, answering to the 
Gasindi under the Lombard kings of Italy, and the Gweision 
bychain or retainers of the later Princes of Wales. On the 
conquest of Wales the Archbishop of Canterbury, a Saxon and a 
monk, viewing the unfamiliar and unknown with true English 
dislike and distrust, begged Edward I. " for God's sake to do away 
with the manner of living of Wysshan bighanP A.D. 1284. "On 
his side he had ordered the with-holding the sacraments of Holy 
Church from the idle; for that no one is in a state of salvation 
who doth nobody any good." (Registrnm Peckham) 

In the time of Caesar the Britons were armed in the Gallic 
fashion, and their chiefs mounted on a cowain (covinus) or war- 
chariot like the Hellenic heroes in the Trojan war. Homer notices 
the war-chariot of Rhys the Thracian king and ally of Priam, how 
it was adorned with gold and silver, and his arms of gold, a 
wonder to see, meet only for the immortal gods ! (Iliad, I. X., 

Chraractc and Manners of the early Kytnry. *,*. 

lines 438 441.) Bituitus of Auvergne fought in coloured armour 
on a car of silver. (Morns TIT. 2.) Cassivellaunus was one of 
the three princes with golden cars. (Triads.) Their arms were 
inlaid with gold and coral. Boadicea, as well as the Gaul slain by 
Manlius Torquatus, wore their golden linked chain or torques. 
Poor Llywarch could boast of having had twenty-four sons, leading 
chiefs invested with the golden chain: " Pedwar meib ar ugeint 
a'm buvn'. Eurdorchawg tywyssawg unbyn." Such must have 
been the chain Joseph wore in Egypt. As the Gauls could furnish 
the Tyrian dye, it is likely they painted themselves with vermilion 
as Camillus did in triumph (Pliny xxxii. 2, xxxiii. /, 7), and 
resembled an Indian brave in his war-paint. The Britons, says 
Mela, stain their bodies with glass, whether for ornament or some 
other reason is uncertain. (III. 6.) The better informed Pliny 
says they did it with glastum or woad producing a blue dye. 
(Nat. Hist.) The cavalry of the Kymry opposed to Marius, B.C. 
10 1, was fearful to behold, with their helmets covered with the 
grinning jaws of wild beasts and surmounted with birds' wings. 
(Plutarch.) A Gallic chief was named Athenomarus or Adain- 
mawr, The great wing; and Keindrech Ben-asgell, of the winged 
head, occurs in the Triads. This monstrous head-gear was adopted 
to add to their martial effect. Sometimes, a chief like the Kelt- 
Iberian Salondicus (Alawn-dig, angry music ?) shook his silver spear 
as one inspired by Heaven, and so won confidence. (Florus). In 
the Mabinogion Kulloch (Kwllwch) waves his silver inlaid spear. 
Like Queen Elizabeth they loved loud music, inspiring terror. 
When the Kelts advanced towards Rome, B.C. 225, we are told 
that besides unceasing horns and trumpets, " there rose all at once 
such a concert of bellowings, that the earth seemed to roar 
emulously." (Polybius I. II.) Froissart, long ages afterwards, 
says, their kindred Scots made such a noise in playing their horns 
at night, it seemed as if hell were let loose.* 

* "II sembloit, que tous les grans diables d'enfer fussent la-venus." Chroni- 
fius, I. c. iq. 

56 Character and Manners of the early Kymry. 

It would be strange, if an insular nation, holding relations (as 
we have seen) with the Scandinavians, at least with the Kymry of 
Jutland, was not possessed of ships whether of 
" war or commerce. Caesar was astonished at 
the powerful navy of two hundred and twenty vessels, which the 
Veneti of Armorica opposed to the Romans. Caswallawn was sent 
to aid them, and his nephews chose to settle in Gaul. The Triads 
mention Geraint and March (both Devonian or Cornish princes) as 
owners of fleets of 120 ships, with 120 men in each ship; an 
evident exaggeration in view of that of the Veneti ! And Dolor 
son of the king of Man, with two others, appears as owner of a 
pirate fleet (Llynges cynniwair). The British intercourse with 
Ireland and Armorica seems never interrupted. 

Strabo says the cities of the Britons were 'the bush;' mere 
huts protected bv palisades or earth-works. Such was the Kaer- 

verlam of Kaswallawn; such the hendrev of the 

5. Their rural life. v .,, . . , ,. .. . , , * 

Kymry, their winter home, distinguished from 

the havotty occupied only during the summer months, when they 

drove their flocks to the upland pastures. The Irish still kept up 

this practice in the seventeenth century. They " removed, with 

their tenants and cattle, from one place to another, where there is 

conveniency of grass, water, and wood; and there having built a 

house, which they do completely in an hour or two, they stay till 

thev want grass, and then dislodge to another station." Such are 

the mayens of the Swiss Alps even now. The sweetness and 

nourishing quality of the Irish grass growing between limestone 

rocks is noticed by Pomponius Mela as well as General Ludlow. 

(Me/a, III. 6. Ludlow, Memoirs, I. pp. 327, 365) 

The Triads mention three national shepherds and three national 

herdsmen in Siluria, Mona, and Tegeingyl, who, according to the 

primitive custom of the Kymry, looked after as many flocks of a 

whole tribe, 120,000 sheep, and 20,000 herds each, with the 

assistance of 300 slaves, under the protection of the nation. This 

was their ancient pastoral life, coming from times when flocks and 

herds made their owners princes. Such was Abraham in the eyes 

Character and Manners of the early Kymry. 57 

of the Hittites; and Mesha the king of Moab was ' a sheep-master.' 

Something of it still survives in those vast flocks that are driven 

to pasture in the high Alps, when the magic of summer converts 

the snowfields into sweet pastures of emerald verdure. The Britons 

dwelling inland raised no corn, according to Caesar, but fed on 

milk and flesh. But 1 doubt the accuracy of his information as 

to the corn. The strange myth of Coll map Collvrewi seems to 

belong to times long before Caesar, where a mystic sow of Dall- 

waran Dal ben crosses the sea and deposits wheat in Gwent, barley 

in Dyved, rye in Lleyn. which Dr. Owen Pughe ingeniously 

supposes to point to a foreign, probably Phoenician, ship, which 

imported these things into Britain. {Cambrian Biography.) They 

reared poultrv and hares for their pleasure, but ate them not; the 

reason in the latter case being the polluted fecundity of the hare, 

which is mystically expounded in the Epistle of S. Barnabas as the 

reason for the Mosaic prohibition of it. 

The condition of women, though they were much at the mercy 

of their husbands, and had to perform labour more suited to men, 

was yet superior to that of proud Rome. They 

shared with their husbands in a common stock, 

which the survivor was finally entitled to. If 

they were not the objects of a sacred esteem, as among the 

Teutons, some among them, as the priestesses in Gaul, were 

consulted as the oracles of the gods: Boadicea and Cartismandua 

were, among the Loegrian Britons, invested with the supreme 

authority: and when Conan Tindaethwy prince of Gwynedd died in 

A.D. 817 without male heirs, his daughter Esyllt was entitled to 

secure the sceptre to her husband Mervyn king of the isle of 


The domiciles of the Kymry were mere huts of timber and 

clay with a pointed roof. Late in the ninth century, Howel Dda 

convened a national council in his Ty Gwyn 

7. Domestic ar Dav, the white timbered house on the Taff. 

manners: domiciles; _ . _. , , . r 

home-life Even in the fifteenth, the advance is only trom 

wattles to whitewash; a Lancastrian bard sings, 

58 Character and Manners of the carlv Kymry. 

" Iddo vo mae neuadd valch, 
Ac yn wengaer gan wyn-galch; 
Ac o gylch og)-lch i hon 
Naw o arddau yn wyrddion." 

" To him belongs a gay hall, white-walled with fair lime (\cvkoI 
(ltto(tti\/3ovt<; a\ci<f>a.To<s . Homer : Odyss. III. 408), and round about 
it nine gardens that are green." (Lewys Glyn Cothi) The 
account given, January 23, 1 5 1 3, by a Venetian attache, of the 
home-life in London quite corresponds with that of the old Kymry. 
" In England," he reports, " the houses are all of wood. Aloft, at 
the window-sills, they put rosemary, sage, and other herbs. Over 
the planked floors they strew rushes, every ten days a fresh layer." 
{Calendar of State Papers, Venetian Series) This pestilential heap 
of vegetable matter was only removed on Easter Eve, I learn from 
Caxton. Llywarch Hen lamenting over the ruined hearth covered 
with ants sighs, saying, " Mwy gorddyvnasai babir gloew A chy- 
veddach cywir;" "More congenial were the shining rushes with a 
true banquet." They sate on rushes; "a youth was seen sitting 
on a seat of green rushes." ("Yn eistedd ar demyl o ir-vrwyn." 
Mabinogion) Even the Kymric king slept on rushes; for we are 
told, that " the groom of the chamber's nawdd or right of affording 
protection from arrest was from the time they go to gather rushes, 
until they have finished spreading the king's bed with rushes, and 
have covered him with clothes." ( Welsh Laws) It was a long 
step from this rude simplicity to the luxury of the Normans, from 
whom the Kymry learnt to bestow on ' the emperor ' Arthur a bed 
of scarlet, and fur, and velvet, and fine linen. (Ystori Owain ab 
Urien) The court of Howel Dda united the Saxon coarseness 
with some strange reminiscences of the Roman empire. While the 
court blacksmith was entitled to the delicacies of the banquet, 
which are specified to be "the first liquor that shall come into the 
hall;" and the troediatvg or footman was to hold the king's feet 
in his lap from the time he sits at a banquet till bed-time (a 
circumstance which has not escaped Sir Walter Scott in his 
' Betrothed ') ; the porter was not to sit in the hall, but upon his 

Character and Manners of the early Kymry. 59 

knees to perform his business with the king; and the torch-bearer 
was to hold the torch before the king when at meat. {Welsh 
Laws) It was the custom to strike seven bells, when the servants 
sat at the royal table. S. Paul Aurelian's bell, called by the 
Bretons Hir-glas (for it is long and green), is still preserved at 
the cathedral of S. Pol de Leon. S. David's miraculous bell was 
called Ban-gu; S. Iltutus even coveted a brass bell, " that beautiful 
thing more precious than gold." (Sane tor ale Ca thallium, pp. lJJ t 
43"J.) At a court of Llewelyn ab Iorwerth were golden bells, 
unless the bard deceives us: 

" Mae llys yn RhAs Yair, BUM llyn, 
Mae eur-gluch, mae Arglwydd Llewelyn." 

I perceive in Xenophon's amusing account of the dinner given 
to him and other Greek captains by the Thracian prince Seuthes, 

the earliest narrative of a Keltic entertainment. 

8. Festivities, music. Tu . . , . . , c , 

Ihey sate /;/ a circle; tripods of carved meat 

and loaves skewered together were brought, which vSeuthes tossed 

to his guests, saving that one Arystas an Arcadian, a dreadful 

hand at eating, dispensed with the distribution and helped himself, 

and ate off his knees to the amusement of the company. The 

servitors bore horns full of wine to the guests who pledged their 

host and made him presents. Lastly came music with horns and 

trumpets, and military vaulting or dancing, and there came in 

buffoons. The Hir-las horn of mead inspired the princely bard 

Owain Kyveiliawg; the amusement afforded by privileged fools or 

buffoons long lingered in England. 'My lord of Canterbury's fool' 

formed part of the state of Archbishop Abbot in the seventeenth 

century. {Anabasis L. vii. c. j. John Chamberlain s Letters.) 

We owe to a Greek philosopher the earliest description of a Gallic 

dinner. The table was round, like king Arthur's. All the guests 

sat, arranged according to their personal distinction; first the chiefs, 

next the ambacti or feudal retainers behind them bearing their 

lances. If these were of bright steel or brass, they must have 

made a grand show, such as Dr. Schweinfurth witnessed in Africa, 

60 Character and Manners of the early Kvnirx. 

when rows of dazzling lances, ' all of pure copper,' formed a 
magnificent background to a royal throne. {Heart of Africa, II 
4J.) They were served with bread and a quantity of roast and 
boiled meat on plates of wood or earthen ware or silver. The 
attendants frequently plied a goblet of wine or beer or mead. 
After meat they indulged in a sham-fight, which, as soon as their 
blood was up, grew terribly earnest. (Posidonius apud Athenaeum , 
L. IV. c. ij.) Enough has been said to show, that the Kelts were 
more advanced in the culinary art than the Teutons, whose 
ordinary diet, says Tacitus, was wild fruits, fresh game, and 
curded milk, and a drink of barley "corrupted into a resemblance 
to wine." (Germania c. 2j.) I know not, whether, with Gauls 
as well as Germans, to keep on drinking day and night brought 
no disgrace (Ibid c. 22); but the Welsh festivity was marked by a 
flood of liquors and tuneful song ("lliv gwirodau a llavar gerddau.") 
(D. ab Ieuan Ddu.) Well, a full table, good wine, and song made 
up Ulysses' ideal of happiness. [Odyssey, IX. 7.) The laws of 
Howel Dda refer to a ceremonious cup, Givirawd yr Ebestyl, a 
draught in honour of the Apostles; which we may presume was 
something analogous to the wine drank formerly ' for the love of 
S. John ' in the south of Germany. The potations, however, were 
excessive. " Owain's liquor," sings Kynddelw, " how incessantly 
it goes round ! Of clear sparkling wine without stint, and of 
mead; all out of the buffalo's horn." 

Gwirawd Ovvain mor vynych ei harvoll ! 
. O win cyvrgain, nid cyvrgoll, 
O vedd: o vuelin oil." 

That intoxication was a matter of course is clear from Xenophon's 
surprise at Seuthes' rising from table " no ways like a man in 
liquor." (Anabasis, ubi supra.) And the Triads consign to infamy 
the three arrant drunkards, the Silurian Geraint, Seithenyn of 
Demetia, and the Loegrian Vortigern, whose misfortune deepened 
into crime. But the music favourably distinguishes the Kelts from 
the Teutons. The barbarian harp and the British chrotta, crivth. 

Chm mtrr unit Minimis of the early Kymry. t>\ 

or guitar are mentioned in the sixth century by Venantius Fortu- 
natus, lib. 7. carm. 8, in Gaul;* and as the Saxon pirates had no 
humanizing tastes, when they settled in Britain, we may safely 
conclude they acquired some skill in music from their Kymric foes 
in the intervals of peace: for Bede says that all guests were 
expected to sing to the harp in turn, as it was passed round the 
company. {L. IF. 24.) S. Dunstan was skilled on the harp as 
well as in designing patterns for embroidery. 

For the outward aspect of the Kymry, Caesar says they wore 

skins (surely, not necessarily undrest, perhaps furs), and shaved all 

but the head and lip. Transalpine Gaul had 

Q T^fPQQ ft 1 t"n A 

*L learnt to produce the Tyrian dye and all other 


hues to adorn their clothing. {Pliny, Nat. Hist. 

L. xxii. c. 2.) The British nobles rejoiced in their gorgeous plaid 
and solid torques of gold. 'The coat of many colours' gladdened 
Jacob's eyes on his favourite son; and divers colours of needle work 
on both sides Sisera's mother deemed meet for the necks of them 
that take the spoil. This taste is universal in primitive nations. 
The Spaniards, says Peter Martyr of Anghiera, found the natives 
of Yucatan in vestures made of cotton of divers colours. {Decade 
III. p. 149.) Sir Richard Hawkins, A.D. 1594, says, the Indians 
of Araucania wore "cassockes most curiously woven, and in colours, 
and on both sides alike." {Observations, &c, />. 98.) Capt. Basil 
Hall in 181 b saw many dresses in the Loo-choo islands resembling 
in every respect Highland tartans. A passage in the Brut y 
Tywysogion, citing ' purple vestures ' (porfforolyon wiscoed) along 
with jewels, may imply a predilection for crimson or deep red 
clothing. Tacitus remarks how the German women affected purple 
stripes in their linen. Red is still the garb of the British soldier. 
In the Dream of Rhonabwy, a knight's mantle is of yellow- 
velvet lined with green silk; "and that which was green in his 
dress and his steed's trappings was as green as the leaves of the 

* " Romanusque lyra plaudat tibi, Barbarus harpa, Graecus Achilliaca, chrotta 
Britanna canat." 

62 Char aiter and Marnier s of the early Kymry. 

pine tree, and the yellow such as that of the flowers of the broom:" 
while in the tale of Gereint, though his surcoat of velvet and 
cordovan shoes set with amethysts and pommels of gold are 
borrowed from the later gorgeousness of chivalry, he is yet described 
as bare-limbed like the Kelts. The Dream of Macsen Wledig 
(Prince Maximus) describes a hero " with bracelets of gold on his 
arms, many gold rings on his hands, a chain of gold round his 
neck, and a diadem of gold on his head supporting his hair, and a 
lordly state was his." Centuries of privation and poverty reduced 
this magnificence. Giraldus Kambrensis describes Kenewric ab 
Rhys, son of the Prince of South Wales, as he met the Archbishop 
in the wilds of Elennith, "clad in his country fashion in a thin 
cloak and tunic only, his bare legs and feet regardless of thorns and 
briars;" but he "was fair and tall and had yellow curly hair," and 
he possessed what was better than gold, a "great natural dignity, 
with little aid of art." Later on the Kymry in Wales seem to 
have conformed to the fashions prevalent in the powerful English 
court. An old englyn describes Prince Llywelyn with his ' tall 
men' or Gweision bychain dressed in green and white: "Mae 
arglwydd Llywelyn, A gwyr tal yn ei ganlyn, Mil myrdd mewn 
gwyrdd a gwyn." This livery of green and white recalls Philip 
De Commines' mention of troops ' vestus en verd.' Green was the 
colour affected by the young; afterwards by the commons, who 
could not assume the chivalrous scarlet. For example, we read 
that " the Maior of London with the aldermen in scarlet, and the 
commons in greene, brought K. Edward IV. from Lambeth to the 
Tower of London." {A.D. 1461. Stowe.) 

It is very remarkable how the Britons, like the Etruscans, 
Hindus, and old Siberians, burnt all that was dear to the departed, 
down to animals, in one holocaust. Sometimes 
" ' survivors would willingly share the funeral pile 

of those they loved, to partake with them of another life. (A/e/a, 
III. 2.) Carneddau or large heaps of stones marked the spot 
where the ashes, or sometimes the inhumed remains, were deposited; 
a custom which grew into disrepute, when Christianity prevailed. 



Although about a century elapsed from the imperfect attempt on 
Britain by Caius Julius, the ablest of all the Caesars, to its success- 
ful reduction under Claudius the most stupid of 

1. Supposed them the comp i ete subjugation of Gaul, bound 

succession of British 

kings. ky every tie of religion and of race with the 

islanders, could not but seriously affect their hope 
of maintaining their freedom. Accordingly we find that during that 
interval the Kymric chiefs, at least in the south, tried to escape 
the ruthless maw of the monstrous Empire by paying voluntary 
tribute to its Prince. Such is the tradition respecting Cunobelinus 
or Cynvelyn, the yellow-head ', about A.D. 40, whom Shakespeare 
has immortalized as ' Cymbeline.' And the discontinuance of 
tribute by his son Arviragus or Gweirydd may have been the 
pretext afforded to Rome for her final attack on Britain. The 
testament of Prasutagus or Brasydog king of the Iceni, by which 
he vainly sought to ensure protection for his more famous widow 
Boadicea at the hands of the Emperor, is another example of that 
feeble policy which afterwards became proverbial, the Saxons' policy 
of buying off the Danes. Tacitus remarks that the Britons cheer- 
fully underwent the taxation and duties imposed by the Empire, 
" if injuries were absent " an important proviso, so painfully 
neglected for centuries by the English in their treatment of the 
Kelts. {Agricola.) 

A succession of native Kymric princes, maintaining a claim on 
the allegiance of their countrymen during the four centuries of 
Roman dominion, has been conjured up by enthusiastic Cambrians. 
I should deem it impossible, looking to the stern and jealous 

64 The Kvmry under the Roman Etnfire. 

character of the Roman Emperors throughout. Any pretender to 
regal rights was speedily disposed of. Besides, in the instances of 
imperial pretenders, supplied us by History, they are always 
military adventvirers unconnected with the Kymry, of foreign 
extraction, bearing names equally foreign. Carausius was a Belgian 
of Gessoriacum; Maximus, an Iberian of Spain. True it is, that 
their names were cherished as successful rebels against a hated 
domination; and that the later Welsh princes ambitiously claimed 
descent from the great Iberian. Even so, the imperial dynasties of 
Habsburg and of Hohenzollern trace their descent from Swiss and 
Swabian foreigners. Such British princes, as occur under the 
Empire, appear to have been only petty chieftains allowed, perhaps, 
some precarious sway, where the military communications of the 
Empire were yet imperfect. Lies ab Coel, who introduced Christ- 
ianity from Rome, betrays by his name his vassalage to the 
Empire; he was Lucius son of Coelius. And if the glorious 
Caractacus (Caradog) returned to his hut in Britain, there is no 
record of his kingly pretensions; while his grandsire is marked as 
Llyr Llediaith, ' of barbarous speech.' 

The Imperial government of Rome pursued a logical policy in 
reducing the mvsterious island of white cliffs, which had formed a 

corps of reserve to the provincials of Gaul. 
2. Roman occupation T ike the Samnites and Gaul the Briton5 had 
of Britain 

no endurance in battle. Their charge alone 

was terrible. What in fact could be expected from naked barbar- 
ians, headed by a few gold-bedizened chiefs mounted on obsolete 
chariots, against the steady discipline of Roman troops, who had 
not yet forgotten the traditions of Rome's palmy days ? In thirty 
five years (A.D. 43 78) the whole of south Britain had been 
reduced by a series of able generals. Aulus Plautius subdued the 
Britons in the south-east, Vespasian the Belgae in the south-west, 
Ostorius Scapula the Silures of South Wales under the noble 
Caradawg; Anglesey was reduced by Suetonius Paulinus, the Bri- 
gantes or hill tribes of Yorkshire by Petilius Cerealis, the indomit- 
able men of Wales by Julius Frontinus and Cneius Julius Agricola. 

The Kymry under the Roman Empire. 65 

Their resistance and the energy of Agricola have been immortalized 
by his son-in-law Tacitus, the first among Roman historians. 

I am not composing historic annals; but am engaged in tracing 
the features which preserve the unity of the Kymric race, as it 
emerges from the waves of Time. Let me here point out how 
they had profited by the Roman domination. It took the Saxons 
one hundred and fifty six years (that is, A.D. 457 613, from the 
battle of Crayford, when the Britons abandoned Kent and fell back 
on London [Saxon Chronicle], to the Gweith Cair Legion, the 
action of Chester, when Aethelfrid took Chester and thereby cut 
off the communication of the Kymry of Wales and those of 
Cumbria) to win and hold England east of the Dee and Severn. 
Even two centuries passed, ere the West- Welsh were driven out of 
Devonshire. The principal events that mark the period before the 
reign of Constantine appear to be th? construction by Hadrian of 
a vallum of turf between the Frith of Solway and the river Tyne, 
A.D. 120, afterwards rendered in stone by Severus, A.D. 208; and 
that of the Wall of Antoninus between Kinnoul and the mouth of 
the Clyde, A.D. 146. How feeble a defence such primitive walls 
afforded, when military courage and discipline declined, was too 
painfully proved by the event. But upwards of forty cohorts of 
Barbarian auxiliaries were settled in the northern districts, princi- 
pally near the Roman walls: e.g. Tungrians brought in by Agricola 
to carry on the war against Galgacus or Gwallawc the Caledonian, 
whose descendants continue stationed near Castle Cary, Cramond, 
&c. {Palgrave, History of the English Commonwealth, pp. 354 6.) 
In the early period of the Roman occupation the five provinces of 
Britain were governed by Praetors. The cities were nine colonies, 
governed on the exact model of Rome; two Municipal cities, 
Verulam and York, possessing the Roman citizenship and the right 
of self-government; and ten Latian cities who could choose their 
own magistrates. In the decline of the Empire they were all 
invested with equal privileges; and Nennius has transmitted to us 
a list of twenty eight cities, whose British names prove the 
tradition of their former importance. The Kymry, who gradually 

66 The Kymry under the Roman Empire. 

retired to the mountains of Wales, by force of circumstances, 
retained little, if aught, of the internal economy of those their 
ancestral cities. But we may be sure that the main idea was 
preserved in those corporations that fell under the Saxon yoke. 
The Mayor and Aldermen of modern English cities derive their 
origin from the Senate or Curia of those Roman creations, as 
presided over by their Principal, afterwards styled Count. And 
the various Guilds of the City of London came down from the 
Colleges or incorporations of artificers, which, possessing a common 
property and a common fund, were empowered to regulate their 
own affairs by the enactment of bye-laws. These corporations were 
not without serious drawbacks. For the Decurions or members of 
a city Curia were personally and individually liable to make good 
any deficiency in the quota of taxation assessed upon the city; and 
the Colleges of operatives were linked to their avocations by caste, 
so that the employment of a handicraftsman descended to his 
children, and his daughter's suitor could only obtain her by 
wedding the trade of her family. Besides caste, they were some- 
times attached to land as villani, in fact, as serfs. I find that 
James I. granted manumission to John Williamson, miller, a bond- 
man and villein, regardant to the manor of Gymingham in Norfolk, 
releasing him and his children, as late as A.D. 1604. (Cal. of 
State Papers) The incomparably learned Sir Francis Palgrave 
illustrates the position by the practice of the Irish Kelts and of 
certain Hindu villages. (Palgr. pp. jjj, 4.) The last instance 
exhibits the unity of the Arya race under the most distant climes; 
though it would seem by S. Paul's taking up his residence with 
Aquila and Priscilla "because they were tent-makers," that this 
system obtained in other parts of the East. 

Under Constantine the government of the island was committed 
to the Vicar of the Britains, residing at York; while under him 
the three southern provinces of Britannia Prima, Britannia Secunda, 
and Flavia Caesariensis were administered by Presidents, and the 
two northern, Maxima Caesariensis and Valentia by Consulars. 
The importance attached to the possession of Britain is shown, not 

The Kymry under the Roman Empire. 67 

only by the presence and death at York of two emperors Severus 
and Constantius Chlorus, but also by the glowing eulogy pro- 
nounced on it by the orator Eumenius (Gibbon, Dec/, and Fall, 
ch. XIII.) and the splendid remains of vanished luxury that dis- 
tinguished Caerleon in the time of Henry the Second. (Giraldus 
Cambrensis) Not only the cities, but even towns like Uriconium 
(by Wroxeter, Salop) could boast of the special Roman indulgence 
of public baths. The British provincials adopted the religion of 
their masters; they were anxious to participate in the legendary 
glory of a Trojan origin; they incorporated a large proportion of 
Latin terms in their stubborn Keltic speech, especially terms 
denoting objects (such as bridges, military walls, &c.) borrowed 
from the Romans; and the Catholic Church introduced all the 
words that denote the new ideas rendered necessary by the adoption 
of the Faith. Traces of classic lore are still discernible. Gwgon 
of the strong hand emulated the exploit of Sisyphus; Culhwch trod 
in the steps of Hercules; Mel was lurked in the May-leaves to 
abduct his mistress like Pluto; March was the British Midas; 
everything he touched he turned into gold, but his ears were those 
of a horse; Nynniaw and Peibiaw were the Neptune and Phoebus 
of the classic poets. The names of persons prevalent under the 
later Empire are abundantly represented in the British history long 
after the retirement of the Romans, however strange and even 
uncouth they may seem to moderns acquainted chiefly with the 
earlier Roman history. Yet after fair deductions, the fact remains 
that the Imperial government never succeeded thoroughly in Latin- 
izing the Britons, as it did the Gauls. When the hour of trial 
came, its system vanished as by magic; Ambrosius Aurelius or 
Emrys Wledig appears in Nennius as the sole remaining teyrn of 
Roman origin; according to his own statement, his father was a 
consul (or Count) of the Romanic nation: and I suspect that, where 
the Romanized natives escaped the sword of the Saxons, they, like 
their Gallic brethren, were soon merged in the denomination of 
the conquerors. 

But greater vitality lingered in the military traditions of the 

68 The Kymry under the Roman Empire. 

Empire. The Military constituted a distinct estate of three pro- 
vinces, governed respectively by the Count of 

3. The Roman Britain, the Count of the Saxon shore through- 
military adminis- . . 

tration (jU * Britain, and the Duke of the Bntai/is, 

who were the magistrates as well as the com- 
manders of the soldiery. The first bore sway in South Britain; 
the second from Branodunum (Brandon in Suffolk) to the Portus 
Adurni (Shoreham in Sussex); the third had charge of the Roman 
Walls in the north. The soldiers of the Borders, called Limitanei, 
held lands upon condition of military service, which approached 
the feudal tenures of the Middle Ages, and appear to have been 
adopted as the basis of the defensive system of the Empire. The 
duty of bearing arms was inseparably connected with the property, 
and descended from father to son. Again, territories were ceded 
to the barbarian Laeti (Lueti-leod) on similar conditions. Vandals, 
Marcomanni, and Quadi were settled in Britain. We find Thrac- 
ians at Maglona (Machynlleth) and Moors at Aballaba (Appleby); 
elsewhere Batavians, Dalmatians, Spaniards, and even Syrian and 
Taifalic cavalry, " The ' Guests ' of the Romans lived apart from 
the other inhabitants in distinct communities, owing obedience to 
their own chieftains, themselves subordinate to the general military 
administration of the Empire." {Palgrave, p. JSS-) 

Thus was the island held in subjection, in the districts 
traversed by the great roads constructed by the soldiery, the strata 
viarum, still denominated ' Ystrad ' in Wales; and the Sarnau or 
causeways, bearing the name of Helena, wife of Maximus, who 
in Welsh tradition becomes the daughter of Euddav or Octavius of 
Segontium (Caernarvon). On the other hand, the flower of the 
Kymric youth was drafted abroad to serve in foreign countries, 
according to the wise plan which avoided blunders analogous to 
the English employment of Hindu sepoys in their native country. 
The Notitia Dignitatum utriusque Imperii, the official blue-book of 
the Empire, marks regiments of Britons serving in Illyricum, in 
Thebais, and (if I mistake not) at Petra in Arabia. Something of 
the Laetic infeoffment remained among the Kymry; for we are 

The Kymry under the Roman Empire. 69 

told by Howel Dda, that the king reserved the mountains and 
forests as waste lands, that he might be enabled to receive foreign 
exiles as his liegemen. 

The Britons long retained traces of Roman discipline. When 
the Imperial troops finally left Britain, A.D. 418, they left samplers 

of managing arms to guide the wretched pro- 

4. Roman tactics , ... , A , r r 

. . , vincials, as they bade them farewell for ever. 

[Gildas, Hut. XIV.) At the battle of Cerdic- 

esora, A.D. 514, the British leaders marshalled their troops finely 

4 according to the rules of war/ says Huntingdon; they displayed 

skill and caution; and as the rays of the rising sun smote on their 

golden shields (another relic of Gallic ostentation), they struck 

terror into the Saxons. Again, A.D. 556, this writer, who appears 

possessed of authentic information, notices the array of the Britons 

in nine lines, and the archers, pikemen, and cavalry disposed ' by 

Roman ordinance;' again, A.D. 577, at Derham; again in 591 the 

Britons won a battle by their Roman tactics. 

At the battle of Pen, A.D. 658, the inherent fault of the 
Kelts betrays itself; they lacked the persistency, the bulldog courage 
of the Angles, " and their energy melted away like snow." It 
had been remarked in the old Gauls, how their bodies and weapons 
were huge, their charge beyond men, their endurance less than 
that of women; how that their Alpine frames had something akin 
to the snows, they melted in the heat of an engagement. (Mortis 
I. ij, II. 4.) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle remarks how the 
Welsh, their twelve divisions notwithstanding, fled from the Angles 
'like fire.' In A.D. 617 Redwald king of the East Angles obtained 
the victory over Aethelfrid of Northumbria by aid of tactics pro- 
bably derived from the Romano-British. In the time of Giraldus 
we may still detect the threefold order of combatants, thus summed 
up in a single luminous sentence of Gibbon; "The cavalry of 
Armorica, the spearmen of Gwent, and the archers of Merioneth 
were equally formidable; but their poverty could seldom procure 
either shields or helmets." {Bed. and Fall, ch. XXXVIII) 

The orator Eumenius confessed that the province of Britain 

"jo The Kymry under the Roman Empire. 

well deserved to become the seat of an independent monarchy 

{Panegyrici Veteres V. 12); and the successful 

0. The British rebellion of at least six pretenders may justify 
Emperors; faint tra- 

ditions of them Nennius s reference to the purpura Britanniae. 

During ten years (A.D. 287 97) Carausius the 
Menapian and his minister Allectus defied the power of Rome; the 
former was even reluctantly acknowledged by Dioclesian. The 
Flavian dynasty was intimately connected with Britain. A tradition 
of Pagan Rome lingered in the legend, that Constantius (A.D. 306) 
sowed three seeds in the pavement of Kair Segeint (Silchester) to 
charm away poverty. {Nennius) He passes with the Welsh as 
wedded to a British princess, Helena the mother of Constantine 
the great. But the balance of probabilities weighs in favour of 
Naissus in Dacia as his birthplace, and degrades her into an inn- 
keeper's daughter of Drepanum in Bithynia. Her merits as the 
zealous patroness of the Catholic faith and inventress of the Holy 
Cross would naturally enlist warm advocates of her noble birth; 
anyhow, her son assumed the purple in Britain, and his name was 
long cherished by the Kymry, as a proverbial ideal of worth. 
' Constantine was not his equal ' (Ni ryvu gystal Gwstennin ac ev), 
a late Welsh bard would say of his patron. [Davydd Benvras to 
Llywelyn ab lorwerth) A Custennhin, grandson of Idwal prince 
of Wales, occurs in A.D. 979; and I am tempted to regard the 
title of Gw/edig, so common in British history, as the Kymric 
rendering of the grade of Spectabilis established by Constantine. 
The title of Augustus was retained by Awst a chieftain of Breck- 
nockshire. The Pendragon represented to the Kymry the title of 
Impcrator, and was probably connected with the dragons that 
waved in gold and silk about the throne of the later emperors. 
The golden dragon of Eryri is sung of by Kynddelw; and it would 
appear that red and yellow were the colours affected by the Welsh 
and Irish. (Iolo Goch.) A golden dragon was the ensign of the 
kings of Wessex {Henry of Huntingdon), borrowed, I doubt not, 
from the partly Romanized Britons; for the true Saxon ensign was 
the white horse. Who knows not the White Horse of Wantage ? 

The Kymry under the Roman Empire. 71 

But the principal figure in the imperial history of Britain is 
Maximus, an Iberian by birth, called by the Welsh Macsen Wledig, 
who assumed the purple, A.D. 385, in emulation of his more 
successful countryman Theodosius the great. Orosius says of him, 
he was worthy of being Augustus, had he not been elevated in 
violation of his military oath. (Beda I. g.) Many Welsh princes 
and Saints long afterwards claimed to be his descendants. To 
establish his position, it was necessary to secure the adhesion of 
Gaul and Spain, which with Britain then formed the Praetorian 
Praefecture of the Gauls. He fixed his seat at Treves, where he 
disgraced his fame by sentencing heretics to death against the 
reclamations of Pope Simplicius and of SS. Ambrose and Martin. 
His withdrawal of troops from Britain (according to the practice 
before alluded to) was the direct cause of the disasters that ensued. 
If he granted them beneficiary lands from the Mount of Jupiter 
(the Great St. Bernard) to Cantguic (Etaples in Picardy), as 
Nennius says (c. 2j) } we may understand why none of them 
returned home. Among their chiefs was Conan Meriadec of Wales, 
the legendary spouse of S. Ursula. He first commenced the 
Kymric settlement in Armorica, and his granite sepulchre still 
exists in the grand cathedral of S. Pol-de-Leon. In A.D. 388 
Maximus tried conclusions with Theodosius, when his invasion of 
Italy proved his ruin. If his consort Helena was a daughter of a 
Kymric chief Euddav or Octavius of Segontium (Caernarvon), and 
if his line was prolonged in the princes of Strathclyde, we need 
not be surprized at the absence, in Welsh tradition, of the sinister 
features of treachery and craft assigned him by the Romans, which 
yet accord with his Iberian origin. In less than twenty years his 
example was followed by the British soldiery in the election of 
Marcus as Emperor; then of Gratianus, one of the municipal 
magistrates ( u municeps tyrannus." Beda I. c. 11) lastly, of 
Constantine; who, drawn from the lowest grade of soldiers and 
unsupported by merit, owed his elevation to the hope inspired by 
his name. Like Maximus, he ruled over Gaul and Spain, was 
acknowledged by the legitimate emperors, and finally perished as a 

72 The Kymry under the Roman Empire. 

rebel. If Dr. Owen Pughe is correct in identifying him with 

Cystennin the Blessed, the son of Cynvor, to whom a church is 

dedicated near Conway, it may teach us caution in accepting 

traditions coloured by national prejudices. His own name, as well 

as those of his sons the Caesars Constans and Julian, point to his 

foreign origin or Latinized stock; and it is singular that the 

countrymen of Carausius the Menapian and Maximus the Iberian, 

I mean the Flemings of Gower and Pembroke and the Basque 

auxiliaries of Edward the First, were precisely the people employed 

to harass the Kymry, with whom they were unconsciously connected. 

[See Appendix No. IX.] 

In the year 411 a revolution, unparalleled in the annals of the 

Empire, took place in Britain and Armorica. It appears accurately 

stated in the words of the Greek historian 

6. Revolution Zosimus: "The barbarians above the Rhine 
of Britain and 

Armorica ( t ^ Le Saxons) forced the dwellers in the British 

isle and certain of the Keltic tribes to revolt 

from the Roman empire, expelling the Roman commanders, and 

setting up a government of their own, as they were able. The 

emperor Honorius wrote to the British cities, charging them to 

provide for themselves." {Lib. VI. pp. 376, 381.) The Welsh 

Triads supply some valuable help towards explaining this event. 

One of them calls it a resumption of the sovereignty from the 

Roman emperor according to the natural right of the Kymry. 

Another connects it with their refusal to pay their assessment 

(' tribute ' they call it !) in consequence of the Roman government 

drafting off the men best capable of military service to " Arabia 

and other distant countries, whence they never returned." This 

was strictly in accord with their practice in former times; but the 

Triads insinuate that the Roman authorities accepted the levies in 

lieu of arrears of assessments. The merit of this revolution is 

attributed by the Kymry to Owain or Eugenius the son of Macsen 

Wledig, that is, the emperor Maximus; who is, with Prydain and 

Caradoc, styled one of the three Conventional Monarchs of Britain, 

because their authority was conferred on them by a national 

The Kymry tinder the Roman Empire. j$ 

convention of the Kymry. This fact also is in harmony with the 
picture supplied to us by the pen of Tacitus; and clearly indicates 
a conscious return to the old Keltic tradition of an oligarchy of 
petty chieftains, controlled in time of peril by an elected Pendragon 
or military Imperator. But when the Kymry pretend that the 
Roman conscription was so drastic, that " only women and little 
children were left behind," we must regret a spirit of exaggeration, 
which only tends to discredit the noble resistance offered by their 
countrymen to the Saxon invaders of Britain. Nennius states that 
after Maximus "began Consuls, and never after were there Caesars;" 
by which is meant that the magistrates of the poleis or communi- 
ties, which Honorius urged to fight for themselves, thenceforth bore 
sway independently of the Emperor. But he takes no notice of 
Constantine the Blessed (the lucky private soldier elected Emperor), 
because, perhaps, his memory was merged in the more striking 
figure of Maximus; and he is, moreover, classed with Gwrddyled 
and Morien as one of the three foreign sovereigns of Britain. 

The principal nations, who poured down from the north on 

the feeble Roman empire, had many of them held commercial 

relations with the Romans or even served as 

. nvasi no e aux jii ar i es m their armies. Many German 
Barbarians. J 

tribes had received Luetic feuds as a gage for 

their military service. The Burgundians and Visigoths in particular 
were so reasonable in their exactions, that the Roman provincials, 
oppressed by fiscal rapine, eagerly welcomed a change of masters. 
They were long accustomed to the presence of the barbarians on 
their soil. But the natives of Britain, while they derived precar- 
ious benefit from the Roman government, knew the Saxons only 
as cruel pirates, to whom it was a pastime to cleave the blue sea 
with their hide-bound barks. [Sidonius Apollinaris; Gibbon c. 
XXV.) Their depredations were so continuous and formidable, 
that we have seen how a chief military officer was in charge 
of the Saxon shore or frontier. During one hundred and sixty five 
years, from the time of Carausius to the settlement of Hengist 
(A.D. 284 449), the ravages of these pirates were unceasing; nor 

74 The Kymry under the Roman Empire. 

were they mitigated by any conversions to Christianity. Although 
the Britons were courageous enough to assert their independence of 
the tottering Empire, they were fain to invoke succour from the 
masters they despised. About A.D. 400, they were relieved by the 
illustrious Stilicho; and even five years after their revolt the 
Romans aided them in repairing the Wall of Severus after the 
usual mode of construction, left them plans of military tactics, and 
bade them a last farewell. (Gildas, c. 14.) 

The Saxon Chronicle naively expresses the vexation of the 
pirates in missing their loot: "The Romans amassed all the gold- 
hoard that was in Britain; and some they hid in the earth, that 
sithence no man might find it." We may justly estimate the 
estrangement effected between Rome and her late provincials, as 
well as the weakness of the former, by the fact that thirty years 
later (A.D. 446) the Britons, pressed by the onset of the Picts of 
North Britain, applied in vain for succour to the Patrician Aetius. 
Their land " was left as a tree in the wilderness to lose her leaves 
by the continual blasts of these sharp northern winds." (Speed, 
Chronicle, p. i8g.) 



The year following, A.D. 449, proved the most fatal to the 
independence of the Kymry; for it witnessed the grant of Ynys 
Rhuothim (the Isle of Thanet) as a feudal 
tenure to Hengist the pirate, the Ealdorman of 
the Jutes, by Vortigern (Gwrtheym) the Loegr- 
ian Pendragon or Imperator of the Britons. This was done in 
pursuance of Roman policy to engage the valorous strangers as 
auxiliaries against the Picts. Vortigern has been consigned to 
eternal infamy by his countrymen as their betrayer; and his conduct 
attributed to his passion for Rowena the fair-haired daughter of the 
Teuton. But I find no just ground for the severest censure. He 
was guilty of a fatal blunder rather than of treachery. His sons 
Vortimer and Catigern fell in defence of their country. Nor is it 
likely that he invited the Saxons over from Germany {Gildas c. 2J; 
Bcda I. 15; and the Saxon Chronicle); for Sidonius long before 
calls them 'arch-pirates.' {fyp- L. VIII. 6.) Nennius points to 
three chiulac (keels, ships) exiled from their home, say, on an 
expedition of plunder. They came not to return; and were re- 
inforced by Jutes from Jutland, Angles from Sleswick, Frisians, 
Rugians, Danes, Huns, old Saxons, Prussians. (/ithelwcrd, L. I. 
Bede, V. g.) These barbarians soon turned their arms against 
their employer; and in A.D. 457 forced the Britons to abandon 
Kent and fall back on the city of London. In further mitigation 
of the wretched Vortigern's conduct, I must remark that " he was. 
while he reigned, urged by fear of the Picts and Scots, by Romanic 
attacks " (an obscure hint of the existence of an Imperial party in 
Britain), " and by apprehension of Ambrosius " (Emrys Wledig), 

76 The heroic Age and Decline of tlie Kymry. 

the sole remaining Count or Teyrn of Roman origin. {Compare 
Gildas c. 25, and Nennius cc. 28, 45) We hear no more of 
Hengist: but Gibbon regards the invasion of Scotland by Saxon 
hordes at his instigation and the subsequent silence of English 
history about them, as a proof that the Saxons were not always 
successful. But Nennius distinctly says that they occupied much 
land beyond the Frisic sea, " between us and the Scots." (c. j8.) 
If so, may we not fairly conjecture that they rendered the Lothians 
Teutonic, as we find later on that Cunedda (Kenneth) came from 
that district called by the British Manaii Gnotodin, and expelled 
the Scots or Gael (Gwyddelod) from North Wales with vast 
slaughter, so that they never returned to dwell there ? It argues 
great vitality and courage in the Loegrian Britons, that as each 
successive wave of fierce barbarians burst on their shores, they 
offered a gallant, if hopeless, resistance. From the silence of the 
Saxon chronicle as to Aella's victory at the battle of Mearcredes- 
burn in Sussex, A.D. 485, Langhorne infers the signal success of 
the Pendragon Ambrosius Aurelius; who, perhaps more truly than 
Arthur, was the pride of the Britons {Gildas c. 25. Nennius c. 
45), and who (Cardinal Baronius imagines) continued in his person 
the legitimate succession of the Empire of the West. But Aella 
soon (A.D. 490) repaired his defeat by the capture of Caer-andred 
(Anderida) and the ruthless extermination of its inhabitants; which 
Huntingdon admits to have been owing to the losses the Saxons 
had suffered at the hands of the defenders of that noble city. 
{p. 710.) In opposing the landing of a fresh horde at Llongborth 
(Portsmouth), A.D. 501, was slain the Duke of the Province, 
Gerontius son of Urbinus (Geraint ab Erbin), whose loss the poet 
Llywarch deplored, and whom the invaders themselves record as ' a 
young and very noble man.' Seven years later, A.D. 508, Cerdic 
the West-Saxon slew in battle the British Pendragon or ' chiefest 
king,' as Huntingdon terms him, Natan-leod, whom some at chrono- 
logical risks suppose to have been Ambrosius Aurelius. Eight 
years pass, and Cerdic meets with a more puissant foe in the 
illustrious Arthur, who by his success in the battle of Mount 

The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry. 77 

Badon (Bath) delayed the westward advance of the Saxons for sixty 
years. Yet the battle of Chardford (A.D. 519) marks the establish- 
ment of the kingdom of Wessex (Saxon Chron.); and the Welsh 
traditions concerning Arthur invariably represent him as exercising 
authority in Wales, Cornwall, and Cumbria, with Maelgwn, Caradoc, 
and Gwrthmwl as ' chief elders,' and Dewy, Bedwini, and Kenti- 
gern as ' primates,' in Church and State. Arthur, the Map Uthyr 
or ' the terrible,' was in fact the son of Meuruc son of Theodoric 
of Tintern, prince of the Silures. The traditions of the Empire 
converted the British Pendragon into 'the Emperor Arthur;' and 
the fact of Riothamus (Rhi-tavwys, ' prince of the Thames ') having 
sailed up the Loire with 12,000 Britons of either Britain or 
Armorica and been quartered at Bourges in the pay of the Emperor 
Anthemius to oppose the Visigoths (Sidonius Apollinaris, Epp. L. 
III. p), may have helped the fiction of his warlike advance in 
Italy. But the judicious William of Malmesbury allows that 
Arthur clearly deserved to be celebrated by veracious History rather 
than by dreamy fictions, seeing he had long supported his falling 
country and animated the unbroken courage of his people. (Gail. 
Malmes. f. 4.) We may, perhaps, accept as authentic his success 
in twelve battles fought against the Saxons in the west and the 
Angles in the north, and his death in that of Camlann (Camelford) 
in Cornwall against his treacherous nephew Medrawd or Mordred, 
A.D. 537. Some of the localities of these engagements, such as 
the banks of the Duglas and the Ribble in Lancashire, the bank of 
the Bassas and the forest of Galtres (Coit Celidon) in Yorkshire, 
mark the advance of the Angles, of whom we learn so much less 
than of the Saxons. Between the death of Arthur and of the 
historian Gildas (A.D. 537 570) the Kymry were mis-ruled by 
sundry petty princes, consigned to execration in the invectives of 
Gildas, with what amount of justice we cannot ascertain. He 
enumerates Constantine teym of Dumnonia (Devon), Aurelius 
Conanus, Vortipor of Demetia, Cunoglasus, and Maglocunus of 
North Wales. Cunoglasus would in the Pictish speech be Kond- 
glas, in the Welsh Pen-glas, ' the gray head.' (Baxter.) Con- 

7 8 The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry. 

stantine was, probably, Cystennin Gornau. Maglocunus was the 

Maelgwn Gwynedd, who perished by the yellow plague described 

by his contemporary Procopius, and whose last long sleep at 

Llanrhos by Conway became proverbial, as ' Hir hun Wailgun en 

lis Ros.' {Annates Kambriae.) His name is preserved in Britanny 

by the Chateau Tremelgon near Vannes. Ten years after Arthur's 

death the Britons of the north were still waging internecine war 

against Ida the Angle, called by them the Flame-bearer (Fflam- 

ddwyn). The fortifying of his stronghold of Bamborough was a 

reproach to them, Din-gwarth Berneich, ' the reproach of Bernicia.' 

They fought under Urien and his sons Owain, Gwallawc, and 

Morcant; and their struggle was ennobled by the song of Taliesin 

and Llywarch. 

The long continued resistance offered by the Kymry to the 

barbarians awoke in them the heroic spirit, which had of old 

sustained their efforts against the Romans. 

&. xtevival oi Unlike the more civilized invaders on the 
heroism: the Arthur- 
ian legend continent, the Saxon pirates offered no terms 

but serfdom or death. At first Armorica 
invited a multitude of fugitives from Britain; the greatest Exodus 
thither occurred perhaps about A.D. 458, when the Saxons over- 
ran Loegria from sea to sea. (Gildas c. 24.) Afterwards the 
Kymry seem to have with varying success contested every foot of 
territory. As a consequence of the exalted temper wrought by a 
supreme effort in defence of life and freedom, we notice an out- 
burst of poetry in the imperilled nation; it is now we are told 
flourished at the same time Talhaearn, Aneurin, Taliesin, Blegrwyd, 
and Cian Gueinthguaut; the last now unknown, unless the Bretons 
retain his memory as Guench'lan. Now too began that marvellous 
legend which gathered around Arthur and his knights, and was 
improved by Norman ingenuity into a very Iliad of Keltic heroism. 
Foremost of them is Sir Lancelot; his name L'ancelot or the 
servant of the king seems a translation of Mael-gwn, and he some- 
times figures as Melwas king of Somerset, who abducted Queen 
Guenevere. In the Seint Greal his Norman name remains as 

The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry. 79 

Lawmlot Dy lac. His son Sir Galahad or Galaath was the grandson 
of a fabulous King Pellenor, ennobled by Milton where he sings of 
11 knights of Logres and of Lyonness, Lancelot and Peleas and 
Pellenore." {Paradise Regained) If Lancelot is intended for 
Maelgwn, an historic son of the latter existed in Romanus the Fair 
(Rhuvon Bevr), noted for his beauty, who fell in battle and was 
buried on the brink of the sea; of whom Howel ab Owain 
Gwynedd sang, Tonn wen orewyn a orwlych bedd, Gwyddva 
Rhuvon Bevr ben-teyrnedd ; "The white foaming wave moistens 
the grave, the barrow of Romanus the Fair, chief of princes." 
Mannot is the fabled realm of Lancelot's father King Bann; a 
mountain, in Merioneth still bears the name. 

Caradawg Vreichvras, of the brawny arm, prince of Cornwall, 
was Arthur's chief cavalry officer: he is the 'Sir Caradec' of 
romance, and claimed by the Bretons as their own Guaroch count 
of Vannes. Trystan ab Tallwch figures in romance as ' Sir Tris- 
tram,' the lover of Esyllt (Yseult); but enjoys a fairer reputation 
in the Welsh traditions. Kei ap Kynyr or ' Sir Kaye ' and 
Bedwyr ab Pedrog or ' Sir Bedivere ' were by the Normans trans- 
ferred to Maine and Anjou. (Villcmarquc, Les Romans de la Table 
Ronde.) Gwalchmai the golden-tongued was Arthur's nephew and 
herald: he is the 'Sir Walwayne,' whose gigantic skeleton drew 
forth the admiration of a later age. Owain ab Urien or ' Sir 
Gawayn ' justified the fictions of romance by his brave defence of 
his country. The poetic merit of Llywarch surpasses the interest 
inspired by ' Sir Lamorack.' Garwy son of Geraint ab Erbin is 
the courteous knight 'Sir Gareth;' Llew ab Kynvarch, the 'King 
Lot' of romance; Merddin Emrys, the ' barz Marzin ' of Britanny, 
is the powerful enchanter Merlin. But the most congenial char- 
acter is the knight of the red tabard, Peredur Gymro ab Evrawg, 
' Marchog y cwnsallt coch,' the genuine Kymro ' Sir Perceval.' If 
he met with a church, his mother enjoined him to say his prayers. 
If, where he found meat and drink, no one invited him to partake, 
he was to help himself. If he heard a voice of one in distress, he 
was to give heed to it. If he found a fine diamond, he was to 

So The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry. 

take and make a present of it. If he saw a pretty woman, he 
was to address her without waiting permission. The fall of Arthur 
by domestic treachery and the lack of heroic men in the following 
centuries caused the Britons to deplore the breaking up of his 
noble fellowship or Round Table, and to hope for their national 
hero's return on earth to secure a victory which his successors 
could not achieve. 

We have already noticed the gradual process by which the 

ancient Loegria became Engla-land, the Angles' land. I resume 

the subject, as it helps to invalidate the notion 

3. Long- resistance that the g axon or English occupation of the 

of the Kymry and 

its effects island was speedy or complete. It was over a 

century and twenty years after the conquest of 
Kent, when the Britons lost Aylesbury and Eynsham. In A.D. 
577 they lost Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath, when three kings, 
Conmail, Condidan, and Farinmail fell, supposed to be Maelgwn 
Gwynedd, Cynddylan, and Caranmael, sung of by Llywarch. But 
Maelgwn died A.D. 547 of the yellow plague; and the two last 
must have fallen when the Angles won Shrewsbury. They may 
have fought at Derham. In 607 Ethelfrith took Chester, defeating 
Selyv ab Kynan, when the massacre of the* monks of Bangor-Iscoed 
took place. In 614, 2065 Wala or Welshmen were slain at 
Bampton in Somerset; a proof that there they were still numerous. 
In 72 t Rhodri Malwynawc won a battle against the Saxons at Heilin 
or Hayle in Cornwall. Probably he was regarded by the Loegrian 
Britons of West Wales as the Imperator. In 760 they fought at 
Hereford. In 777 the princes of Powis were finally driven from 
Shrewsbury, which they must have recovered after the fall of 
Cynddylan: and Offa thereupon constructed his dike, the last 
attempt at the Roman system of fortified boundaries, and won the 
land east of the Wye. It was only in 816, that the Saxons 
ravaged the mountains of Eryri. Caer Ebrauc (York) was not 
taken till 866; Strathclyde in Scotland, not till 946; but a Keltic 
prince Dwnwallawn (Donald) still ruled there till" 974. The result 
of this prolonged struggle was a feeling of mutually intense 

The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry. 8 1 

animosity, which even Saints could not overcome. When Beuno 
the Kymro fell in with a Saxon on the Severn-side, he quickly 
withdrew from the neighbourhood of 4 the man of uncouth speech ' 
(Y gwr anghyvieith); and Guthlac the Angle's fears were allayed 
when he discovered that the British brigands in the marshes of 
Crowland were after all only devils, not men. (Sanctora/e Catholi- 
cnm.) And I regret to notice that in A.D. 959 Owain son of 
Howel the Good broke up the choir of S. Iltute's, because he 
found therein certain scholars of the Saxon nobility. 

It is generally supposed that the Saxon invaders blotted out 

the very outlines of the Keltic settlement in Loegria, leaving 

material ruins alone to witness to the Past. 

4. Permanence of But not to dwell on the purely British nomen- 

the Keltic race in 1 ^ c !* n r 

, " ~j *~ clature of many localities, especially of rivers 

England and Scot- ' . 

land. an d mountains, and the impossibility of the 

strangers' adopting it without long intervals of 
peaceful intercourse with the dispossessed race, it must be borne in 
mind that the Saxons were Germans, and must have acted in 
Loegria, as they did in Germany, towards vanquished foes. The 
serfs were not reduced to perform their lords' menial work, as 
among the ostensibly more civilized Romans. But the masters 
enjoined a certain quantity of corn or cattle or clothing; and the 
serf to that extent obeyed. It was rarely that they beat or 
imprisoned the serfs. When they slew them, the act proceeded 
from a sudden impulse of anger, not from designed severity: but 
the death of a serf went unpunished. {Tacitus, Germania, c. 25.) 
To exterminate the Britons would not have profited their con- 
querors; and it is reasonable to believe that the miserable remnant 
which failed to escape from Loegria was spared. 

To illustrate the position in detail: the Life of S. Collenn 
gives the Kymric name of Rhysffa Cadvarch to the Torr of 
Glastonbury; and Asser calls Selwood Forest Coet-maur. The 
Cambrian Saints Kynngar, Keinwen, Tangwn, and Nwython be- 
came the patrons of Congresbury, Keynsham, Taunton, and Hart- 
land. King Alfred as a pilgrim invoked S. Guerir of Cornwall to 

Si The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry. 

cure his headache; King Athelstane enriched the abbey of Middleton 
in Dorset with the relics of S. Branwalator (Bran-gwaladr, ' royal 
chief), an ancient Loegrian bishop, invoked as a Saint in the old 
Litany of Exeter. British bandits infested the Fen-country; and 
perhaps Morial carried off fifteen hundred head of cattle from 
before Lincoln: "Y rhag Caer-lwydcoed neu's dug Morial pymthec- 
cant biiyn a phen Gwrial ? " Professor Phillips has remarked in 
mid-England and south-Yorkshire populations of short slim size, 
with round head, dark eyes and hair. {Massy, Analyt. Ethnology, 
p. 45.) According to Owen Pughe, S. Rhawin was buried at 
Lincoln; SS. Samson and Dirynnig had churches dedicated to them 
at York. S. Eoglodius (Hy-glod) was abbat of Iona, A.D. 606 
{Ferrari)-, and Eadwin king of Northumbria was baptized by Rhun 
map Urbgen in 626, say the Annales Kambriae. S. Evan occurs 
at Irvine in Scotland, A.D. 839 {Memorials of Ancient British 
Piety)-, later on, Iwen abbat of Furness. {Ms. Cotton. Vitellius A. 
8.) A.D. 1 199, Griffin the Welshman and Matilda his wife 
engage in a plea with Robert Fitz Ywenn about some land in 
Warwickshire. {Hardy, Rotnli de Finibns.) In the same year 
Robert Oein sues Gumbaud in Essex. {Palgrave, Rotnli Curiae 
Regis.) Next year Iorverd, Ithel, Osbert and Arkeim, Madoc and 
Morgan Philipp, sons of /ago the presbyter, pay King John 10 
marks, that no one trouble them but in the King's presence. 
{Hardy)) This was done in Lancashire, and is very remarkable, 
in that we see here a British married priest settled in England 
and protected by the King against the rigour of the Canon Law. 
A.D. 1 2 14, Angereta daughter of Res (Angharad verch Rhys) 
agreed with King John for 60 marks and two palfreys for leave to 
marry whom she pleased. This was in Dorset or Somerset. 
{Ibid). A.D. 1250, Seysil Gogh and Perewera his wife pay Henry 
the Third a mark for an' assize of novel disseizin in Herefordshire. 
{Roberts, Fines) Four years later Uctred (Uchdryd) De Depedene 
in Suffolk and Esilia (Esyllt) his wife pay the King a mark for a 
brief. {Ibid.) A.D. 1255, Robert Yweyn and others pay 40 
shillings in a suit touching land in Worcestershire. {Ibid.) Four 

The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry. 83 

years later John De Sainct Oweyn and Jane his wife in Oxford- 
shire pay a mark for a brief. (Ibid.) These facts form but a 
slender induction to ground a theory upon; but, in connexion with 
other considerations already supplied, they deserve attention. 

The Kymry acted in accordance with the universal tendency 
of the Keltic race, when they split up into a petty clan-organization, 
incapable of development into a durable com- 
monwealth. This passion for a mischievous 
pakties. r 

Home Rule rendered them more liable to 

absorption by an encroaching foe. The tradition of a lord para- 
mount or generalissimo was preserved in Kambria, and the powers 
were exercised in general by the princes of Venedotia, Gwynedd, 
or North Wales. I append the succession of these rulers as a 
tribute to the permanent vitality of the Kymry. The figures 
denote the death of each prince. 

A.D. 560, Maelgwn Gwynedd. 586, Rhun. 599, Beli. 603, 
Iago. 630, Cadvan. 660, Cadwallon. 686, Cadwaladyr. 698, Ivor 
son of Alan of Armorica. 720, Idwal Iwrch. 755, Rhodri Mael- 
wynog. 817, Kynon Tindaethwy. 843, Mervyn Vrych king of 
the Isle of Man, who acceded in right of his wife Esyllt daughter 
of Kynon. 877, Rhodri Mawr. 913, Anarawd. 944, Idwal Voel. 
950, Hywel Dda. 967, Iago. 973, Hywel. 984, Cadwallon. 985, 
Maredudd ap Ywein. 999, Kynan. 1015, Aeddan. 1020, Llyw- 
elyn vab Seisyll. 1031, Iago. 1061. Gruffydd ab Llywelyn. 1137, 
Gruffydd ab Kynan. 1169, Owain Gwynedd. 11 72, Hywel ab 
Owain. 1192, Davydd ab Owain. 1240, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth. 
1246, Davydd ab Llywelyn. 1282, Llywelyn ab Gruffydd. 

The next in importance of these principalities would seem to 
be Deheubarth or South Wales, when its chief the Lord of Dinevor 
was able to maintain his paramount authority over the chieftains 
of Keredigiawn (Cardiganshire), Brycheiniawg, Elvael, and Glamor- 
gan. But the last long prospered under a succession of Morgans, 
renowned for their liberality, prudence, and longevity. The most 
eminent of the South Wallian princes was Rhys ab Tewdwr, A.D. 
1090, who, called upon to occupy the throne after a long period of 

84 The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry. 

exile in Armorica, is said to have introduced into Wales the 
romantic literature then rising into notice on the continent. His 
grandson, commonly called the Lord Rhys, though he did homage 
to Henry II. and even acted as his Justiciary, did not by his 
policy secure for his sons immunity from the encroachments of the 
Normans and the rapacity of the Suzerain. For, independently of 
the conquest of the rich district of Kemmeys by Martin De Tours, 
we find Henry III. granting to a Norman his castles of Caermar- 
then and Cardigan and the lands which were Meilgon filz Meilgon's, 
grandson of Rhys. {Roberts, Fines; A.D. 1250) The chief of 
Demetia (Dyved) anciently bore the singular but euphonious title 
of Pendaran Dyved ' the thunder chief of Demetia.' In A.D. 808 
an Irish prince Rein appears to have been recognized. Gwent 
(now Monmouthshire) is chiefly illustrated by the heroism of 
Arthur grandson of Theodoric of Tintern and the Roman magnifi- 
cence of Caerleon. It had its chief Madoc ab Iddon as late as 
A.D. 1187. 

The men of the principality of Powis (now Central Wales) 
enjoyed the first rank in warfare, because of their constant exposure 
to the attacks of the Angles and of their being so far the " van- 
guard of liberty." But their princes seem to have earlier become 
vassals of the English monarch: Owain Kyveiliog is known by his 
poem on the Hirlas horn, imitated by Gray; his son Gwenwynwyn 
became the feudal subject of King John. {A.D. 1208. Ms. Harl. 
86.) The seat of these princes was at Caer-Pengwern (Shrewsbury) 
in the sixth century, when Kynddylan fell, whose death the aged 
Llywarch so pathetically deplores. Perhaps the Vale Royal of 
Cheshire, then called Deyrnllwg, formed a part of their dominion, 
where Cadell occurs in the fifth century. At the same period we 
dimly discern Cadrod in Calchvynydd, a district among the 
Cotswolds; who may have retained a precarious independence, 
as well as Elidyr Mwynvawr (Heliodorus the munificent) in Lanca- 
shire. The gallant little principality of Elmet near Leeds, 
encircled by the Angles, only yielded in A.D. 616, under its chief 

The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry. 85 

Cornwall, the most important state after Wales, was less 
successful in maintaining its freedom. One of its sovereigns 
Dwrngarth was drowned, A.D. 875; half a century later its bishop 
Cunan represented it at the court of Athelstane. Elystan Glod- 
rydd, a godson of that able monarch, enjoyed a dependent domain 
in Herefordshire. The once powerful states of Bernicia and Deira 
(Bryneich a Deivyr) melted before the Angles; we have no records 
of their struggles, save the names of three brothers, warriors as 
well as bards, who wreaked vengeance on the traitors of their 
nation; and the British name of Bamborough intimates the disgrace 
of Bernicia. But the Britons in Scotland and Cumbria offered a 
more vigorous resistance. The state of Strathclyde, whose centre 
was Dunbarton (Dinbrython) or Caer-Alclwyd, enjoyed a long 
existence from the time of Rhydderch Hael down to that of 
Dwnwallawn, who went to Rome, A.D. 974. We cannot now 
determine the exact position or extent of the states of Rheged and 
Mannau Gododin; but they were the scenes of Kymric prowess 
and temerity, as we learn from Llywarch. It was still possible in 
his time for the defeated warriors of the north to fall back on 
Kambria, the last hope of the Britons: but the conquest of Chester 
by the Angles broke up the solidarity of the Kymry (Cumberland 
and Westmoreland). Still we find Westmere represented at Athel- 
stane's court by its petty king Idwal in A.D. 931, and Galloway 
(as detached from Strath-clyde), by Iago. The king of Strathclyde 
(as we have seen) was Dwnwallawn, A.D. 974. The last Kymric 
king of Westirere was Dunmail (Dyvnwal, Donald.) The Isle of 
Man had a Kymric king Howel, A.D. 825; its king Mervyn had 
acceded to the throne of. Gwynedd, A.D. 817. The Pictish 
population in Scotland is involved in great obscurity: but I enter- 
tain the opinion that they were the remnant of the ancient tribes 
in the North, who had remained pagans and had never been 
subjugated by the Romans. Gwendoleu map Keidiau about A.D. 
573 seems to have been opposed to the Christian king of Strath- 
clyde; and Aidan map Gavran, A.D. 607, is execrated by the 
Kymry as a traitor to their cause. The names of the Pictish 

86 The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry. 

kings, such as Ougen (Owain), Talargan (Tal-arian), and Eochod 
Buidhe, are Kymric and Gaelic. 

The Kymry seem to have felt the prestige that attached to 

the possession of London, the principal seat of their more civilized 

Loegrian brethren even before the Roman con- 

6. Their dependence quest t h a t, whenever a vigorous ruler 
on the 
Crown of London appeared among the Saxon monarchs, we find 

him asserting his supreme authority over the 

Kymry, and that claim admitted when moderately enforced. Thus, 

in A.D. 926, Athelstane confirms a peace with his subject kings 

Huwal of West Wales (Howel the Good), Constantine of Scotland, 

and Uwen of Gwent. {Saxon Chronicle.) Five years later, Huwal 

and Eugenius (Owain), together with Juthwal (Idwal) of Cumbria, 

Morcant of South Wales, and Cunan bishop of Cornwall, witness a 

grant of land by Athelstane in Berkshire, where they evidently 

had been paying court to the Bretwalda, the Saxon successor of 

the Imperator and Pendragon of old. [Chronicon Abingdon^* 

In A.D. 963 Eadgar exacted a tribute of wolves' heads of Iago king 

of North Wales; an admirable expedient, if successful ! But instead 

of an extirpation of those ferocious animals, we read that upon an 

engagement of the Normans and Welsh in Gower, A.D. 1136, the 

bodies were horribly mangled and devoured by wolves in the open 

country. (Continnator of Florence of Worcester.) And in A.D. 

1 28 1 Edward the First enjoined the taking of wolves in the 

counties bordering on Wales. (Rymer, Foedera.) Malcolm king 

of Scots and Rhys prince of Demetia did homage at Woodstock to 

Henry the Second, A.D. 1163. (Matth. Paris.) Later on, A.D. 

1 1 79, Cadwallon prince of Elvael, a district on the upper course of 

the Wye, was slain on his return from doing homage to Henry, 

who severely avenged his death as an affront on his safe-conduct. 

* Gibbon falls into a singular error, when he describes these princes as " four 
British lords of Somersetshire . . . honourably distinguished in the court of a Saxon 
monarch." Dec/, and Fall, &c. C,a/>. XXXVIII.; quoting Carte ; Hist, of Engl. Vol. 
I. p. 278. 

The heroic Age and Decline of the Kymry. 87 

Many were hung for the cruel deed, and others suspected were 
compelled to hide in the woods. "The Welsh may mutually 
comfort one another on the death of one of them receiving funeral 
rites, sad to the English and hateful to the Normans, in the death 
of many marchers," observes the sarcastic Londoner Radulf De 
Diceto. Henry the Third, weak as he appears in his foreign 
relations, showed exceptional vigour in his dealings with the Welsh. 
He grants seizin of land in Merioneth through his Justitiary of 
Chester (A.D. 1242. Roberts, 1242).); and the Prince of North 
Wales pleads that he had received an outlaw, Fouques De Breaute, 
" only a day," but adds with dignity, " Not that we are bound to 
excuse ourselves in receiving him and his; for we have no less 
liberty than the King of Scotland, who receives English outlaws 
with impunity." (A.D. 1224. Ellis's Letters of Henry III) 

The Anglo-Norman monarch not only bore sway from the 

Scottish border to the Pyrenees, but was also strong in the physical 

appliances of warfare, and dealt with more 

7. The Castles, durable engines of subjugation than the Kymry 
the State engine of could successfu n y resist . A single dark line 

subjugation in 

Wales. m tne Chronicle of the Princes reveals that 

terrible engine of Feudalism, which worked 

their downfall: "The Franks" (for so they styled the Normans), 

" came to Demetia and Ceredigion, and strengthened the castles." 

(A.D. 1091.) Roger earl of Clare, A.D. 1157, stored the castles of 

Ystrat Meuruc, Aber Dyvi, Dinevor, and Rystut (Aberystwyth). 

When Henry III. was worsted by the Welsh at Grosmont, he left 

Poitevin routt'ers, those criminal soldiers of fortune, in the castles 

of Wales. (A.D. I2jj. Roger of Wendover.) A little later, he 

attacked them near Gannoc Castle (Dyganwy), near Conway; 

" which is a thorn in the eye of the Welsh," charitably observes 

that very English monk Matthew Paris. (A.D. 1245.) These 

strongholds, which secured the infiltration of alien elements, had 

nearly done their work, when Edmund Crouchback, King Edward 

I.'s brother, began to build the castle of Aberystwyth. (A.D. 

1277. Brut y Tywysogion.) 



The Annals of the Kymric Princes in the later middle age afford 

little to instruct or entertain the reader, save the spectacle of an 

heroic struggle of a declining and antiquated 

1. .Notes on tne race ma tched with foes of equal bravery and 
Welsh Princes: the . . 

Llewelvns superior military science. But " the Llewelyns 

displayed qualities which only needed larger 

room to render their names immortal." (M. Valroger) I would 

notice that they were, by matrimonial alliances and increasing 

social affinities, on the way to be absorbed in the feudal hierarchy 

of England, before the policy of Edward demanded a more 

immediate control of his feudatories in Scotland and Wales. And 

I have little doubt that the Welsh princes would have been 

mediatized, after the fashion we are familiar with in Germany, had 

they loved inglorious ease more than freedom. While Owain of 

Gwynedd asserted his independence in the mountains of Eryri, 

Rhys of South Wales was proud to be nominated the Justitiary of 

Henry II., and Gwenwynwyn of Powis became the liegeman of 

King John. Howel, the gallant eldest son of Owain by an Irish 

lady, who united some skill in military engineering with a true 

poetic feeling and cultivation, soon gave way to the intrigues of 

his wretched brother David, who seems to have copied his 

connexion King John to the extent of blinding his unfortunate 

prisoners. For he had been fain to marry Dame Emma, an 

illegitimate daughter of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, by 

a woman of Maine, " with the hope of so enjoying his possessions 

in peace." {Benedict. Petriburgens. Brut y Tywysogion.) He 

held the lordship of Ellesmere as a fief of Henry II. since A.D. 

The later Welsh Princes. 89 

1 177; but it was only by extreme instance that he with difficulty 

obtained the hand of the haughty Norman's base sister ! (Radulf 

De Diceto) A curious difficulty occurs about the end of this 

unworthy Kymro. For the Chronicle of Aberconwy states that he 

was strangled at Aber by his nephew and successor Llewelyn I. in 

A.D. 1 190: while that of Strata Florida avers that being banished 

from Wales he died in England, A.D. 1203. Probably at Elles- 

mere. For I regard the latter as the truer version of facts; seeing 

that King John did not bestow that lordship on his son-in-law 

Llewelyn till April 16, A.D. 1204. (Rymer, Foedera.) It is a 

matter of just astonishment to observe how minutely the great 

Popes of that period exercised their right of supervision over the 

Western Church. Innocent the Third, who could at the same 

time regulate the affairs of Iceland and enjoin Thermopylae and 

Thebes (A.D. 1208) to pay tithes, would direct the abbat of 

Aberconwy and the prior of Enlli to confirm in his name the 

espousals of Llewelyn to the daughter of the Prince of the Isles 

(Sodor and Mann), who had been espoused before nubile years to 

her father's brother; an evil incident, lately renewed in Italy under 

Papal sanction. {Epistolae Innocentii, A.D. upp 120J.) It does 

not appear that Llewelyn also 'confirmed' those espousals; for we 

soon after find him married to King John's base daughter Joanna, 

termed ' Domina Walliae ' {Annals of Tewkesbury), probably from 

the same motive that swayed his uncle, the hope of greater security 

and the agreeable dowry of the Lordship of Ellesmere. The 

inconstant dame's intrigue with a prisoner of her husband, the 

Lord William De Braus, provoked Llewelyn to take summary 

vengeance. For on May 2nd, A.D. 1230, De Braus was "hung 

on a tree, and that not secretly or by night, but openly and in 

broad day, before eight hundred men and more, summoned to that 

miserable spectacle." (Sir Henry Ellis, Royal Letters, Henry III.) 

But her light conduct did not prevent Llewelyn from founding the 

priory of Pen-mon to do honour to her last resting-place. He 

died after her in A.D. 1240, "of long-continued palsy" (Matthew 

Paris), after a successful reign of fifty years. His two daughters 

9<D The later Welsh Princes. 

connect the Welsh reigning family with some interesting historic 
characters. Helen the eldest married John Le Scot, Earl of 
Chester, whose three sisters were the mothers of the three claim- 
ants of the Scottish crown, John Balliol, Robert Bruce, and Henry 
Hastyng. On his death, A.D. 1237, not without suspicion of 
poison, Helen married his uncle or cousin Robert De Quincy, Earl 
of Winchester; "at which," we are told, "Llewelyn was indignant." 
{Annates de Dunstaple) Whether because of the nearness of 
connexion, or from suspicion of their misconduct, or that the lady 
presumed to dispense with his permission, I know not. His 
younger daughter Gladusa married Roger De Mortimer, Earl of 
March, and became the mother of the unhappy paramour of Queen 
Isabella. His grandson Llewelyn ab Gruffydd is, on the whole, the 
most interesting of the Princes of Wales. His connexion with the 
monastic hero Simon De Montfort, Earl of Leicester; his romantic 
attachment to his affianced bride Eleanor De Montfort (herself a 
niece of Henry III.); his happy marriage to her at Worcester in 
the presence of the kings of England and Scotland, A.D. 1277 
(Chromcon Joan. De Oxencdes); his bravery and patriotism; the 
interest he inspired in his people and even in foreigners (the 
Annals of Dunstable call him " a most handsome man and stout 
in war, who had all the Welsh as it were glued to him"); all 
make us regret that he at last fell a victim to the settled policy 
of Edward the First, aided (it must be granted) by the restless 
temper of the Kymry. It was ' the malice of the Welsh,' that is, 
their stubborn resistance to the feudal system of Edward I., that 
reduced that able Prince to borrow money to subdue them. {Ayloffe, 
Rotidi Walh'ae.) What accelerated the bitter end was the atrocious 
conduct of David, the Prince's brother; who came suddenly on the 
castle of Pen-harddlech (now Hawarden) and slew all the garrison, 
save Roger De Clifford the lord of the castle and another. (A.D. 
1281, 2. Brut y Tywysogion. Annates de Wigom) The just 
prejudices of the Catholic Church and of Feudalism were outraged 
by this act; in that it was perpetrated on Palm-Sunday; and 
because the King had granted David the earldom of Huntingdon, 

The later Welsh Princes. 9 1 

held heretofore by the Heir to the crown of Scotland; thereby 
placing him in the first rank of the English peerage. But, 
happily for the Kymry, this foul fact is balanced by the humane 
conduct of two South-Welsh chiefs, Gruffydd and Rhys, who the 
year following took and burnt the castle of Aberystwyth, " sparing 
the lives of the garrison, because of Passion-tide that was nigh." 
(Brut y Tywysogion.) The gallant Llewelyn perished by mis- 
adventure of a soldier in Brecknockshire on December the nth, 
A.D. 1282. A white monk (Cistercian) sang mass before him the 
very day he was slain, thus sealing the loyalty of that order to 
their native sovereign. (Archbishop Peckham to Edward I. apud 
A'v/ncr.) His maimed and lacerated corpse was buried in the abbey 
of Cwmhir (Bartholomew Cotton) ; while his comely head was 
crowned with ivy and exposed to the jeers of a London rabble. 
The King's chief instrument in the conquest of Snowdonia (Llew- 
elyn, recognising its strategic importance, had assumed the style of 
1 Lord of Snawdune '), were seven thousand Basques (themselves 
unconscious kinsmen of the Kymry !), sent him by the King of 
Spain, "who nearly all perished in battle." (Chronicon dc Hagncby; 
Ms. Cotton. Vesp. B. XI.) Some however returned home under 
the conduct of Sanchez De S. Aubin. (March II % 1283. Ayloffe.) 
"After Llywelyn's death, his brother David, hoping that he himself 
would be de jure Prince of Wales, convened his parliament of 
Welshmen at Kynbergha, and renewed the war." (Chronicon de 
Me/sa.) The locality, thus expressed in a Lincolnshire chronicle, 
would be Kymmer abbey in Merioneth. For we find that on 
June 17, A.D. 1284, David was taken prisoner in the castle of 
Bere, described as a place almost inaccessible by reason of woods 
and morasses. (Annals of Oseiuy.) This is Castell-ybyri, whose 
weird ruins, half of hollowed rock and half of masonry, still lurk 
in the recesses of Cadair Idris. The hapless ' Earl of Huntingdon ' 
was drawn and hung at Shrewsbury as a rebel against the honour 
of the Church and of Chivalry, October 2, 1284. At that date, 
the Chronicle of Hagneby in Lincolnshire (from which I gather 
the facts) observes, that " David's younger son Reginald, grandson 

92 The later Welsh Princes. 

of the Lord Reginald De Gray, abides with him." His daughter, 
whom Edward II. styles ' the lady Gladusa daughter of David late 
Prince of Wales,' was a nun of Sempringham, and received alms 
(alas !) from that king, who (whatever were his errors) was kindly 
disposed towards the Kymry. (A.D. IJIJ. Ms. Cotton. Nero C. 
8.) Gwenllian, the daughter of Llewelyn, was also a nun of 
Sempringham, and a pensioner of Edward III. out of the revenue 
of Lincolnshire. (Oct. JO, 1327. Rymer.) Her mother Eleanor 
De Montfort had fortunately died before the final catastrophe. 
(June 19, 1282. Barth. Cotton?) Ten years later, Madoc, a base 
son of Llewelyn (I presume), but " who had made himself Prince 
of Wales," was finally defeated at Maesmeidoc; and, to avoid his 
uncle David's fate, came with his retinue into the King's peace, 
was brought to London, and consigned to perpetual imprisonment, 
(Aug. 10, 1295. Annates de Wigorn. Nicholas Trivet)) Again 
King Edward from Aberconwy thanks his good seamen of Bayonne 
for their services, that is to say, of Iberians against their Keltic 
kinsmen.* He marked his sense of the importance of his successes 
by a grand tournament held at the remote hamlet of Nevyn, by a 
solemn pilgrimage to Menevia, and by a harmless bit of ritual 
(betraying however his inner mind), when at Baladeulyn he enjoined 
the Canons of Llangatauc to wear purple almuces in honour of S. 
Maurice and " in memory of the departed, who were slaughtered 
like sheep in Ystrad Teivi." (June 10, 1284. Ms. Harl: 6568) 
" From that time," observes the shrewd Annalist of Oseney by 
Oxford, " war long ceased in Wales: the Welsh now live almost 
like the English, and amass treasures, fearing the loss of property, 
what they used not to do before." But the politic monarch took 
care to secure his conquest by ecclesiastical as well as municipal 
colonies of foreigners, protected as a dominant institution by those 
regal Castles, which now excite admiration by their ruins, as they 
formerly inspired terror. After two centuries and a half had past, 

* Letttes de Rots. Pierre De Langtoft in his rude French notices the service 
of the Basques and Gascons ' en Snaudouns.') 

The later Welsh Princes. 93 

44 Lord Clifford never saw any place more princely and pleasant 
than Conway, save Windsor Castle." [Nov. 7, 1635. Calendar of 
State Papers) After five centuries, Caernarvon Castle surpassed 
Dr. Johnson's ideas; he did not think there had been such build- 
ings: he pronounces it 44 an edifice of stupendous magnitude and 
strength." {Aug. 20, 1774. Diary in North Wales.) Little 
inferior was the picturesque Castle of Harlech. In remote times 
called Caer-collwyn, it was the scene where Bran sate on the rock 
on a summer's evening and descried on the blue horizon the bark 
that brought evil tidings from Erin. The names of its earliest 
Constables, Hugh De Wlonkeslowe and James De S. George {A.D. 
1284, I2QD. Aylojfc), betray its political purpose. Its greatest 
Constable was Sir Walter Manny, Knight of the Garter, A.D. 
1332; it sheltered Queen Margaret of Anjou, and was the last in 
Wales that surrendered to the Parliament, A.D. 1647, {Whitc- 

The innate valour of the Kymry was henceforth utilised by 
the English King against his fojs in France and Scotland. Edward 
II. orders a contingent of 1400 foot from North Wales for his 
army against the Scots; the proportion furnished by Merioneth and 
Ardudwy being 300, and by Dyffryn Clwyd 200. {A.D. IJ09. 
A'ymcr, Foedcra) Again in A.D. 1325, he orders 7 men at arms 
and 274 footmen from North Wales to assemble at Bala, to be 
thence conveyed by way of Salop and Portsmouth to serve the 
King in Gascony. {Ibid) At the battle of Crecy the light-armed 
Welsh and Cornish were employed in plundering and despatching 
the fallen knights encumbered by their heavy armour. Even a 
claimant of the inheritance of Llewelyn appeared at the French 
court, known as Yvain de Galles, Evan or Owain of Wales, a 
descendant of the last Prince. He was employed by the French 
king, but was basely murdered by an English retainer, who was 
rewarded for the act by the Black Prince to his eternal disgrace. 
{Froissart. Pymer, Foedcra. Sept. 18, A.D. Ij8l) Another 
famous Welshman of that period was the Chevalier Rufin (Gruff- 
ydd), who ravaged France between the Loire and Seine as Captain 

94 The later Welsh Princes. 

of a Free Company of marauders. {Ibid.) Few, perhaps, are 
aware that the English Company of Enguerrand De Coucy, defeated 
by the Swiss on January 13, 1376, at Buttisholz, was commanded 
by Ieuan ap Einion; whom an old song of the period styles 
1 Hertzog Yffo von Callis mit sim guldinen hut,' the chief Evan of 
Wales with his golden hat. {Tschudi.) EnguerranI was a son- 
in-law of Edward III. and held fiefs in Wales, which explains his 
having a Welsh lieutenant. I find another Cambrian Thomas 
Ellis, ' marshal of the English ' in the service of Venice, signing a 
treaty to appease an affray between them and the Italians in the 
harbour of Chioggia, on Feb. 4th, 1380. (Cal. of State Papers, 
Venetian Series). 

But far beyond the sparse records of these adventurers is the 
fame of Owain of Glyndwvrdu, known to the world in the pages 

of Shakespeare. A law student, attached to 

2. Owen Glendonr. ., t -o- u a n u a u 

the person 01 Richard LI., he was driven by 

personal wrongs to attempt independence of the Crown of England 
worn by a usurper. The increasing superstition of the time would 
have it, that the rain, snow, and hail, Henry IV. suffered from in 
Wales in the autumn of 1402, were raised by magic art of Owen 
of Glendore. (Thomas Walsingham) But the ability and bravery 
displayed by him is beyond dispute. While a humble monk of S. 
Alban's wrote in the choir lines expressing the universal appre- 
hension, " Christe, Dei splendor, Tibi supplico, destrue Gleendor " 
(Annates Henrici IV. C.C.C. Cambr); the House of Commons 
long after his death, A.D. 1431, declared that his success would 
have been "to the destruction of all English tongue for evermore." 
When Owen ' by the grace of God Prince of Wales ' had com- 
missioned " at Doleguelli Master Griffin Yonge, Doctor of Decrees, 
our Chancellor, and John Hanmer, to treat about an alliance with 
the King of France, May 10, 1404;" Charles VI. on the 14th of 
July ensuing duly concluded a treaty, styling Owen " the magnifi- 
cent and powerful Owin Prince of Wales." (Rymer.) Troops 
were despatched to South Wales; but, owing to Owen's inability 
to afford them supplies, they were forced to return. Henry 

The later Welsh Princes. 95 

Hotspur of Northumberland, who in A.D. 1401 had defeated the 
Welsh by Cadair Idris ('/?' Catlierederys. 1 Ordinances of Privy 
Council), became his ally; and Edmund Mortimer, last Earl of 
March and Ulster, taken prisoner by Owen at Brynglas by 
Knighton, A.D. 1403, was wedded to his daughter. {Annals of 
Wtgmore) The family of Mortimer was already connected with 
the Welsh Princes: Edmund died in 1424, almost twenty years a 
prisoner in the castle of Trim in Ireland. (Wecver, Funeral 
Monuments.) The English Prince of Wales, Harry of Monmouth, 
far from being a mere boon-companion of a Falstaff, was busily 
employed over ten years in reducing the Welsh insurgents. Now 
he directs the siege of Harlech and Llanbadarn castles; now he 
signs an indenture for the surrender of Aberystwyth; again he 
pays the wages of sixty men at arms tarrying at Kymmer abbey 
and Bala. (A.D. 1402, 7, 12. Rymer. Nicolas, Ordinances of 
P.C.) On the decline of his fortune Owen retired to Hereford- 
shire, where he dwelt obscurely in shepherd's weeds, near his 
daughter Lady Scudamore, and died unmolested at Monnington-on- 
Wye, Sept. 20, 141 5. His manor of Glyndouvrdwy was granted 
by Henry VIII. to one Thomas Salter at the yearly rent of one 
red rose. (A.D. 1514. Cal. of State Pafiers.) But, although no 
attempt at independence again occurs, were the Kymry content 
with the Government imposed on them by force ? Edward III. 
complains to the Pope, that " the Church in Wales hath stubborn, 
wayward, and extravagant subjects, as well of English origin as 
Welsh." (A.D. 1328. Rymer) The Cymmort/ias or Kymric 
custom of mutual help and festivity became obnoxious from the 
insurrection of Glendower. Henry IV. ordained that it should not 
be suffered, as heretofore; nor minstrels, bards, rhymers, wasters, 
and other Welsh vagabonds (sic) be allowed to overcharge the 
country. (A.D. 1401. Rymer.) The politic object of Govern- 
ment is disclosed in an Order of Privy Council for the appre- 
hension of a monk that told chronicles at Comorthas and open 
gatherings to the stirring up of the people. (A.D. 1443. Nicolas) 



Having traced the vestiges of Keltic migrations on the continent 

of Europe, we may not omit noticing the presence of the Kymry 

abroad in their later and decaying state. We 

; ^ have seen how under the Empire thev contri- 
abroad. ... 

buted troops to the Imperial service in Egypt 

and Illyria. An uncertain tradition makes Lucius the first Christ- 
ian prince of the Britons the Apostle of Rhaetia or the Grisons. 
Pelagius or Morgan, the sturdy champion of the Free Will of 
Man to the detriment of the supernatural as implied by Revelation, 
became famous in Italy and Palestine. In the sixth century 
Wales and Armorica interchange their Saints. While SS. Samson 
archbishop of Dol, Cadoc the Wise abbat and bishop of Bennavenna, 
Gildas the historian ? Paul Aurelian bishop of Leon, Maelor of 
Arvon, Machutus (Mechell), Tysilio the chronicler (S. Suliac), were 
Cambro-Britons in Armorica; some of the founders of churches 
and monasteries in Wales came over from Britanny. Such were 
SS. Laudatus (Llawddad) abbat of Bardsey, Paternus bishop of 
Llanbadarn by Aberystwyth, Cadvan of Towyn, Iltutus of Lantwit, 
Tudwal of Lleyn, Mellon of Cardiff. S. Gudwal, the Patron of 
Ghent, " who first the Flemings taught " (Drayton, Poly-olbion 
XXIV.), was a Cadwal from Britain or Armorica. When S. 
Columban on Nov. 3rd, A.D. 603, subjects his monastery of 
Bobbio in North Italy to the See Apostolic, Cunochus (Kynog) a 
monk, Gurgarus (Gwrgar) " by birth a Briton," Domcialis a Scot, 
subscribe the document. (Monumenta Historiae Patriae I. Turin, 
1836) Marbod bishop of Rennes, a writer on Gems, was (if we 
may trust Pits) " a Cambro-Briton by birth, and surnamed Euanx." 

Welshmen on the Continent. 97 

Cuhclin, a Cambrian better known as Alexander of Wales, was 
present at the slaughter of S. Thomas of Canterbury, and wrote a 
Latin account of it. Possibly he was the Archdeacon of Anglesea, 
who interpreted in Wales for Archbishop Baldwin preaching the 
crusade, A.D. 1188. {Gtraldus Cambrensis.) The chiefs in Wales 
cut a poor figure at that juncture of supreme interest to Christen- 
dom. They assumed the cross and stayed at home. One of the 
princes of Powis, Morgan, stung by remorse for deeds of blood, 
actually reached Palestine, but died at Cyprus on his way home. 
{Brut y Tywysogi'on .) 

Wales, if not the Kymry, may boast of a Cardinal in the 
person of Thomas Jorze or George, called Gualensis, Chaplain to 
Edward I. and Card. Bishop of S. Sabina, who died at Grenoble, 
A.D. 1305, and was buried at Oxford. {Cave, Historia Ltttcraria.) 
The Welsh take part in the relations of England with the 
Continent. We find Sir John Trevnant in attendance on 
the regent of Gascony, A.D. 1442. {Bcckington Diary) When 
the English surrendered their fortresses to the French, A.D. 
1450, John Edwards was captain of I^a Roche Guyon, and 
Gryffyn Ddu ap Meredith of Regnieville-sur-le-mer. They 
behaved no worse than those great lords of Guienne, the 
Captal De Buch and the Souldich De l'Estrade. {Letters of Henry 
VI.) Philip Morgan bishop of Ely was Henry Vth's ambassador 
at the Council of Constance, A.D. 141 5. Sir Hugh Johnys of 
Landymor Castle in Gower, Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, had 
gone further afield, and had served five years " in the werris under 
John Palaeologus Emprowre of Constantinople," and was buried at 
Swansea, A.D. 1460? Nicholas Roberts, a knight of Rhodes, was 
an envoy to 'the Great Turk,' A.D. 1523. {Cat. of State Papers. 
Brewer.) Sir Edward Came of Glamorgan, descended from 
Ithel king of Gwent, the last Ambassador of England to the Holy- 
See, refused to return home, and died at Rome, A.D. 1561. Mary 
the Catholic or the Sanguinary ? afforded him scant supplies; for 
he complains he was so far in debt that the Roman merchants 
would be loth to trust him any further. {Aug. 2j, 1558. Cal. 


9 8 Welshmen on the Continent. 

of State Papers, Foreign?) Dr. John David Rhys, of the univer- 
sities of Oxford and Sienna, appears to have been equally versed 
in Welsh and Italian, and wrote on the grammar of both languages. 
Though a Roman Recusant, his love of his native land induced 
him to accept an invidious position at home. He died A.D. 1609. 
About the same time ' one Evans ' was " made Rector at Padua 
and graced extraordinarily." ( Winwood'* s State Papers; Jan. 26, 
1604.) But the most interesting of these expatriated Kymry is 
Owen Lewis of Malltraeth in Anglesea, sometime Archdeacon of 
Douai, Vicar General to S. Carlo Borromeo Archbishop of Milan, 
Nuncio in Switzerland of Pope Gregory XIV., Bishop of Cassano 
in the kingdom of Naples; who laid the foundations of the English 
colleges at Rome, Douai, and Rheims, and died A.D. 1595, having 
lived thirty six years in exile. {Ferdinando Ughclli, Italia Sacra) 
He was nearly being made Cardinal; but his favouring the 
succession of the King of Scots to the English Crown marred his 
chance, and the pious Caietan obtained the Hat. I observe with 
pain that the mean jealousy of their own countrymen (a grievous 
fault in the Welsh character !) crops up even at Rome: " Owen 
and the rest laugh at Cassano's being Cardinal." This was Thomas 
Owen, Head of the English College at Rome. The Bishop was 
succeeded as Vicar General at Milan by Griffith Roberts, known in 
Italy as Griffidio Rnberio. This worthy man, though an exile 
from Cambria for his attachment to the Roman Church, cherished 
a warm affection for the rude home of his forefathers. In the 
preface (beautiful as an exordium of Plato) to a Welsh grammar, 
published at Milan in 1567, he complains in limpid Kymraec of 
certain unpatriotic Welshmen, that " so soon as they see the 
Severn or the steeples of Shrewsbury, or hear an Englishman once 
say ' good morrow,' they forget their Welsh." Beautiful Italy had 
not weaned him from his first love. " Fair though this place be," 
he saith, " and pleasant to see the green leaves a shelter from the 
heat, and agreeable to hear this northerly breeze blowing beneath 
the vines to cheer us in this excessive heat that oppresses all men 
bred and born in so cold a land as Wales yet a Kymro's heart 

Welshmen on the Continent. 99 

warms not towards them as it would on the Dee side or in the 
low lying Vale of Clwyd, or many places I could name from 
Maenol Dewi to Holyhead in Mona." 

He longs " for many things found in Wales to pass away the 
time merrily whilst avoiding the heat of a long summer's day. If 
you would meditate or read alone, you might choose a fit place, 
however intense the heat, either in green bowers, or beside a 
running brook in a glen and greenwood, or in a blooming valley, 
or in a grove of birch or ash trees, or on a clear breezy mountain, 
or elsewhere away from the weariness bred by the warm weather. 
But about this city (Milan), there is nothing of the sort." 
Roberts's attachment to his country led him to warn one Roger 
Smythe not to set foot beyond the Alps ("this side the mountain") 
for. fear of imprisonment by the Inquisition, whose locks could not 
be picked easily. " The Holyhead men say, ' Blacksmith, apply 
thy work, or get thee hence.' " {May 28, 1596. Cal. of State 
Papers.) Elsewhere he says; " I could feel a glow within, and my 
heart bounding within my body of very joy, in hearing the 
utterance of the British tongue." {Dr. Owen Pughc, Dictionary, 
sub voce Cyrchncidiaw.'') Maurice Clennock, or of Clynnog, 
Bishop-designate of Bangor under Mary, became the first Rector of 
the English College at Rome about A.D. 1560, and was there 
" noted for his great partiality towards his own countrymen of 
Wales." {Anth. a Wood, Athcnae Oxonienses.) [See Appendix 
No. X.] Another Roman Catholic of note in his day must be 
noticed; John Jones, originally of Llanvaethlu in Anglesea, Arch- 
bishop Laud's chamberfellow at S. John's College in Oxford, in 
religion Father Leander a Sancto Martino of the Order of S. 
Benedict, who died President of the English Congregation, A.D. 
1636. Another Welshman, Augustine Llewelyn was 'Prefect of 
the Province of Canterbury,' A.D. 1685. {Gallia Christiana.) 

Most readers have been acquainted by Southey with the 

legend, related in the Triads, of Madoc ap 

. . JP Owain Gwynedd's having sailed westward in 
tion to America. ' 

quest of a new land, whence he never returned. 

ioo Welshmen on the Continent. 

It is traced to Cyneuric ap Grono and Gutyn Owain in 
Edward IVth's time, who yet have left no proofs to establish it; 
and is maintained by Humphrey Lloyd of Denbigh, Hakluyt. 
Purchas, and strenuously by Sir Thomas Herbert, Charles Ist's 
faithful attendant, whose family pride led him to glorify a collateral 
ancestor. He cites (I know not on what authority) the following 
words as used by presumed Cambrians in America: Gwrando, to 
hearken; Pengwyn, a white head; Gwyn-dowr, white water; Bar a, 
bread; Tat, father; Mam, mother; Bryd, time; Bn, a cow; Clugar, 
a heathcock; Llwynog, a fox; Wy, an egg; Calav, a quill; Trwyn, 
a nose; Nev, heaven. "None save detracting opinionatists," thinks 
the gallant knight, " can justly oppose such worthy proofs of what 
I wish were generally allowed of." {Travels, p. 222) Now, how- 
ever amusing Sir Thomas's confidence may appear, and although 
the late Mr. Thomas Stephens has produced a presumption of 
Madoc's death in his native land, it may be well to submit the 
following passages which tend to render the legend not absolutely 
incredible. Some nations of antiquity undertook voyages, which 
(if we regard their slender means of navigation) are simply 
marvellous. The Goths swept the seas from Scandinavia to 
Trebizond. The Saxons in their frail barks braved the ocean and 
sailed up the French rivers in search of plunder. Gavran is 
reported to have sailed with his faithful liegemen (teulu, gasindi, 
gweision bychain) in quest of the green isles of the ocean (Gwer- 
ddonau Llion). 

The Icelanders had a tradition of a country called by them 
Hvitramannaland edr Irland ed mykla, White-Man's-land or Great 
Ireland, placed west of Ireland, somewhat behind Vinland the 
Good, which Professor Raske proves to have been the modern 
States of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. The people were 
reported to Thorfmn Karlsefne, A.D. 1007-9, to wear white 
clothes and carry poles before them. Later on, A.D. 1029, Gudleif 
Gudlaugson was driven from Iceland to the southwest of Ireland to 
a strange land, where it seemed to them that the people spoke 
Irish. Lionel Wafer at the close of the sixteenth century describes 

Welshmen on the Continent. ioi 

the Indians of Darien as wearing long white gowns and bearing 
pikes. Their speech strongly reminded him of Gaelic and Irish. 
Some of them wore black gowns. The Abbe Emile Domenech 
thinks the Powhatan language, once spoken in Virginia, is of 
Keltic origin. In expression and harmony it is equal to Erse, 
Gaelic, and the Kymric. (Deserts of North America) But does 
the Abbe know these languages ? Further, Strabo tells us that 
the natives of the Tin-lands (ancient Cornwall) wore black cloaks 
and tunics reaching their feet, and walked with staves. S. Indrac- 
tus an Irish pilgrim bore a staff tipped with brass, after the Irish 
fashion. (Sanctoralc Catholic, p. 77.) Taking these facts together, 
I think we may fairly infer some intercourse of Kelts with the 
Western continent ages before Madoc or Columbus. Catlin believes 
the Mandans on the Missouri descended from Madoc and his 
adventurers, instancing their fair complexions, hazle eyes, and sweet 
expression. (Prichard, p. 400.) Ten-Broecke says the same of 
the Moqui in Colorado, and that they weave in the same manner 
as the people of Wales. (Schoolcraft.) " Their features," says 
Ives, " are strongly marked and homely, with an expression gener- 
ally bright and good-natured. Many of them have fair hair and 
blue eyes." (Bancroft, I. p. 530.) Ruxton says that the American 
trappers call them Welsh Indians. (Ibid, p. 528.) The Zuni 
Pueblos of New Mexico are thought to be of Welsh descent. 
Their cacique, an old man with clear dark-blue eyes told Mr. 
Cozzens a legend of a young Zuni warrior, who embarked in a 
canoe brilliant as crystal, and reached the Island of the Blessed 
with its eternal verdure; which certainly recalls the Hellenic golden 
cup of the Sun-god, the Elysian plain of Pindar, the Green Isles 
of the floods in the Triads, and Merlin's house of glass in Nennius 
and Ariosto. (Cozzens, Marvellous Country.) Schoolcraft traces 
certain characters common to Keltic and Virginian inscriptions. 
(/. /. 124.) And Georg Van Hoorne, accepting the legend of 
Madoc, sees him in a Virginian hero called Matec Ziinga. (III. 2.) 
In fine, there appears to have been a constant tradition kept 
up among seamen of a land in the far West, which the legend of 

102 Welshmen on the Continent. 

Madoc represented to the Kymry and that of S. Brandan to the 
Irish Kelts. "Thlyde [Lhuyd] the cunning mariner of all England" 
navigated a Bristol ship, A.D. 1480, in quest of the fabulous " isle 
of Brasylle in the West part of Ireland, sailed about for nine 
months, but found no island." {Itinerarium Willclmi Wyrcestre.) 
Eighteen years later, the Spanish ambassador writes from London, 
that " the people of Bristol have for the last seven years sent out 
light ships or caravels in search of the aforesaid isle according to 
the fancy of a Genoese." (Bergenroth) This was " Zuan Cabot, 
styled the great admiral." An Italian tells the Duke of Milan, 
that " these English run after him like mad people, so that he can 
enlist as many of them as he pleases, and a number of our own 
rogues besides." It was reported that Cabot " had discovered the 
Seven Cities on the western passage from England, the territory of 
the Grand Cham " or Khan of Tartary. 



The first notice we have of the early Christian missionaries to the 
Kymry relates that Hid, Kyndav, and Arwystli hen (or Aristobulus 

the elder priest ?) came over about A.D. 70, 
1. The early British wJth the blessed Brkn the father of Caractacus, 

who had become a Christian at Rome, Hid is 

said to have been an Israelite; and is the S. Lide of the Scilly 
isles. If S. Paul himself did not visit Britain, these Romans must 
have known the great Apostle; and Hid, as a Jew, would belong 
to the mission of S. Peter. A century later, Lleirwg, known 
as king Lucius, a prince of the Silures, is said to have sought 
help from Eleutherus bishop of Rome (y Pab Elidyr), who sent 
Damianus and Paganus (Dyvan a Phagan), Meduinus and Albanus 
(Mydwy ac Elvan), who taught the faith in Siluria and the isle of 
Avallon. (The Triads.) It was maintained in later times that 
the foundation of the See of Llandav was the fruit of their 
mission. There is no trace in Welsh tradition of the connexion 
of S. Joseph of Arimathea with Glastonbury. We have no details 
of the government and discipline of the Church in Britain in the 
Roman period; but may safely infer that it was in harmony with 
the rest of the Catholic Church, save that the personal discipline 
was more stringent, the government less developed, the endowment 
precarious or entirely wanting. In proof of the first point; not 
content with the ordinary Lent, they fasted the Apostles 1 Lent 
(Graiiys yr ebystyl) from Ascension Day to Whitsunday, Mary's 
Lent (Graiiys Meir) from the first to the fifteenth of August, and 
Elias his Lent (Graiiys Helias) from Martinmas to Christmas. 

104 Ecclesiastical Sketches. 

(Mus. Britannic. Addit. Mss. 14,912.) In proof of the second, 
they appear to have been shepherded by rcgionary bishops, that is, 
bishops who were not permanently attached to local sees. Thus, 
we find S. Gistlianus (Goeslan) bishop of Menevia before a see 
was established there; S. Maucannus (Meugant) bishop of or at 
Silchester; S. Branwalator (Brangwaladr) in Dorsetshire; S. Cadoc 
at Bennavenna; S. Dubricius (Dyvrig) at Kaergwair or Warwick. 
{Leland IV. 169.) On the other hand, it is probable that the 
more approved system prevailed among the Loegrian Britons, who 
had become more thoroughly Latinized. S. Theanus passes as the 
first bishop of London; and it is likely that the centres of Imperial 
government would receive a settled episcopal supervision. Thus, 
London, York, and Colchester were represented at the Council of 
Aries, A.D. 314, by Restitutus, Eborius, and Adelphius, attended 
by the priest Sacerdos and the deacon Arminius. The two first 
are known in Welsh as Rhystid and Ivor. The third name defies 
the efforts of Welsh scholars, who would appropriate him. I 
think it probable that Colchester, the Colonia Londinensium, being 
within the Littns Saxojiicum, was already but half Kymric; and 
that the Latin names belonged to Latinized Loegrians, while 
Arminius can only be the German Hermann. The martyrs under 
Dioclesian in Britain all belong to that class of Britons, such as 
Augulus bishop of London, Albanus and Amphibalus of Verulam, 
Julius and Aaron, Stephen and Socrates of Caerleon. Vodin and 
Gwythelin (Vitalianus) bishops of London were also, I conceive, 
Loegrians; as well as Eldad of Gloucester, known at Oxford as S. 
Aldate, and the hermit Abben of Chilswell by Oxford. In proof 
of my third point, it may suffice to mention, how the poverty of 
the British bishops compelled them to accept a subsidy from the 
emperor when they attended the Synod of Ariminum, A.D. 359; 
and the account given us of S. David and his monastery bears 
witness to a more than Apostolic poverty. {Sane tor ale Catholicnm. 
March J.) The Triads refer to David as chief bishop of Wales, 
Bedwini of Cornwall, and Kyndeyrn of British Scotland or Cumber- 
land in the larger sense; this account corresponds with the three 

Ecclesiastical Sketches. 105 

principal fragments of Kymric dominion, after the Saxons had 
broken up its solidarity. 

It has been too much the fashion to assume the absolute 

independence of the British church in respect to the See Apostolic 

(as all Antiquity styles Rome), because Augus- 

l. Its gradual t j nc f oun( j ft varied in a few trifling particulars 
subjection to the See . ___ , 

of Rome from the Western church on the continent. 

These related to mere discipline. If we accept 

the common view, we are forced to condemn the great and holy 

Pope Gregory as arrogating usurped rights, when he expressly 

leaves the British bishops to the correction of his emissary. But 

Gregory's disclaimer of universal dominion, as well as his known 

moderation, forbid the assumption. The Welsh bishops may have 

forgotten it, but the decrees of the Emperors subjected the West 

to the supervision of 'the Bishop of the Eternal City;' and the 

nature and extent of that supervision is marked by Gregory's own 

words, where, while assuming the parity of all bishops in general, 

he declares, that, when the decrees of Councils were violated, he 

knew not what bishop was not amenable to his supervision. But 

the British bishops would have risen above human nature, had 

they readily admitted the claims of a stranger, who came under 

the patronage of their country's bitterest foes. The Welsh custom 

of consecrating bishops on the festival of S. Peter's Chair (February 

22nd) seems to imply a recognition of the Roman Primacy, at 

least in its moderate form. If the bishop of Caerleon-on-Uske was 

obeyed as Metropolitan, he does not appear to have left a succession. 

The honorary title of Archbishop is a precarious circumstance. For 

W find Elvod of Bangor, who was instrumental in procuring 

conformity with Rome, A.D. 808, styled 'Archbishop of Gwynedd;' 

and Asser bishop of Sherborne, A.D. 906, ' Archbishop of the Isle 

of Britain.' {Brut y Tywysogion.) When Howel the Good went 

to Rome, A.D. 926, he was accompanied by the bishops of 

Menevia, Bangor, and Llandav. " The bishop of S. David," says 

Henry of Huntingdon {Lib. /.), " received the pallium from the 

Pope in our time, as it had been at Kairlegion; but he instantly 

106 Ecclesiastical Sketches. 

lost it." Such too was the fate of Festinianus of Dol: the sons of 
Zeruiah were too strong for them. Ivan had received it from 
Pope Gregory, A.D. 1076, but reserving due subjection to the 
church of Tours. The strong Norman will asserted itself; and 
Bernard was hallowed bishop of Menevia at Westminster, A.D. 
1 1 15, <( without leave or greeting of the clergy of the Kymry; and 
then the bishop of Dewy lost his privilege, and the bishop of 
Kent took it." {Brut y Tywysogion.) David, a venerable monk 
of the Scots' abbey of S. Alban at Mainz, " elected by the Prince 
of North Wales Gruffydd, the clergy, and people of Wales," was 
also consecrated bishop of Bangor, A.D. 11 20, at Westminster by 
the Norman archbishop {Continuator of Florence of Worcester); but 
the circumstances indicate some forbearance on the part of the 
suzerain King Henry I., probably induced by a show of firmness 
by the Kymry. Near seventy years later, archbishop Baldwin, in 
preaching the crusade, marked his spiritual conquest; for ''he sang 
in every cathedral church of Wales a mass in pontificals, and that 
was never seen before that time." (Trevt'sa, Foly-chroiticon.) As 
the English archbishop prevailed over the native clergy of Wales 
by might rather than right, we may not regret to find him super- 
seded by his master the Pope of Rome. For we have on record 
a few consecrations performed abroad either by the Pope or by his 
subaltern. Thus, Richard De Carew, known by the Welsh as ' yr 
Athraw Risiart o Gaer Ryw ' {Brut y Tywys.), was consecrated 
Bishop of S. David's at Rome by Pope Alexander IV., A.D. 1280. 
John Trevor Bishop of S. Asaph in the Roman Court, A.D. 1353. 
Llywelyn ap Madoc, nominated Bishop of S. Asaph by the Pope's 
bull, at Rome, A.D. 1357. {Le Neve, Fasti) Howel ap Grono, 
by Papal provision Bishop of Bangor, at Avignon, A.D. 1371, 
{Stubbs.) Edmund Bromfield, Bishop of Llandav, and John Trev- 
nant, of Hereford, at Rome, A.D. 1389. 

There is not the slightest indication that the Catholics of 
Wales ever opposed the tendency, not merely to 

e us &anct- i 10nour re ligiously, but to develope largely and to 
exaggerate the place and office of the Mother- 

Ecclesiastical Sketches. 107 

of-Gon and of His Saints in the Communion of Heaven and 
Earth. The worship of Mary sprang from the heated zeal bred 
by the early controversies relating to the Incarnation of the Son of 
God; and must have been even welcomed in an illiterate age, when 
few were inclined or qualified to pursue the purely intellectual 
disquisitions of S. Paul in his epistles. The pseudo-Aneurin 
proclaims Mary as ' the Royal Maiden born to lead us out of our 
hard captivity;' u Merch vrenhinawl a aned A'ndiig o'n dygn 
gaethiwed." A passage clear to any one conversant with Catholic 
Theology, but which from lack of that knowledge the late Mr. 
Stephens took to be a prophecy relating to Gwenllian daughter of 
the last Llewelyn, who died a Nun of Sempringham. A popular 
poem assigns Mary the rule of Purgatory, and sees her " over the 
cold mountain, with a halo round her head, securing a place 
between every soul and hell." (Satictorale Catholicum, sub voce 
Longtnus.) The Blessed Mother (Mam wenn) was known as ' yr 
Arglwyddes Vair,' the Lady Mary; a proof, I take it, of great 
antiquity of style, seeing the most ancient Church calendars never 
employ the titles of 'Saint' or 'Blessed.' With the Kymry, nuns 
were ' Morwynion gwynion Mair,' Mary's fair maidens (Pscudo- 
Taliesin); the pure fountain that burst from the hill-side was 
4 Ffynnon Vair,' Mary's well. Even the Immaculate Conception 
appears to have been admitted, in the sense of Wordsworth's " Our 
tainted nature's solitary boast," when it was said " Ni chavad 
arwydd pechawd na'i arlwybyr ami;" 'There was not found the 
mark of sin nor its trace on her.' {Owen Pnghc, Diet, snb voce 

Next to Mary, they venerated the archangel Michael and the 
apostle S. Peter. Their churches (Llanvair, Llanvihangel, Llan- 
bedr) abound in Wales; but we never find those of S. Paul or S. 
John; a fact deserving notice, as I think it tells against the notion 
of either the former's preaching ' in Britain or of a supposed 
connexion of the British church with that of Ephesus. Of the 
indigenous Saints, David and Winifred were the most popular as 
Dewi and Gwenvrewi; and Faith hardened into superstition, if, 

108 Ecclesiastical Sketches. 

indeed, bullocks were ever sacrificed to S. Beuno, or offerings 
made at the wells of Elian and the venerable Kynvran. (Cal. of 
State Papers, May JO, 158Q. Owen Pughe, Cambrian Biography) 
The veneration of relics of the Saints seems to have struck 
deep roots among the Kymry. In the Welsh Laws swearing on 
relics in lawsuits was of constant occurrence. 

4. The worship of The famous C roiz-neth or Croesnawdd, the 

Cross of protection, supposed to contain a 

portion of the Lord's Cross, and adorned with gold and gems, was 
solemnly borne before the Prince of Wales, as a palladium of 
national salvation. On Llewelyn's death, it was offered at West- 
minster abbey, April 30, T285; and Gavaston was made to swear 
on it not to return to England. {Annals of Waverley, Matthew 
of Westminster) S. David's miraculous handbell called Bangu 
was kept at Glascwm in Elvael in 11 88 (Girald. Cambrcnsis, Itin. 
I. 7); and the golden torques of S. Kanaucus (Kynog) at Dinevor. 
It was in four pieces, constructed of rings. No one durst swear 
falsely by it. {Ibid. I. 2.) The Bretons of Armorica evinced 
similar veneration for the hand-mill of S. Gildas and the bell of S. 
Paul of Leon. The undecaying hand of S. Oswald procured him 
the surname of Lamn-guin ' blessed ' or ' fair hand ' {Ncnnins) ; a 
solitary instance of Welsh regard for a Saxon saint, procured 
him by his relic, not by his virtues, as Sir Francis Palgrave 

Of all the customs of the mediaeval Church, none could have 
been more congenial to the Keltic nature than the institution, 
which gratified their curiosity under the respect- 
5. Pilgrimages. abJe sanction of Religion. And of all pilgrim- 
ages, that of Rome promised the most ample satisfaction. If in 
some respects it was injurious, it took the pilgrim out of his 
narrow surroundings at home, and ennobled his thoughts, to go 
" wandering and wondering among the ruins of ancient magnifi- 
cence." One bard asks, " Is there any season so spiritual as to be 
on the road, a course of great estimation, to the city of Rome 
teeming with population ? " 

Ecclesiastical Sketches. 109 

A oes hryd mor ysbrydawl 

A bod ar ffordd 

Tuedd cymmyredd mawr, 
Trev Ruvain tyrva ryvawr ? 

Meilir styles himself ' S. Peter's pilgrim ; ' Kynddelw dwells on the 
wondrous sight of Rome 

Caer Ruvain, ryvedd olygawd, 
Caer uchav, uchel ei devawd. 

Howel ab Rhys, a prince of Glamorgan went to Rome, A.D. 880, 
and died three days after, owing to the heat, at the age of 124 
years. Joseph bishop of Llandav died, A.D. 1043, at Aosta on 
pilgrimage to S. Peter. {Liber Landavcjisis.) The records of 
the English College at Rome notice Welsh pilgrims of all ranks 
in the reign of Henry VII.; among them, Dom John Conway, 
abbat of Bardsey, A.D. 1506. 

The pilgrimage to S. James of Compostella in Spain was so 
popular, that the Kymry gave the Milky Way the name of //jut 
S. /aim, ' S. James's Way.' The Provencals too called it Camiu 
dc St. Jacques. Henry VI. granted the owner of the good ship 
Mary of Pembroke in Wales leave to convey passengers to S. 
James of Galice, A.D. 1451 (Rymer)\ and William Wey found 
Welsh ships at Corunna, A.D. 1456. (/tiucrary.) The home 
pilgrimages were numerous and frequented. Two to Menevia (S. 
David's) made up for one to Rome. (Oivcu Pughc, Diet, sub voce 
Gordal.) Menevia could boast of royal pilgrims, Henry II. in 
1 1 73, and Edward I. with his queen Eleanor in 1284. (Brut y 
Tywysogiou. Auualcs Kambriac.) Leland remarks, " Greate pil- 
gremage and offering was a late to S. Armon " (Germanus) at 
Llanarmon in Yale (/tiucrary V.); the scene recently, not of 
' offering,' but of with-holding tithes. One of the looting class of 
Reformers notices that five or six hundred pilgrims offered, A.D. 
1538, to the image of Dervel Gadarn. (Elis Price, apud Sir 
//airy Ellis's Original Letters.) This was at Llanddervel near 
Bala. I regret to find in an old Ms. Kalendar ' the feast of the 

no Ecclesiustical Sketches. 

living Image,' Gwyl y Ddelw vyw, on Sept. 9th; which must have 

been a clumsy replica of some Italian Madonna, at Rhyw in Lleyn. 

[Browne Willis.) 

Whether it proceeded from a national repugnance to a tight 

discipline, which rendered the clergy more amenable to the Pope 

and his ally the English monarch, or from 

, c y some cause inherent in the Keltic nature, I 


know not; but the celibacy of clerks appears 

less strictly enforced in Wales and its sister land of Britanny. 

Maredudd son of the Lord Rhys, Archdeacon of Cardigan, was 

married, A.D. 1240. In the eleventh century Orscand bishop of 

Quimper was forced to alienate some of the property of his see to 

his brother the Count of Cornouailles for his license to take a 

wife. Again, when his said wife Onwen disdained to rise in church 

before the Countess Judith, the Bishop was obliged to give up 

Loc-Maria. \Morice, Lobinean) How detrimental to the Church 

such cases proved in a rude age may be seen by what we read of 

a church in Norfolk, which " the parsons had ever held from 

father to son to the parson that died last." {A.D. 1194. Palgrave, 

Rotuli Curiae) 

On no subject connected with religion is the feeling of 

moderns so estranged from that of their forefathers as on that of 

Monachism and the reason of its existence. 

7. The Welsh monks; ^ , , , ... u . . 

. . . . .. Enough has been written, however, to correct 

their patriotism. 

the fierce intolerance of the disciples of Cranmer 

and Calvin. I am here no further concerned than to point out 

the grounds, whereon in my judgment the ancient monks of Wales 

are entitled to the respect and sympathy of the Kymry. Though 

the faith of the moderns " has been reduced to a very few articles " 

(I employ the language of a Swiss Protestant in relation to their 

present pastors), yet most of the parishes in Wales recall the work 

and devotion of those holy men of old. Far different was the 

feeling which induced the old Kymry to call the Pleiades by the 

name of ' the congregation of Theodosius ' (Twrr Tewdws), who 

kept up their ceaseless vigil of prayer and praise in Glamorgan. 

Ecclesiastical Sketches. Hi 

That perpetual service of God day and night, first mentioned in 
the act of foundation of the abbey of S. Maurice in Switzerland 
about A.D. 603, was called by the Kymry Dyval gyvangan, and is 
stated to have been held at Ynys Avallon (Glastonbury), Caer- 
Caradawg (Old Sarum), and Bangor-is-coed. {Triads.) This Laus 
Percnnis therefore must have been earlier than the Swiss example, 
for the two first places were lost to the Britons at the date above 
mentioned. Next to their devotion, I will commend their patriot- 
ism. Never shall we find among them a vile traitor like Madoc 
Vin bishop of Bangor. Llewelyn ab Iorwerth escaped the English 
by the help of a Cistercian of Cwm-hir. The Abbat had to pay 
dearly for it to Henry III. to save his abbey from destruction. 
{Mattheiv Paris.) The same monk even misled the castellain of 
Montgomery and his men into a morass, where the Welsh 
despatched them with their lances. (Roger De Wendover) Two 
Welsh abbats, commissioned by the Pope in the cause of their 
prince David ab Llewelyn, had the audacity to summon Henry III. 
before them at Kerry in Wales (Carte, Hist, of England), A.D. 
1245. And seven abbats, those of Whitland, Strata Florida, 
Cwmhir, Strata Marcella, Aberconway, Kemer, and Vallis-Crucis, 
wrote A.D. 1274, t0 PP e Gregory X. not to trust the Bishop of 
S. Asaph, who tried to defame Lewelyn, Prince of Wales, their 
strenuous patron. (Red Book of S. Asaph: Hengwrt Mss.) 

The Cotton Ms. Titus C. X. gives the following order and 

filiation of the religious houses in Wales; with which I blend brief 

notices from other sources. In S. David's 

8. Origin and filia- diocese, 1. Blancheland, Alba Domus, Whit- 

, land, or Tygwyn-ar-Dav, an abbey in Howel 

Dda's time. S. Paulinus or Peulyn Hen was 

its first abbat; Rhydderch A.D. 11 80, Cadwgawn 12 10, Howel Seys 

1352. 2. Strata Florida or Ystrad Fflur, founded by Griffin ap 

Rhys. This abbey was in South Wales, what Aberconway was in 

North Wales, the burial-place of the Prince and the depositary of 

State charters. Its abbats were David A.D. 1180, Seisill 1188, 

Kedivor 1220, Joab 1260, Phylip Goch 1280, Einawn Seis, Rhisiart 

H2 Ecclesiastical Sketches. 

ap Griffith 1407. The Cistercian Menology of Henriquez gives us 
on Feb. 13 "blessed Wulfrid " (probably Griffith) "a monk of 
Strata Florida, endowed with prophetic gifts." 3. Cwm-hir in 
Radnorshire; Meurug abbat A.D. 1180. 4. Lanheir ? 5. Neath; 
Lleison abbat A.D. 1 513. 6. Margam; John de la Warre abbat 
A.D. 1253, David 1 5 13. 7. Talley or Tal-y-llychau in Caermar- 
thenshire. Its abbats were Iorwerth A.D. 12 15, Gruffin 1239, 
David ap Ieuan 1519. 8. Caermarthen. Its priors were Kadmor 
A.D. 1208, John Mathewe 1427, Griffin William 1524. 

Landav diocese: 1. Caerleon, an offshoot of Strata Florida. 2. 
Tintern, a daughter of Eleemosyna in France. 3. S. Kymmarch. 

4. Ewenny. S. Asaph diocese: 1. De la Pole or Welchpool, a 
daughter of Strata Florida. 2. De Valle Crucis or Llanegwestyl 
yn Ial, a daughter of Pole, founded by Madawc at Gruffydd 
Maelawr, 'an especial founder of monasteries.' [Brut y Tywysogion) 
Its abbats were David ap Iorwerth A.D. 1500, David ap Owen 
1504, David ap Bleddyn 15 18. 3. Basingwerke, a daughter of 
Buldewas, Salop; founded by Henry II. 4. Bangor-iscoed, of early 
British foundation. Its abbats were S. Dunawd in the time of 
Augustine of Canterbury, Nenna A.D. 1252, Owain 1256. 5. 
Strata Marcella in Montgomeryshire. Its abbats were Ithel A.D. 
1 1 80, Gruffydd n 90, John ap Rice 1529. 6. Rhuddlan; Anian 
prior A.D. 1267. Bangor diocese: 1. Insula Henlis, Ynys Enlli, or 
Bardsey island, an abbey in king Arthur's time. Its abbats were 

5. Laudatus or Llawddad of Armorica, Gervase ap David A.D. 
1377, David ap Meredith 1448, Robert Meredith 1464, John 
Conway 1506. A composition made on July nth, 1252, between 
the abbat and convent of Enlli on the one part and the secular 
Canons of Aberdaron on the other throws light on the Ritual 
carried out in remote Wales in the old times. For it appears that 
the former had given ' sacerdotal vestments, a silver chalice, and a 
missal ' to the church of Aberdaron, and engage to give ' a pound 
of incense ' yearly on S. John Baptist's day. {Ms. Harl. 6q6.) 
2. Aberconwy, founded by Llewelyn 1st, A.D. 1 198, and translated 
by Edward I. to Maenan near Llanrwst. Its last abbat Hugh 

Ecclesiastical Sketches. 1 1 3 

Price was buried at Saffron Walden in Essex, where Mr. William 
Cole saw his brass in 1747, vested in orfreyed cope with a pastoral 
staff. {Ms. Cole, Vol. 2*J. Weever } Funeral Monuments) 3. 
Kemmer in Merioneth, a daughter of Cwmhir, founded by Llew- 
elyn I., A.D. 1209. Its first abbat was Esau. Old Testament 
names seem to please the old Catholics as well as the Puritans. 
Thus we find Enos Mac Nessa bishop of Connor, A.D. 506, and 
Ooliba (Aholibah !) bishop of Angouleme in 892. Its last abbat 
Lewis Thomas was consecrated by Cranmer Suffragan Bishop of 
Shrewsbury; conformed under Mary, and held an ordination for 
Bonner at S. Paul's cathedral, March II, 1542; and died Rector of 
Llandwrog in Arvon under Elizabeth in 1560. {Mss. Harl. 6974, 
6955.) 4. Arbeln magh ? sic. Does it relate to Abermawddach or 
Barmouth and mean Egryn abbey? 5. Beddgelert or the Valley 
of blessed Mary of Snowdon, declared by bishop Anian to be M the 
oldest religious House of all Wales (except Bardsey the Isle of 
Saints), and of the best hospitality to English and Welsh travelling 
from England and West Wales to North Wales, and from Ireland 
and North Wales to England." [Rymer ad ami. Dom. 1286.) Its 
Priors were Madoc A.D. 1286, Lewelyn 1322, John de Leyn 1337, 
Ievan ap Bledhyn 1380, Mathew 1390, David Conway last Prior. 
6. Nevyn, whose prior in 1252 was William. 

There were other religious houses, but mostly alien and 
advanced posts of English domination, little connected with the 
Kymry. I will here cite only three, the priories of Llanvaes and 
Penmon or S. Seirioel of the Isle of Glannauc (called Priestholm) 
and the collegiate church of S. Cybi at Holyhead. The priories 
were founded by Llewelyn I. Llanvaes ruined in the Welsh wars 
was restored by Henry V., " considering that the bodies of the 
daughter of king John, of the son of a king of Denmark, of Lord 
De Clifford, and others slain in the Welsh wars, rest there." Two 
out of eight brethren were to be Welshmen, in order to procure 
food for their support. {Rymer ad aim. 1414) Priestholm had 
English Priors, Gervase de Bristol A.D. 1309, Thomas Trentham 

1413, William Whalley 1444, William Ardescote 1452, John Ingram 

114 Ecclesiastical Sketches. 

1468. Among the Provosts of Kaerkeby were Peter De Abyton 
in 131 2, Thomas de Feriby 1390, Richard Clifford 1394. The 
chief religious Orders known in Wales were Y Crevydd du, Black 
monks or Benedictines; Y Crevydd gwyn, White monks or Cis- 
tercians; Y Crevydd troednoeth, Barefooted freres or Franciscans; 
Crevydd Ieuan, Knights of S. John or Hospitallers; and Y myneich 
cochion, Red monks or Templars. The Hospitallers had land at 
Gwanas in Merioneth, A.D. 1285 (Aylqffe, Rotuli Walliae); Edward 
II. attached Templars in North and West- Wales, A.D. 1307. 

A steady policy of espionage and a perverse mis-use of Church 

Patronage was persistently kept up by the Suzerain Norman Kings 

to subdue the Kymry. They little recked of 

"V the ungodliness and indifference bred by this 


wicked policy. The Welsh princes seem to 

have incautiously helped it by their donations to aliens. For we 
find Haghmon abbey, for example, endowed with lands in Wales 
by three of them, one being Cadwaladr brother of Owen Gwynedd. 
(Dug-dale.) The bad practice grew from the right of conquest. 
Henry III. presents Lawrence de S. Martin to the church of Llan- 
badarn-vawr, " in the King's gift, by reason of his conquest of the 
lands of Maelgwn of South Wales." (A.D. 1246. Ms. Harl. 
6gs7) Master Eudo de Berkeley held the same church, A.D. 
1328. In 1361, William de Wykeham holds two prebends in the 
collegiate church of Abergwili. In 1368, William Goldwin is 
Archdeacon of Caermarthen. Richard II. is the chief offender in 
this business, as we might expect from his weak and arbitrary 
character. In his luckless reign we have Thomas de More parson 
of Tenby; Robert Hallam portionary of Clynnog-vawr; John Sloleye 
and Samuel de Wyk archdeacons of Merioneth; Thomas More 
treasurer of Abergwili; Henry Chichele parson of Llanvarchell ; 
John Innocent precentor of Abergwili; Robert Boleyne precentor of 
Landav; William de Hunden parson of Aber; and Thomas de la 
Feld parson of Llanrwst. Again, in 141 3, John de Bosco is parson 
of Llanrhaiadr, in Bangor diocese; in 1447, Thomas Boleyn pre- 
bendary of Abergwili; in 1452, Geoffrey Kemmer parson of Llan- 

Ecclesiastical Sketches. 1 1 5 

rwst; till the abuse culminates in the appointment of De Puebla 
the Spanish envoy to Henry VII. to the Archdeaconry of Llandaff. 
(A/ss. Harl.) The Kymry entertained little reverence for such 
intruders; we find, for example, A.D. 12 10, Robert of Shrewsbury 
bishop of Bangor taken in his church and ransomed for 200 hawks. 
This worthy had stolen S. Winifred's relics from Gwytherin to 
enrich the abbey-church of Shrewsbury. The last Welsh princes 
Llewelyn and David complained to the Pope, that the Archbishops 
of Canterbury sent among them English bishops ignorant of the 
customs and language of the Welsh, who could neither preach to 
the people nor hear their confessions, save through interpreters: 
charging them moreover with living luxuriously in England on 
the plunder of the Welsh sees, and like the Parthians discharging 
the arrows of excommunication while on flight and at a distance. 
The Holy See had no relief to afford them. Hildebrand and 
Innocent the third were at rest; and Innocent the fourth, of the 
Genoese banking firm of Cibo, looked after money. 

So enthusiastic a race as the Kymry could hardly be expected 
to behold unmoved the innovations, which swept away the pictur- 
esque religious observances of more than a 

10. The decline of thousand years. Nor again, bearing in mind 
Boman Catholicism 

in Wales tne cnurc h abuses above enumerated, could 

others fail to rejoice in the downfall of their 

alien pastors. Nor yet, when once embarked on the dangerous 

current of Reformation, could some fail to abhor a course, which, 

though prudent, savoured to them of cowardice and time-serving. 

Thus we find, that, although the Welsh generally accepted the 

changes wrought by the wire-pullers in London, the party of 

Recusants or Romanists refusing the tests imposed by the State, 

and that of root-and-branch Reform headed by John Ap-Henry, 

found room in Wales. No enthusiasm could be evoked by the 

cruel end of a Protestant bishop such as Ferrar of S. David's, who 

sacrilegiously sold the lead off the roof of his cathedral. The 

bishops of the Via Media or Anglican church were sarcastically 

told by Sir William Cecil, that " spiritual things were meetest for 

1 1 6 Ecclesiastical Sketches. 

spiritual men ; their preaching would move the tenants to run after 
them to pay their duties." {A.D. I55Q. Cal. of State Papers 
Foreign.) In the diocese of S. David's, the bishop reports, A.D. 
1583, there was "little popery, but the people were greatly infected 
with atheism and wonderfully given over to vicious life." Six 
years before, "there were no persons in S. Asaph diocese refusing 
or neglecting to come to church." In 1603, there were only four 
men and six women Recusants in the deanery of Dyffryn Clwyd. 
(Ms. Harl. S94) 

In the diocese of Bangor the Roman party was considerable. 
A.D. 1570, 'disorderly services' were performed at an interment in 
Beaumaris; the parties had all done penance. A secret meeting of 
priests occurs in a hidden place, a cave by the seaside about three 
fathoms deep, in the county of Caernarvon. In 1594, Mr. Robert 
Pughe of Penrhyn, " who keeps a pinnace, dwells on a fortified 
rock, and so draws the people to him, that in two parishes near 
him scarce three or four go to church." Matters seemed ripe for 
a rebellion. Twenty men could take Conway castle in an evening. 
One Richard Williams spoke of building " two sconces on a bridge 
that passes over a river into Anglesey." Thirty one years later, 
Bishop Bayly of Bangor reports to Charles I., that the same party 
was audacious, and a stranger lately surveyed the havens. One 
hundred men would overrun the Isle of Anglesey. One of the 
King's ships would be a great protection. (Cal. of State Papers.) 
Shortly before, Father John Roberts of Merioneth, one of the first 
Benedictine monks who came on the Anglo-Roman mission to 
England, suffered for his zeal. (Reyner, Apostolatus Benedictinus. 
Anth. a Wood, Athenae Oxonienses, I.) In 1679, Father David 
Lewis and other priests were executed at Usk for exercising their 
functions. To say Mass privately was hypocritically called 'pre- 
ferring Roman power; ' and the priest was liable to cruel torture 
and death. 



Whkn we consider the depressed and precarious condition of the 
Kymry after their severance from the Roman empire, how for 
centuries their ambition was confined to the 
' successful assertion of their national independ- 

ence, we may be inclined to admire their retention of literature in 
any form rather than condemn their barrenness. We might in 
vain look for such thinkers as Ockham or Duns Scotus; but the 
kindred families of Kelts in Ireland and Britanny supply us with 
John the Scot of Erin (Erigena), a wonderful genius for the period 
he lived in, A.D. 874, and with the free thinker Abailard, A.D. 
1 142. We know too little of Morgant (Pelagius) to fairly estimate 
him; but the interest he excited abroad in the fifth century marks 
him as a great man, though the true instinct of the Catholic 
Church proscribed his teaching. I find no theological remains 
save translations. Such is the Book of the Anchoret of Llanddewi- 
brevi, Llyvr yr And*, a free rendering of the Elncidarius of S. 
Anselm, which in the manner of a catechism gives on the whole 
an admirable breviate of dogmatic Theology. Also, in the four- 
teenth century, Davydd Ddu of Hiraddug, a priest, produced a very 
poetical version of the Office of the blessed Virgin. 

The department of Law is fairly represented by the Code of 

Howel Dda, A.D. 926, which deals with the 

2. Law, Medicine, minutest details of the civil and social life of the 

.. ' ," Kymry. Medicine is occupied by the Physicians 
culture, Geography, J ' r J ' 

History. of Myddvai in Caermarthenshire, Rhiwallon and 

his three sons, A.D. 1230; of whose work I 

1 1 8 Mediaeval Literature of the Kymry. 

supplied a correct transcript for the latest edition at Llandovery. 
A treatise called Kato Kymraeg, 'the Welsh Cato,' probably by 
Walter Mapes, relates to Agriculture. Geography is rudely 
sketched in Delw'r Byd, a translation of a popular work, the 
Imago Mundi. The eastern travels of a Venetian friar, Odrigo da 
Pordenone, were rendered into Welsh by Sir Davydd Vychan of 
Glamorgan as ' Taith y brawd Odrig yn yr India,' A.D. 1490. In 
1270, Edeyrn Davod Aur or Golden-tongue published a Grammar 
under the sanction of the Welsh princes. History, in the infant 
form of chronicles and declamation, was supported in the seventh 
century by Gildas, Nennius, and Tysilio. Later on, A.D. 906, we 
have Asser of Menevia, the tutor of king Alfred and bishop of 
Sherborne. The Annales Kambriae occur in the twelfth century. 
Then in n 52, Brut y Brenhinoedd, the Chronicle of the British 
Kings, by Gruffydd ab Arthur, bishop of Llandav, better known as 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, partly imitated in Norman French by 
Maistre Wace. In 11 56, the Brut y Tywysogion, the Chronicle 
of the Welsh Princes, founded on a work of Caradoc of Llancarvan, 
and continued down to 1280 by the monks of Strata Florida, as I 
think it evident from the minute notices relating to that monastery. 
The Story of Gruffydd ab Kynan prince of Gwynedd exhibits the 
vicissitudes of a sovereign, Irish by birth and sympathies. In 
1 1 70, we have Walter de Mapes, archdeacon of Oxford, son of 
Blondel de Mapes and Flora of Llancarvan, Author of Le Roman 
des diverses Quetes du Saint Greal, versified by Chretien De 
Troyes, and of La Mort d'Arthur, Englished by Sir Thomas 
Malory or Maelor, A.D. 1480. In Gerald de Barry or Giraldus 
Kambrensis, the grandson of Rhys prince of South Wales, A.D. 
1 21 5, Wales possessed a writer whose lively spirit and patriotic 
feeling proclaim him one she should be proud of. His Itinerary, 
written in attendance on the Archbishop preaching the Crusade, is 
a faithful mirror of the manners and feelings of his time. 

In the department of legend and fiction, as of poetry, the 
Keltic genius luxuriates. The historic Triads of the Isle of 
Britain contain notices which descend from primitive national 

Mediaeval Literature of the Kymry. 119 

tradition, possibly a portion of the oral teaching 

, , of the Druids. Diogenes Laertius (in Proem. 1) 

legendary lore. 

reports a Triad as theirs, which is found in the 

Welsh form also. It enjoins us 1. to worship the Gods; 2. to 

do no wrong; and 3. to exercise courage. The Story of Kwllwch 

and Olwen seems to belong to a remote antiquity; and the lovely 

description of Olwen, the goddess of Nature in "whose steps spring 

up four white trefoils, whose " head was more yellow than the 

blossoms of the broom, her skin whiter than the foam of the wave, 

her hands fairer than the opening buds of the water-lily amid the 

small rippling of the fountain," has been pronounced unsurpassable. 

{Matthew Arnold, On the Study of Keltic Literature.) The Mabi- 

nogion or Juvenile Tales also belong to remote antiquity; but, like 

the tales of Arthurian romance, the adventurous spirit was infused 

into them by the Normans; the Catholic clergy chastened and 

refined their tone. "Of the high-toned sentiments > which breathe 

through the Mabinogion, we have no traces in the works of the 

bards nor in the civilization of the period." {Thomas Stephens, 

Literattire of the Kymry, pp. 411, 417.) 

One tale, Kyvranc Lludd a Llevelys, The Reconciliation of 
Lud and his brother Levelys, belongs to the pre-Roman period; 
another, The Dream of Prince Maximus (Macsen Wledig) relates 
to the fall of the empire; a third, The Dream of Rhonabwy, to the 
Princes of Powis. The Story of Owain ab Urien (Sir Gawain), 
that of Peredur ab Evrog (Sir Perceval le Gallois), and of Geraint 
ab Erbin, together with the vast repertory of Y Saint Greal, form 
the basis of the Arthurian romance, which was the solace of the 
dreary hours in many a castle and even monastery; which helped 
the conception of Spenser's Faery Queen and found reluctant favour 
with the majestic Milton. Hagiology offers us the Lives of SS. 
Beuno, Collenn, and Winifred, and doubtless others now lost. 

We may regret that none of the grand creations of the classic 

writers of Greece or Rome reached the Kymry in the baldest 

translation. Greek must have been unknown; 
4. Borrowed legends. and Ladn ^ attainable only in thc debased 

120 Mediaeval Literature of the Kymry. 

mintage of theology. Virgil must have been studied. He was S. 
Cadoc's favourite author, and is known in Welsh as Fferyll. But 
I am persuaded that the natural beauties of Homer would have 
been felicitously rendered,' when the Kymric speech flowed limpidly 
in unpolluted channels. As the fact is, the gross taste of the 
middle ages purveyed congenial nourishment. The Story of Dares 
the Phrygian (Ystori Dared) told the Kymry the tale of Troy: that 
of Hadrian the emperor and Epictetus the philosopher (Idrian 
amherawdwr ac Ipotis ysbrydol) served for Ethics; followed up by 
the Tales of the. Wise Men of Rome. 

The Gospel of Nicodemiis, and the Gospel of the Sunday 
(Ebostol y Sul), a pretended letter from Heaven enjoining Lord's 
Day observance, traceable to Spain, gratified the taste of the 
cloister. The Story of Bevis or Bovo of Hampton (Yst. Bown o 
Hamtwn), that of Charlemagne (Yst. Siarlymaen), a work fathered 
on Archbishop Turpin or Tilpin of Rheims, and The fellowship of 
Amelius and his friend (Kydymdeithas Amlyn ac Amig) belong to 
the ages of chivalry. Mr. Lhuyd also mentions the Golden Legend 
(Y Llithon Euraidd Legenda Aurea). From that ample storehouse 
they borrowed gruesome details of the harrowing of hell and 
Christ's triumph over the old serpent, who. as a bard tells, 
"boiled in his jaws 700,000 caldrons' full of souls;" "Y sarph 
avlawen yn ei enau ydd oedd yn berwi Saith can mil peiriad o 
eneidiau." {Gruffydd ab yr Ynad Coch.) Another bard transfers 
to Yskolan the penance of Judas Iscariot. Attached to the pole of 
a weir at Bangor his feet were devoured by sea- worms: " Edrych 
di poen i mi gan mor-bryved ! " Hence the Kymry also learnt to 
call the Holy Innocents Y vil veibion, The thousand children, and 
S. Ursula and her company Gweryddon yr Almaen, The virgins of 

Foremost of Kymric poets stands Aneurin, A.D. 590, a prince 

of the Otodini-Britons in Scotland, who in the Gododin narrates 

the ruin of his clansmen in the fatal battle of 

5. Poetry. Cattraeth (Cataractonium). It is, perhaps, the 

longest sustained poetic effort of the Kymry, but singularly devoid 

Mediaeval Literature of the Kymry. 12 1 

of incident, and, in truth, a string of descriptive panegyrics. His 
contemporary Tai.iksix is styled Ben-beirdd, Chief of Bards, which 
marks the judgment of his countrymen. But his poems are 
disfigured by barbarous affectation and scraps of bad Latin; and 
most moderns would with me strongly prefer the elegiac effusions 
of Llywarch Hkn, a prince of Cumbria, A.D. 630, the Sir 
Lamorack of romance. Very true and tender is his Lament over 
his host Kynddylan of Powis; and his fond regret for his bravest 
son slain in battle, " Teg yd gan yr aderyn dan berwydd bren Uch 
pen Gwen; Kyn ei olo tan dywarch, briwai galch Llywarch Hen." 
" Fair is the song of the bird on the apple-tree, above the head of 
Gwen: Ere he was laid under the sod, he would bruise the mail of 
old Llywarch." Mr. Stephens has laboured to show that the poet 
Myrddin Wyllt of Scotland is identical with Myrddin Emrys 
(Martinus Ambrosius); but Giraldus found a copy at Nevyn of 
Merlin Wyllt, " long sought for and desired." {April p, 1188. 
Itiuerar. Kambriae.) The same meritorious critic has assigned to 
a later period the Stanzas of the Months attributed to Aneurin; I 
will only notice their resemblance to those found in the old 
Editions of the Kalendrier des Bergers, e.g. Paris, 1499. From 
the seventh to the twelfth century was the Dark Age of Kymric 
poetry; in its murky womb was slowly maturing the monster of 
Alliteration, as Mr. Stephens humourously puts it. The true 
poetic spirit reposed in the cloister. Bernard of Morlaix, a Breton 
and kinsman of the Kymry, wrote his lovely Sequence ' Hie breve 
vivitur,' the original of the now popular hymns, ' Brief life is here 
our portion/ and ' Jerusalem the golden.' And a very free Welsh 
translation of the Vent Creator Spiritus, ' Tyr'd Yspryd Sanct, 
Creawdwr byd, bydoedd Eur-nav,' is found in the Llyvyr yr Ancr. 
From the twelfth century till now there is an uninterrupted series 
of poets of varying merit, who struggled in the bonds imposed by 
their pedantic ancestors. It will suffice to notice Howel ab Owain 
Gwynedd, prince of North Wales, A.D. 1130, Irish on his mother's 
side, a charming fellow and a genuine unaffected poet; Gwalchmai 
ab Meilyr, A.D. 1 1 60, whose war-song was admired by Bishop 

122 Mediaeval Liter attire of the Kymry. 

Percy; Davydd ab Gwilym, A.D. 1370, the amatory poet of 

Wales; and Lewys Glyn Cothi, A.D. 1470, an ardent partisan of 

the House of Lancaster. 

Although I may not be qualified to pass judgment on this 

rough lyre of wild Wales, and have already intimated my small 

respect for its artificial bonds and excess of 

6. Suggestive Alliteration, I will not omit a brief notice of 
character of Kymric . , TTri _ 

poetry- lts su gg estlve character. When Tahesin sings, 

" Neud garw hin, Pan yw gorvaran twrv tonau 

wrth Ian ? " we are reminded of the melodious strength of Homeric 

Greek or the poetic vividness of old French prose-writers, such as 

Paradin. [Cronique de Savoie.) And in fewest words he suggests 

the spring by " Pan yw dien gwlith, A briallu a briwddail," 

' When the dew is fresh, and the primroses and tender leaves.' 

Alliteration is sometimes happily employed, as by Meredydd ab 

Rhys; " Treisiaist goed am eu trysor, Tymhestyl, a mawr gwestyl 

mor," ' Thou hast rifled the wood for its treasure, Thou tempest 

and great whistle of the sea.' And by Davydd ab Gwilym, " Y 

gwynt, ystyrmant yr ystormydd," ' Thou wind, the instrument of 

the storms.' Llewelyn Vardd writes, " Ym mher Aber-Menwenver 

ucher echwydd," ' In the sweet estuary of Menwenver of tranquil 

evening;' a picture in a single line like the cvScieAos 'lOaKrj of the 

Odyssey: and Gwalchmai " Addvwyn dyddaw dwvr dychwardd 

gwyrdd wrth echwydd," ' Charmingly glides the dimpling green 

water at evening.' Davydd ab Gwilym calls the snow ' lledrith 

blawd gwenith,' an illusion of wheaten flour; and the verdure of 

the earth is ' casul hav,' the chasuble of summer. The ceremonies 

of the Church inspired men's imagination. In his Song of the 

Blackbird the same bard describes the sweet bird singing at dawn 

like a silver bell, celebrating Mass (cynnal Aberth) till the hour 

when vapours have cleared off. In following the order of the 

Church's offices, he strikes the note that lingers tremulously in 

Herrick's lovely lines to the Daffodils. Another bard sees in the 

primrose an image of the consecrated Hostia (avrllad). 

It has been remarked that the poetic spirit of the Kymry is 

Mediaeval Literature of the Kymry. 123 

better seen in some prose remains than in the stiff artificiality of 
the bards. Mr. Matthew Arnold appears to 

7. Picturesque admire the euphonious names of places, such 
names of the British 

Kelts as "ehndre, Caernarvon, &c. Let me draw 

attention to the wealth of poetic surnames 
among the Kymry of the Middle Ages. Such are Gwineu Deu 
vreuddwyd, 'of the two dreams;' Kynvas curvagl, 'of the gold 
staff; ' Dyvrig beneurog, ' golden head ; ' Davydd esgid-aur, ' of the 
golden buskin;' Gogan g/eddyv-rhudd, ' of the ruddy sword;' Padr- 
ogyl pa/adr-dde//t, ' Patroclus with the shivered shaft;' Rhiwallon 
ivallt-banhadlcn, ' broom-head ; ' and Sandde bryd-ange/, ' Alexander 
of angelic beauty.' (Owen, Cambrian Biography.) The Bretons 
have fortunately retained the beautiful names of their fathers: the 
Welsh, seeking conformity with the English, have lost them; and 
by their adoption of Puritanism have taken up many of the mis- 
pronounced and misunderstood names of the old Hebrews, as if a 
return to Judaism was the crowning glory of Christianity. 



If we accept a certain aptitude for re-producing an exhausted stock 
of ideas, then we must acknowledge some merit in the numerous 
bards and poetasters of Wales since the Reformation period. But 
I prefer reminding the reader of men who, now greatly forgotten 
in Wales, are more interesting and better merit attention. Their 
writing in English or Latin and for a wider audience should not 
deprive Kambria of the merit of her sons. We have then 

i. Sir John Prise, who wrote a ' Description of Kambria,' 
A.D. 1553. 

2. William Thomas, Clerk of the Council to Edward VI., 
author of a 'History of Italy' in black letter, A.D. 1554, a rare 
and valuable work, and the first on that subject published in 
England, full of racy old English. 

3. Griffith Roberts, already mentioned, Vicar General of S. 
Carlo Borromeo Archbishop of Milan, Author of ' Dosbarth byrr i 
ramadeg Cymraeg,' dedicated to William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke 
and Lord of Cardiff, who himself spoke the Welsh tongue purely; 
published at Milan, A.D. 1567. 

4. Maurice Clennock or Morys of Clynnog, bishop-elect of 
Bangor, Rector of the English College at Rome, Author of a 
manual of Christian doctrine, Athrawiaeth Gristnogawl, printed at 
Milan, A.D. 1568. It contains expositions of the Creed, the 
Pater, the Ave Maria, the Salve Regina, the Ten Commandments, 
the Five Commandments of the Church, the Seven Sacraments, 
the Eight Beatitudes, the Works of Mercy, and the Rosary or 

Later Literature of Wales. 125 

Fifteen Mysteries of Our Lord, five joyful, five sorrowful, and five 

5. William Salisbury, Translator of the New Testament into 
Welsh, A.D. 1567. 

6. Humphrey Llwyd of Denbigh, Author of a History of 
Wales, founded on the Welsh of Caradoc of Llancarvan, A.D. 

7. William Morgan bishop of S. Asaph, the first Translator of 
the holy Bible into Welsh, A.D. 1588. 

8. Robert Gwynne, a Roman Catholic priest, Translator of 
Parsons' Llyvr y Resolusion into Welsh, " a book much used and 
valued among the Welsh people," A.D. 1 59 1 . 

9. John Penry of Brecknockshire, too well known as the 
writer of the Martin Mar-prelate tracts, the spirit of which a single 
title reveals, ' Pap with an hatchet or a fig for my godson,' A.D. 


10. Sir Roger Williams of Penrhos in Monmouthshire, a writer 
on military science, A.D. 1595. 

11. Captain William Middleton of Gwaenynog near Denbigh, 
the first Translator of the Psalms into Welsh metre, A.D. 1595. 

12. Thomas Churchyard of Monmouth, Author of a poem 
'The Worthiness of Wales,' A.D. 1604. 

13. Michael Drayton, the poet of 'the Poly-Olbion,' though 
English, a warm Philo-Kambrian; whose knowledge of Welsh 
topography was as correct as it is remarkable, A.D. 1631. 

14. John David Rhys, an accomplished Italian and Welsh 
grammarian; A.D. 1609. 

15. John Owen 'the Epigrammatist,' of Llanarmon in Caer- 
narvonshire, A.D. 1622. 

16. Sir John Wynne of Gwydyr, Author of highly interesting 
Memorials,- A.D. 1626. 

17. Lewis Bayley of Caermarthen, bishop of Bangor, Author 
of a once popular Manual, 'The Practice of Piety,' A.D. 1632. 

18. John Philips, bishop of Man, Translator of the Bible into 
Manx, A.D. 1633. 

126 Later Literature of Wales. 

19. Doctor John Davies of Malhvyd, the Latin- Welsh lexico- 
grapher, A.D. 1644. 

20. Rhys Prichard, Vicar of Llandovery, Author of a popular 
book in verse, called Canwyll y Kymry or the Candle of the 
Welsh, A.D. 1644. 

21. Edward, Lord Herbert of Chirbury, the Philosopher, A.D. 

22. Thomas Vaughan, the Rosicrucian, writing under the name 
of Eugenius Philalethes, A.D. 1665, whose Platonic disquisitions on 
the soul anticipate some fine passages in Wordsworth's great Ode 
on Intimations of Immortality. 

23. James Howell of Jesus College, Oxford, the first Historio- 
grapher Royal, a lively and agreeable writer, A.D. 1666. 

24. Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt, the learned antiquary and 
collector of Welsh manuscripts, A.D. 1667. 

25. Henry Vaughan of Usk, brother of Thomas Vaughan, 
self-styled the Si'/uri'st, an exquisite poet, whose lines on the 
Pre-existence of the Soul may worthily compare with Wordsworth's 
grand Ode above referred to, A.D. 1695. 

26. Edward Lluyd of Chirk, the learned Author of ' Archae- 
ologia Britannica,' and Wales's most judicious antiquary, A.D. 

27. Ellis Wynne, Author of Bardd Cwsg, ' the Bard of Sleep,' 
a popular work in Welsh after the manner of the Visions of Don 
Alonzo de Quevedo, A.D. 1720. Mr. George Borrow has Englished 
the work incorrectly as ' the Sleeping Bard.' 

28. William Baxter of Llanllugan in Montgomeryshire, nephew 
of the saintly Richard Baxter, Author of a Dictionary of British 
Antiquities, A.D. 1723. 

29. John Gambold of Haverfordwest, a Moravian bishop, Author 
of some fine sermons, A.D. 1 771 . William Gambold, A.D. 1700, 
was the author of an English- Welsh grammar. 

30. Theophilus Evans of Llangammarch, Author of a popular 
abstract of Welsh history, Drych y Priv Oesoedd or ' The Mirror 
of the Early Times,' A.D. 1775. 

Later Literature of Wales. 127 

31. Thomas Pennant of Downing in Flintshire, the happiest 
of descriptive tourists, A.D. 1794. 

Lastly, I gratefully commemorate Owen Jones of Myvyr and 
Doctor William Owen Pughe, to whom we owe the preservation of 
the Kambrian language and antiquities. 

Shakespeare, as the Poet of humanity, presents the multiform 

aspect of the thought of Man, not of any special race or family; 

so it is no arrogance to claim for the Keltic 

i. Keltic race a 5]^,^ } n hj s thought and sentiment, 

influence on modern 

literature ^ nc * ^ s0 > tne P rox i m ity ar, d political position 

of the Kymry indicate them rather than the 
Gael or Irish as the source of the Keltic strand in the many- 
coloured web of Shakespearian thought. To enjoy the exquisite 
proofs of the presence of that strand in Shakespeare, I must refer 
the reader to Matthew Arnold's sympathetic account in his book of 
1 Celtic Literature.' For the romantic, the unexpected, the revel- 
ation of tender sentiment as by a lightning-flash of intuition, the 
perception of the beautiful in evanescent forms and dew-drops of 
thought such traits betoken the stirrings of Keltic genius. Spenser, 
having chosen the mould of Middle Age romance for the production 
of the Faery Queen, thereby adopted the creations of Keltic 
thought; and in his delineation of King Arthur transports us to 
Merioneth, where the silver Dee springs under ' Rauran mossy 
hoar ' and old Timon reared his famous nursling. Drayton lingers 
delighted among the torrents of Cambria, and like the Kelts pre- 
sents a fairy vignette in a couple of lines. We owe ' the Bard ' 
of Gray to the enthusiasm created at Cambridge by Mr. Parry the 
harper, who " scratched out such wild ravishing music as set the 
learned academicians dancing." 

Whether Macpherson invented Ossian or improved on Gaelic 
fragments matters little, so it be granted (as it must) that he 
caught the true ring and inspiration of Keltic poetry; his poem, 
for poem it is and a grand one, inflamed the imagination of 
Napoleon; and Oscar became an honoured name in the House of 
Bernadotte. The learned few, such as Ussher and Stillingfleet, had 

128 Later Literature of Wales. 

long before done justice to the British Church; but the tide of 
prejudice slackened, when Wotton edited the Laws of Howel Dda, 
Sharon Turner vindicated the Bards, and Sir Francis Palgrave 
investigated the records of Wales. The conception of Childe 
Harold is akin to the wild self-assertion of Llywarch Hen, unsub- 
dued as yet to the perfect beauty of sentiment and colouring of 
Tennyson's lines ' Tears, idle tears,' &c. De Musset's fine stanzas 
depicting autumn betray a Keltic feeling. Sir Walter Scott's 
imagination was saturated with Keltic poetry: he was unfamiliar 
with the Kymry, and failed comparatively in ' the Betrothed.' 
Southey's ' Madoc ' shows at least his appreciation of the wild 
charm of that romantic legend. Wordsworth loved Wales and its 
scenery, as a true mountaineer could not fail to do. His glorious 
Ode on Immortality, which saith that " trailing clouds of glory do 
we come From God who is our home," echoes the Platonic strain 
of Thomas Vaughan, who attributes the waywardness of the soul 
to her dissatisfaction with aught but God, from Whom at first she 
descended; " if she fancies herself in the midst of the sea, presently 
she is there, and hears the rushing of the billows" this Words- 
worth expands into one of the finest passages in the Ode. Lady 
Charlotte Guest opened to the English reader the rich casket of 
gems locked up in the Mabinogion. William Barnes, the Dorset- 
shire poet, has written honestly and fairly about the Kymry. The 
German Zeuss has established the basis of Keltic philology: De 
Courson in his History of the Bretons has in part traversed the 
field of Welsh antiquities; De la Villemarque is an enthusiast in all 
that appertains to his race; while De Belloguet has left admirable 
fruit of patient and critical research. 

In quitting my subject, I invite the reader to contemplate the 

last home and character of this old Kymric race, ere the effacing 

fingers of modern Progress have marred its 

, , **y lineaments beyond recall. The true Welshman 
and character. ' 

will still applaud the outburst of enthusiasm in 

the lines of Howel ab Owain Gwynedd: 

Later Literature of Wales. 129 

Carav ei br/Jedd braint hywredd, A'i diffaith mawr-vaith a'i maranedd ; 

Carav ei morva, a'i mynyddedd, A'i chaer ger ei choed, a'i chain diredd, 

A'i dolydil, a'i dwvyr, a'i dyffrynedd, A'i gwylain gwynion, a'i gwymp wragedd." 

' I love her regions with their gift of heroism, her vast solitude and strands: 
I love her sea-land and her mountains, her fort by its wood and her bright 

Her dales and water and valleys, her white seagulls and her fair women.' 

No later guide-book has surpassed in interest Leland's minute 
gossip concerning the castles and abbeys, whilst there was yet an 
1 Abbat of Whitland ' to welcome the tourist and draw his regard 
to ' some praty pile longging to ould Syr Rhece.' Drayton (A.D. 
1 631) was quite at home in Wales, though he may have learnt his 
lore from his patron 'Master John Williams, goldsmith, of London,' 
who seems to have opened the path more boldly pursued by the 
noble furrier of Thames Street, Owen Jones of Myvyr. A little 
later (A.D. 1639), Thomas Johnson the botanist traversed North 
Wales, and recorded his impressions in elegant Latinity. A chemist 
on Snow Hill, London, his classic taste converted Mynydd Bychan 
in the home of storms (so he terms the most westerly point of 
Merioneth) into Mi/viv fiapeiav. Another amiable naturalist, John 
Ray, is full of sympathy with the Welsh, whom he pronounces 
' generally ' to be " extremely civil and well bred, very honest and 
courteous to strangers." (A.D. 1658. Itinerary?) Two Venetian 
envoys to the English court (A.D. 1 53 1 , &c.) reported somewhat 
differently. Saith one, they " are given to larcenies, and boast of 
being the true aboriginal Britons:" saith the other, "The Welch- 
man is sturdy, poor, adapted to war, and sociable (conversevole);" 
and "far above all, tall of stature, and robust." (Venetian State 
Papers) In the eighteenth century Herring bishop of Bangor, 
one of Myrddin's ' Esgyb anghyvieith, diffaith, diffydd,' on his 
primary visitation, " rode intrepidly, but slowly, through North 
Wales to Shrewsbury; and in a place of the most frightful solitude 
(Beddgelert ?) a harper drew about him a group of figures, that 
Hogarth would give any price for." (letters. Sept. 11, 1739.) 
The poet Dyer, a native of the Towy-side, has in his ' Grongar 

130 Later Literature of Wales. 

Hill ' depicted the milder beauties of Kambria. When Dr. Clarke 
reached the summit of Parnassus in Greece, it resembled Kader- 
Idris in Wales, with its crater and large pool of water. [Travels. 
Dec. 76, 1801.) Samuel Johnson was never an admirer of Nature; 
but Caernarvon Castle surpassed his expectations, and he even 
discovered that the Welsh language was not inharmonious in a 
pulpit discourse. [Diary of a Journey in North Wales.) Cadair 
Idris and Penmaenmawr find notice in Wordsworth's 'Excursion;' 
the first discharged lava three feet deep as lately as 1769. [Annual 
Register. June 75.) Wordsworth records with admiration ' the 
sea-sunsets of the Vale of Clwyd,' and " the sublime estuary of 
Barmouth, which may compare with the finest of Scotland, having 
the advantage of a superior climate." [Memoirs of W. W. } Vol. 
IL. } p. 125) While Queen Victoria, whose artistic judgment all 
admit, is reported as saying that " the scenery surrounding Pale 
(in Merioneth) was brighter than that in Scotland at Balmoral." 
The Standard. August 28, 188Q.) 






AaskO) to hurt = gwascu, to press. 

Ablcchros, incomplete, weak = avlwyr. 

Abrotc, night = abred, the unseen world. 

Abyssos, the deep = aphwys ; Sanskrit, avisha, the ocean ; Irish, 

Ac/ieo, to suffer pain = achwyn, to complain. 
Ac /mat, chaff = chwyn, weeds. 
Achnymai, to complain or be vexed = achwyn. 
Achos, grief = ochaiti, to groan. 
Ade/os, uncertain = annilys. 
Adranes, a wretch =y druan. 
Ael/a, a gale = awe/. 
Ageiro, to drive, e.g., cattle = gyrru. 
Agcli\ a herd = /'/, hiliogaeth, seed, posterity. 

= haig o bysgod, a shoal of fishes. 

Ag/aoSf fair = glan; aglaon hydor, dwr gldn. 

Agotu'a, a wrestling = egni, force, intense effort. 

Agrios. wild = agarw. 

Aigi'a/os, aigialon, a sea- beach =g/aun. 

Ailinon, a dirge = allwynin, sorrowful. 

Aipys, high = e/>ynt, a slope. 

Airomat, to carry = arwedd. 

Akares, a dwarf = korr. 

Akcomai, to heal = iachan. 

134 Appendix. No. I. 

Akos, healing = t'dck, sound. 

Akoustikc, hearing = gosteg, bidding to hear or to be silent. 

Akroaomat, to hear = gwrando. 

Aktc: Demeteros akte (Hesi'od), a crop of com=atgen y ddaear, 

the fruit of the earth. 
Aktin, a sunbeam = echtywynnu, to glitter. 
Aleo, to grind = main; chwalu, to scatter. 
Aleipho, to besmear = llyvu, to lick; gw/yb, moist. 
Ah'sgeo, to po\\ute= ha/ogt. 

Allochroeo, to change colour, to fade = l/ygru, to corrupt. 
Alios, another = all, second. 
Alysco, to avoid; alalco, to ward off=gochel. 
Amaldyno, to corrupt = mallu. 
Amblyno, to blunt = ambylu. 
Amblys, blunt = ambwl. 
Ameter, a husbandman = antaethwr . 
Ametros, immeasurable = anveidrol. 
Amphi, around = am. 

Amphibrochos, washed over = amvrochus, foamy. 
Amphilyke nyx, night dawning into day (Homer) = nos amlwg, a 

clear night. 
Amyno, to ward off = amwyn. 
Anagraphe, a copy = anghraifft, a sample. 
Anangke, necessity = angen. 
Anchi, near to = wngc and agos. 
Aner, a man = ener, natural. 
Anerithmos, countless = aneiriv. 
Anogo, to urge = annog. 
Ao, to flow = aw-on, a river. 
Apeileo, to threaten = bygylu. 
Apene, a chariot or wain = menu, y venn. 
Araios, infrequent = arav, slow. 
Arche, a beginning = dechreu. 
Archo, to bid = erchi. 
Arctos, a bear = arth. 

Appendix. No. I. 135 

Argaleos, difficult = erchyll, horrible. 

Arithmos, number = rhiv. 

Aronrai, acres = erwri. 

Askopera, a scrip =ysgreppan. 

Aspis, a shield = aes. 

Asyphelos, injured, hence bashful = swil. 

Atar and autar, but = eithr. 

Athreo, to see = athraw, a teacher, one who sees or who knows. 

Atmetios {Homer), a slave = adyn, a wretch. 

Attn and Tetta {endearing terms in Homer) = tad, father. 

Atyzo-atychtheis, terrified = dychryn, fright. 

Andao, cud, 1, to utter a cry = dywawd, say thou. 

Attde, a cry = gwaedd. 

Atiete, a shout = gwaedd. 

Attge, light = awch. 

Auo, to dry up = gwywo. 

Aurion, to-morrow yvoru. 

Baios, little = bdch. 

Bambaino, to babble = baban; Italian, bambino, a baby. 

Baptizo, to baptize = bedyddio. 

Bapto, to dip = boddi, to drown. 

Bart's {Josephus), a king's palace =prain. 

Beio, to live = byw. 

Belemnos, a bolt = bliv. 

Belos, a bolt = bollt. 

Bex, bechos, a cough =peswch: also, beichio, to hiccough. 

Bios, K bow = bwa. 

Biotos, a living = bywyd, life. 

B/aisos, stammering = bloesg. 

Bombaino, to buzz = bwhwmman. 

Bora, food = bar a, bread. 

Boreas, the north wind = bhr, violence. 

Boubalos, a buffalo = bual. 

Bottle, counsel =pwyll, discretion. 

136 Appendix. No. I. 

Bou/esis, will = etvyllys. 

Bounos, a hill = bann, bryn. 

Bous, an ox = bu. 

Brachion, an arm = braich. 

Bradys, slow = braidd, scarcely. 

Bremo, to roar = brevu, to low. 

Briar os, strong = breyr, a baron or mighty man. 

Broche, a loud sound = broch. 

Brycho, to chafe = brochi. 

Bryion, moss = bnvyn, rushes. 

Bythos, depth = bedd, the grave. 

Kaballes, a horse = keffyl. 
Kakos, evil = kachiad, a coward. 
Kados, a cask = kadw, to keep. 
Kainos, kainon y new = hoen, fine. 
Kalamos, a reed = kalav. 

Kaleo, to call = galw : kalessa, I called = gelwais. 
Kalon, fair = gldn. 
Kalos, fair = glwys. 

Kalypto, to hide = kelu : kelyddon, coverts. 
Kamatos, labour = keimiad, a wayfarer. 
Kampto, to bend = kammu. 
Kanachizo, to knock = knoccio. 
Kangkanos, dry = kaingc, a branch. 
Kangchrys, barley = bar a kannrhyg, rye bread. 
Kantharos, a pitcher = kann. 

Kapane, the cover of a carriage = kavnu, to hollow. 
Karanos, the head or skull = karan or garan. 
Karkinos, a crab = krangc. 
Kardia, the heart = krai. 
Karpalimbs, instantly = kyvlym, swiftly. 
Karteros, strong = kadarn. 

Kazo, ekekasto, ' he had the trick of managing ' the spear {Homer) 
= Aast, a trick. 

Appendix. No. I. 137 

Kutccho, to detain = kadw. 

Kathairo, to cleanse = karthu. 

Kathcdra, a chair = kadatr. 

Kaulos, pot-herbs = kawl, potage. 

Kedet'os, dear = ku. 

JCedo, to assail = kydio. 

Kelainos, black = ke/at'n, a livid object, a corpse. 

Keleuo, to bid, call on = galw ar. 

A'ni/iio, kcntiin, to pierce = gwanu. 

Knitron, a spur = Armoric, qttentr; Welsh, gottoyw. 

Keraizo, to waste = kcryddu, to chastise. 

Kercho, to curl = krychu. 

, to scold = keccru. 

Kerchnos, quarrelsome = keccrus. 

Kcrdeon {Homer), better = goreu. 

Kerdon, a cobbler = krydd. 

Keryx, a crier, a herald = crt\ a cry. 

Kestos, a girdle = kest, the stomach. 

Keutho, to hide = kuddio; Sanskrit, Kiid y to cover. 

Keyx, a kingfisher =gwyac/i 1 waterfowl. 

Kt'bdeleuo, to deprave (coin) = kribddeiliaw, to extort. 

Kichetni, to pursue = kychwyn, to start on a journey. 

Kinados, a fox = kadnaw. 

Kinco, to move = egi'no, to sprout. 

Kirkos, a circle = kylch, and kyrch. 

Kistc, a chest = kist. Kithare, a guitar = krwth. 

Klados, a branch =ysg/odyn, a chip. 

Klaio, to weep = wylo. 

Klazo, to cry aloud = llais, a voice. 

K/eio, to lock up = kloi. 

Klema, a bough = kloven. 

K/eoSy glory = glew, brave. 

Klino, to bend towards = glynu, to adhere. 

, to bend or give way = kilio. 

Klotnax and Kolone, a knoll = klogwyn. 

138 Appendix. No. I. 

Kloneo, to crowd = glynu, to adhere. 

Klozo, to sibilate = clock, a bell. 

Klyo, to hear = klywed. 

Klyster, a syringe = chwistrell. 

Klytos, renowned = glyd, a lord. 

Klyzo, to wash = golchi. 

Knaio, to bite = knot; Armoric, naff, to gnaw; Welsh, newyn, 

Knemi, to shear = kneivio. 
Knetho, to rub = knithio. 
Kokkos, a red dye = koch, red. 
Kokkyx. a cuckoo = kdg. 
Koile, a gaol = geol. 
Koilos, hollow = gwyll, spectres. The Persians term their evil 

spirits Ghoids. 
Kolone, a hill = klogwyn. 
Kolouo, to maim = klwyvo. 
Komizo, komizein, to carry = kywain. 
Kompos, display = kamp, an exploit. 
Kompsos, elegant = gwymp. 
Konie, fine white dust = gwyn, white. 
Konos, a. cone = konyn. 
Korax, a raven = kryg, hoarse. 
Koros, a boy = korr, a dwarf. 
Korthyo, ' to lash ' into foam (Homeric with regard to waves = 

korddi, to churn. 
Korymbos, the topmost sprout = koryn, the head. 
Koryphe, koryphen, the top of the head = koryn. 

, a conclusion = gorphen, to finish. 

Kouphon, light =ysgavn. 

Kourmi, ale = kwrwv. 

Kradaino, to shudder = krynn; and kryd, a fever. 

Kradao, to shake = kryd, a fever. 

Kraipna, quick = krap (olwg), at a glance. 

Kranion, the skull = kreuan. 

Appendix. No. I. 1 39 

Kratos, strength = kadr, strong, valiant. 

Krauge, a cry = kriccied, a cricket. 

JCreas, kreatos, flesh = knawd. 

Krt'os, a ram = Irish, kaor; preserved in the Welsh kor-lan, a 

Krizo, to cry = krto. 
Krige, a creaking = kryg, hoarse. 
Kroaino, to clatter = krynu, to shake. 
JCrouo, to knock = kuro. 
Ktypos, a din = wbwb. 
Kyaiios } dark blue = gwinau. 
Kykdo, to disturb = gwg, anger. 
KykJos, a circle = kylch. 
Kyllos, bent = M/, narrow. 
Kyma, a wave = cftwyv, a swell. 
Jfymbe, a bowl = kwmm, a combe or hollow. 
Kynee, a helmet = Gaelic, kean, head ; W. pen. 
Kynidion, a whelp = kenau. 
Kyo, kyso, to kiss = kusanu. 
Kyon, a dog = hi. 
Kypellon, a cup = hwppan. 
Kyrtos, short or squab = korr, a dwarf. 

C/iairo, to sport = chwarae. 

Chaite, hair = kudyn, a lock of hair. 

C/ialaino, to loose = gollwng. 

Chalkon, brass = alka?i, tin. 

Charadre, a waterfall = rhaiadr. 

Chazo, chade, to allow or permit = gadael. 

Chei/os, the lip = gwevl. 

Cheimoiiy winter = gauav. 

Chele, a pair of tongues = gevel. 

Chcras, gravel = graian. 

Cherros, rough, desert = gerwin. 

Chleuazo, to mock = hellwair. 

140 Appendix. No. I. 

Chliaros, lukewarm as klaear. 
Cholos, lame = kloff. 
Choiridion, a little pig = kardydwyn. 
Chorde, a string = kortyn. 
Choreuo, to dance = chwarae. 
Choros, a choir = kor. 
Chroys, chroyn, skin = krocn. 
Chthes = echdoe, yesterday. 

Dai'o, to burn = deivio, to singe ; diva, to consume. 

Dakno, to bite = knoi; also dygn, painful. 

Dakrya, tears = dagrau. 

Darthano, to fall asleep = dar-hun. 

Das, dados, a torch = dydd, the day. 

Dasys, thick = das, a haystack ; Sanskrit, dhasas, a heap. 

Deka, ten = deg. 

Dcesis, a request = deisyv. 

Deiknyo, deiknyeis, to show = dangos. 

Deile, evening = tywyll, dark. 

Deleo, to delude = twyllo. 

Delo, to bait = da/a, to catch. 

Demos, fat = tew. 

Deomai, to beseech = deisyv. 

Depseo, to bake = toesi. 

Deriao, deriaasthon {Homer), to contend = taeru, to aver conten- 

Derko, to behold = edrych. 
Dero, to flay = torri, to break or rend. 
Deron, long ago = hir. 
Deyro, hither ! = dyred, come here ! 

Diaeta, diet, or Diota, a drinking cup = diawd, diod, drink. 
Dikella, a fork or prong, i.e., an irregular weapon = dichell, deceit. 
Dinai, the eddies of deep water = dwvn, deep. 
Do (for doma Homer), a house = ty. 
Dodeka, twelve = deuddeg. 

Appendix. No. I. 141 

Dolos, deceit = twyll. 
Drakon, a dragon = draig. 
Drimys, pungent = trwm, heavy. 
Dryinos, oaken = derwen, an oak. 
Drypto, to tear = dry //to. 
Drys, dryn, an oak = derw. 
Dyno, to dip = dwvn, deep. 
Dyo, two = dan. 

Ear, the spring = ir, fresh, green. 

Ekei, there = accw . 

Echeo, echein, to scream = ochain. 

Echetle, a plough-handle = haeddc/. 

Echos, a scream = aich. 

Eeldomai, to desire = ewy//ys } will. 

Egeiro, to wake = agor, to open. 

Eido/on, an image = dclw . 

Eidos, appearance = gwedd. 

Eilapine, a feast or merry-making = //aw en, merry. 

Et/eo, to eddy = cnwy/, wheel. 

Ei mi, I am = wyv. 

Eimi, I go = mi a &v. 

Eipe, he said = eb eve. 

Eirgo, to enclose = argae. 

Ei/a, after that = wedi. 

E/aion, oil = e/t\ ointment. 

E/ao, to chase = he/a. 

E/aphos, a stag = e/ain, a doe. 

E/asson, less = //at'. 

E/auno, to drive = erlyn. 

Elektor (Homer), the sun = hylathr, dazzling. 

Elcphantos, an elephant = o/ijfant. 

E/entheros, liberal = helaeth. 

E/innyo, to tarry =g/ynnn, to adhere to. 

E/itha, copiously = Ihoyth, a load. 

142 Appendix. No. I. 

Emplastron, a plaister =plastr. 

Emplen, beside =ymyl. 

En (Doric, em), in =yn. 

Enkykleo, to surround = amgylchu. 

Enkylindeo, to surround = Armoric, englennaff, to stick to; Welsh, 

Endon, within =ynddo. 
Engys, near = wng and agos. 
Enipe, reproach = enllib, slander. 

Entha, here ; entha kai entha, here and there = yna, there. 
Erannos, amiable = eirian, fair. 
Eremos, quiet = arav, slow. 
Ereundn, to search = olrheam. 
Ergao, eorga, to do = ev a orug, he did. 
Erike, heath = gryg. 
Erinnys, a fury = arynnaig, fear. 
Eris, strife = gwrys. 
Erizomai, to strive = ymryson. 
Erbe, eroes, a stoppage = aros, to stay. 
Erythros, red = rhudd. 
Ethos, habit = gwedd. 
Eti, yet = eto. 
Etor, heart = torr, belly. 

, courage = hyder. 

Enaldes, effectual = hyull. 
Euboulos, well advised = hybwyll. 
Eukelos, quiet = hygel, obscure. 
Euklees, renowned = hyglod. 
Enkolos, simple = hygoel. 
Eukraes, well-tempered = hygrawn. 
Eukyldos, well-rounded = hygylch. 
Encharis, pleasing = hygar. 
Eicchole, a vow = golwch, prayer. 
Euaelos, conspicuous = hywel. 
Eudromos, of free course = hydrytn. 

Appendix. No. I. 143 

Eulabcs, dexterous = hylaw. 

Eu/ampros, splendid = hylathr. 

Eufytos, fragile = hylithr. 

Eumathes, well-nurtured = hyvaith. 

Eumeides, joyous = hyvaidd, bold. 

Eumenes, amiable = hyvwyn; or, hywcn, smiling. 

Eutnetros, skilful = hyvedyr. 

Eunflo, to sleep = httno. 

Enne, a bed, sleeping-place = htiti, sleep. 

Eunous, indulgent, kind = hynaws. 

Euphron, pleasant = hyvryd. 

EuphronZ, night = hyvrwyn. 

Eup/ekes, intricate = hyblyg. 

Euporos, well-supplied = hyborth. 

, expert = hyfforddus. 

Euprepes, handsome = hybryd. 
Eys, strong = hy, bold. 
Eufe/es, cheap = hydal. 
Euteyktog, easy, pliable = hydwyth. 
Euthales, luxuriant (as to foliage) = hyddail. 
Eutharses, confident = hyderus. 
Euthraustos, easily shattered = hydraidd. 
Eutribes, friable = hydraidd. 
Eutrocha/os, easily rolling = hydreigyl. 
EutycheSy lucky = hydwg. 

Galene, a calm after a storm = goleuni, light. 

Gamphelai, the jaws = gavae/, a hold. 

Ganos, joy = hoen. 

Ganymai, to be glad = /leiniv, joyous. 

Gasier, the stomach = gest; also costre//, a bottle. 

Gauros, fierce = cawr, a giant. 

Gegoneo, to speak loud = keg, the mouth. 

Genethle, a race or nation = kencdyl. Genys, a chin = gen. 

Geranos, a crane = garan. 

144 Appendix. No. I. 

Geron, an old man = gwr hen. 

Geythmos, a taste = chwaeth. 

Ginglismos, a tickling = goglais. 

Glaukos = glds, gray, as in caseg las, a gray mare; green, as in 

cae g/ds, a green field ; blue, as in awyr las, a blue sky. 
Glenea, gems = glain, ornaments. 

Glichomai, to desire voluptuously = gwlychn, to moisten (the lips). 
Glypho, to scrape = llyvu, to lick. 

Gnampto, to curry; also gnapto, to shear = hieivio, to shear. 
Gnotos, manifest = honnaid. 
Godo, to wail = gwaeddu. 
Goe'ros, lamentable = goer, cold. 
Gonia, a corner = congl. 
Gbos, woe = gwae. 
Grapho, to write or scratch with a metallic stylus = hravn, to 

scratch; also argraffu, to print. 
Grays, an old woman = gwrdch, a hag. 
Gripaomai, to scratch = kripio. 
Grypos, bent = hrwbach, a crook. 
Gryzo, gryzein, to grunt grydian. 
Gymnos, stript, naked = gwyn, white. 
Gyne, a woman = given, fair. 
Gyros, bent = gwyro, to bend. 

Habros, delicate = arab, gentle. 

Hades, the unseen world = hadau, seeds, atoms, the lowest state of 

Halatos, salty = hallt. 
Halios (Doric Greek), the sun = haul. 
Halt's, enough = gwala, satiety. 
Halisho, to drag or catch = llusgo. 
Hallomai, to leap = llammu. 
Haloo, to catch = hela, to hunt. 
Hals, salt = halen. 
Hamalos, soft = meddal. 

Appendix. No. I. 145 

Hamilla, wrestling = amaclyd or ymavlyd. 

Hap to, to touch = haeddti. 

Hebt (Doric, Habd), bloom = hdv, summer. 

Hekyros, a father-in-law = chwegr. 

Helko, helkeis, to drag = kwyso, to turn up clods. 

Helos, a nail = hoel. 

Hesperos, evening = gosper. 

Hesychia, quiet = heddwch. 

Hex, six = chwech. 

Hikanos, enough = digawn. 

Holkos, a furrow = kwys. 

Ho/os, whole = ho/I. 

Homalos, alike = haval. 

Horos, a border = goror. 

Hyalon, glass = glain, beads. 

Hye/os, glass = uvel, a sparkle. 

Hygieia, health = inch, healthy. 

Hypnos r sleep = hint. 

Hypselos, lofty = uchel. 

Hys, a sow = hwch. 

Iachein, to groan = ochain. 

Iallo, to speed = hivylio. 

Iaotnai, to heal = iachau. 

Ichor, a thin fluid = ichivr. 

Ide (in Ionic Greek), forest {Herodotus) = gwydd. 

Idia, property = eiddo. 

Idioma, idiomatos, speech = iaith. 

Jdmen (Doric Greek), we know =givyddom. 

Ilys, dregs, mud = il, sediment. 

lues, nerves = gwyn, aching. 

lorkos {Oppian), a roe = iwrch. 

Ion, oh ! = ow! 

Ites, daring = ehud, rash. 

Ixys, a leg = gwtsgt, nimble. 

146 Appendix. No. I. 

Labros, vehement = llawer, abundant, multitudinous. 

Lachne, fine down = gwldn, wool. 

Laltma, breadth = llydan, broad. 

Laleo, elalesa, to speak = Mat's, a voice. 

, to talk = lol, babbling, idle talk. 

Lamyros, eloquent = llavar, sonorous. 

Laos, a people = lliaws, a throng; and //, a host. 

Larynx and laukania, the throat = llwngc, swallow. 

Lasho, to speak = Hat's, a voice. 

Lathra, secretly = llathrudd, a clandestine abduction. 

Lathraios, stealthy = lladradaidd. 

Laura, a broadway = llawr, a floor. 

Lechomai, to couch = llechu. 

Lechos, a bed = lloches, a covert ; and llechu, to lie hid. 

Lego, to cease = gollwng, to drop. 

Leianeo, to smooth = llyvnhdu. 

Leibo, to lick = llyvu. 

Leinton, a meadow = llyvn, smooth ground. 

Leirion, a lily = elestr. 

Lepros, withered = lleipr. 

Leukos, white = llewych, light. 

Leusso, to look = gweled, gwelsom. 

Lilaiomai, to desiie = ewyllys, will. 

Limne, a lake = llyn. 

Lix, an ancient Greek name of the earth {Clemens Alexandrinus) = 
llwch, dust. 

Lobetos, maimed = llabi, awkward. 

Lochao, to lay an ambush or snare = llechu, to lurk. 

Lochnie, a lurking-place = llechva. 

Loigos, pestilence = llwg. 

Lophao, to cease ; and loipos, what remains = llqffa, to glean, rem- 

Lygros, wretched = llwgr; llygru, to corrupt. 

Lyma, dirt = llyvi. 

Lymd, a pestilence = klwyv, a disease. 

Appendix. o. I. 147 

Lythros, clotted gore = l/uttrod, mire. 
Lyttao, to madden = llidio, to be angry. 

Ma, an adverb used in swearing ; e.g., Ala ton Dia, by Zeus or 

God = myn Dnw. 
Afakar, happy = mygr, fair. 
Alakros, long = mawr, great. 
Ma/a, very = gwala, enough. 
Afalachos, soft = meddal. 
Alalatto, to soften = meddalu. 
Miileros, consuming = malurio, to grind small. 
Alalthakos. soft = meddal. 
Alalthao, to soften = meddalu. 
Mandra, a sheep-fold = mangre, a dwelling-place. 
Maniake, a necklace = mwnwgl, the throat. 
Afanos, rare = man, minute ; and main, thin. 
Maraino, to wither = merwinaw, to be stupefied. 
Afarmairo, to glow = marwor, hot cinders. 

Marnamai, mamasthai, to fight = ymomestu, to combat mutually. 
Mekedanos, lengthy = maith, long in duration. 
Aledo, to possess = meddu. 
Megaron, a house = amogawr, a shelter. 

Afegas tyrannos, a great prince = mech-dcym, a lord paramount. 
Aleilisso, to sweeten = meluso. 
Afeis, a month = mis. 
Meleos, wretched = gwael. 
Melinos, apple-coloured = melyn, yellow. 
Afe/on, a sheep = mil, an animal. 
Alelpo, to sing = maw/, praise. 
Menio, to resent = monni, to be sullen. 
Menoinao, to wish for = mynnu, to will. 
Menos, mind = mynnu, to will. 
Menyo, to indicate = mynegi. 
Merimnao, to care = merwino, to throb. 
Mermerizo, to reflect = myvyrio. 

148 Appendix. No. I. 

Meros, a thigh = morddwyd. 

Meta, after = gwedi. 

Metaxy, betwixt = mysc. 

Methiemi, to remit = methu, to fail. 

Methy, strong drink = medd, mead. 

Methysos, drunken = meddw. 

Mz'kkos, little = bychan. 

Miltos, scarlet dye = mellt, lightning (?). 

Miskelos, abjectly poor = musgrell. 

Mokao, to mock = moccio. 

Monarcha, a sole ruler = mimer 

Moros, destruction, death = marw, to die. 

Mychos, a dark covert = mwgwd, blindfold. 

Mydao, to rot from moisture = mzvydo, to grow wet. 

Myelos, the marrow = miwail, soft. 

Myrias, myrtados, ten thousand = myrdd. 

Myrmex, an ant = myr and mor-gryg. 

Myrfos, a myrtle-tree = myrtwydden. 

IVakos, a fleece = hm. 

Naio, naiein, to inhabit = kyvanneddu. 

JVaos, a temple = neuadd, a hall'. 

Necho, to swim = novt'o. 

Net'atos, young = newydd, new. 

Neottia, a nest = nyth. 

Nephele, a cloud = nivwl. 

jVetko, to spin = nyddu. 

JVotis, moisture = tiddd, sap. 

Obe/os, a wimble = ebill. 

Oka, quick = tocc. 

Okeanos and ogen, the ocean = eigiawn. 

Okrioeis, jagged = ochrog. 

Okys, quick = og, active. 

Ocketo, he went = aeth. 

Appendix. No. I. 149 

Ochlyzo, ochlisseian, to dislodge = lluchio, to fling. 

Ochthco, to repine = ocheneidio, to sigh. 

Ode, an ode = awdl. 

Odyrmos, wailing = godwrdd, noise. 

Oida, I know = adwacn, to ken. 

Oideo, to swell = chwyddo. 

Oigo, to open = agor. 

Oima, motion = chwyv. 

Ottos, sorrow = govid. 

Olios, wealth = alav. 

Olene, the elbow = elin. 

Olisthlros, slippery = llithro. to slip. 

Ollymi, to lose = colli. 

Ololygmos, lamentation = gwylovain. 

Olophyromai, to lament = galaru. 

Oneidizo, to reproach = dannod. 

Onyx, a nail = ewin. 

Ophello, to augment = llwyddo, to prosper. 

Orchamos, a prince = gorchav. 

Ornis, a bird = aderyn. 

Ornymi, to rouse = orti, fear. 

Oro, to urge = gyrru. 

Oros, a mountain =gor, high, that which overtops. 

Orymagdos, a war-shout = gorwaedd. 

Otheo, to push = gwthio. 

Otryno, to urge, to press = godro, to milk by pressing the cow's 

Oulos, wild = gwyllt. 
Oxys, sharp = awchus. 
Oyranos, the sky =y wybrcn. 
Ozos, a branch = osgl. 

Paio, to beat =pwyo. 

Paipalc, fine dust =paill, farina, meal. 

Palton, a javelin =paladr, a spear-shaft. 

150 Appendix. No. I. 

Pas, every one =pawb. 

Patio, to cease =peidio. 

Pedon, the ground = bedd, the grave. 

Peiko, to pick wool =pigo. 

Pelagos, the deep sea = gweilgi. 

Pelekys, a bill or hatchet = bilwg. 

Pempe (Aeolic Greek), five =pump. 

Pephno, to kill =paffio, to beat. 

Pepto, to bake ; Sanskrit, pdta, fire =poethi, to heat. 

Pemlmi, to barter =prynu, to buy. 

Petalon, a leaf = deilen; dail, leaves. 

, page = dalen. 

Peteinos, a bird or flying thing = edn, a wing. 

Petroselinon, rock-parsley = persli. 

Phailone, a cloak =ffaling. 

Pheidomai, to spare =pez'dz'o. 

P/ierbo, to feed =porthi. 

Phlao, to splinter =J?aw, a flaw. 

Phobos, phobon, fear = ovn. 

Phoiton, they kept coming and going {Homer} =ffwdan, an ado. 

Phor, a marauder =fforio, to foray. 

Phorbe, a pasture =porva. 

Phrazo (Doric, phrasdo), to speak = ffraeth, eloquent. 

Phrix {Homer), a ripple = crych, crisp. 

Phylatto, to guard = gwylied. 

Pikros, bitter = chwerw. 

Plax, a plank plane. 

Plethos, a crowd =plith, the midst; and llwyth, a tribe. 

Plinthos, a brick = peithyn, a slate. 

Plouteo, to be rich = llwyddo, to prosper. 

Polemos, war plymnwyd, a conflict. 

Polos, a pole =pawl, polyn. 

Polos, a foal = <W. 

Pompholyx, a bubble =pwmpyl, a knob or rising; bwmbwl, a bubble. 

Porphyre, purple = porphor \ 

Appendix. No. I. 151 

Porrho, far off=pe//. 

Posoi, how many? =py saw/? 

Posti's, a door post =p6st. 

Pote, ever = byth. 

Poterion, a drinking-cup =pot. 

Pons, podos, a foot; Sanskrit, pada, a foot = haw d, a thumb. 

Pressomen, let us set about it =prysurwn. 

Priamai, to buy =prynu. 

Prinos, an oak -=pren, a tree; Sanskrit, parnin. 

Proi, early = boreu, morning. 

Ptai'ro, to sneeze = bytheirio. 

Pyrgos, a tower = bwrck, a rampart. 

Rhadios, easy = rhdd, cheap ; rhawdd, easy. 

Rhaphe, a suture = rhdff, a rope. 

Rheethron, a stream = r^af, a ford. 

Rhegmin halos, the surf or breaking of the briny sea = rhwyg-vin 

Rhegnyo, to tear = rhwygo; and rhygnu, to saw. 
Rhenchein, to snore = chwyrnu. 
Rhe'o, to flow = rnedeg, to run. 
Rhetre, a compact = rhaith, an oath. 
Rhezo, rhexas, to do = gorug. 
Rhigos, chill = rfow, frost. 
Rhiknos, wrinkled = rhygn, a notch. 
Rhimpha, freely = rhwydd, free. 
Rhin, a nose = trwyn : also r^p, headland. 
Rh'nes, nostrils =ffroenau. 
Rhinos, skin = kroen. 
Rhion, a headland = rAp. 
Rhiza, a root = gwraidd. 
Rhodon, a rose = rhudd, red. 
Rnoge, a rent = rhwyg. 
Rhoma/eos, strong = rpt>. 
Rhongchos, a snoring = rhwngc. 

152 Appendix. No. I. 

Rhydon, abundantly = rhwydd, free. 
Rhyomai, to deliver = rhyddhdu. 

Sabakos, rotten = swbach, withered. 

Sathroo, to shatter = sathru, to trample. 

Satto, to load = sadell, a pack-saddle. 

Skate, the left hand = aswy. 

Skairo, to leap or dance = esgeiriau, legs. 

Skelos, a leg = hegyl. 

Skia, a shadow = kysgod. 

Skorpizo, to scatter = gwasgaru. 

Skotos, darkness = kysgod, shadow. 

Skyleno, to strip a prey = ysglyvaethu. 

Sky Ion, a prey =ysglyv. 

Skymnos, a whelp = kyw, a chicken. 

Skythros, difficult =ysgythredd, rough rocks; and ysgyrryd, rough. 

Semnos, venerable = hen, old. 

Sibyne, a. lance = saffwy. 

Smycho, to smoke or smother =ysmygu 

Sphalma, unluck = ffalm, gwynt ffalm, a whirlwind. 

Sphyron, the ankle -=.ffer. 

Sporas, sporades, scattered =yspred, refuse. 

Stachys, an ear of corn = tywys. 

Sterxis, natural affection = serch. 

Stonachos, moaning =ystuchan (transposed syllables) = to complain. 

Stratagema, a stratagem = y strange. 

Stygeo {Homer), to fear = gostegu, to command silence. 

Synedrion, a synod = seneddr. 

Tachys, quick = tocc, soon. 

Tagos (a Thessalian term for ' chief '= tywyssawg. 

Talaos, miserable = tlawd, poor. 

Tanyo, to spread = tanu : also tan. 

Tarasso, to disturb = dyrysu. 

Tarbeo, to scare = tarvu. 

Appendix. No. I. 153 

Tarbos, a fright = tarv. 

Tartaros, the place of darkness = tarth, a vapour. 

Tasso, to order = tywyso, to lead. 

Te [Homer. Odyss.), here, take it = hwde. 

Tege, a house = ty. 

Teino, to stretch = tynnu. 

Te/e, far off =///. 

Te/cios, perfect; and telentaios, final, complete = te/ediw, beautiful. 

Te/eo, to pay or discharge = ta/u. 

Te/eiotes, perfection = teledt'wrwydd, beauty. 

Te/os, a tax = to//, custom. 

Teretron, an auger = taradr. 

Terso, to dry up = tes, heat. 

Thego, to whet = hogi. 

Thews, an uncle = ewythr. 

Theorema, a sight, a view = trem. 

Theriakc, a medicament = triag/. 

Thermal, warm baths = ennaint twymyn; i.e., unguenta tcpida. 

Thermaino, to warm = twymno. 

Thermos, hot = tes, heat. 

, = terwyn, white heat, violent. 

Thin, a sandy beach = tywyn. 

Th/ao, to shatter; and tho/eros, violent =s dii/io, to knock. 

Tho/os, a hole = tw//. 

Thorax, the breast = torr. 

Thoresso, to arm = trwsio, to array. 

Thorybos, a tumult = twrv. 

Thouros, brave = dewr. 

Thrasys, harsh = traws, stern. 

Thrano, to knock = tar aw. 

Threnos, lamentation = truan, miserable. 

Thryganao, to rub = rhugno. 

Thrypto, to relax = trwyth, dissolute. 

Thyclla, a storm = tywy/l, dark. 

Thymos, temper = tymmer. 

154 Appendix. No. I. 

Thyreos, a door = dribs. 

Tilos, manure = tail. 

Titaino, to pull = tynnu. 

Titrao, to pierce = treiddio; and trwyddo, through. 

Titthe, the mother's breast = teth. 

Tityskomai, to make ready = tidaw, to attach {e.g., a team); tywyso, 

to lead ? 
Tomos, a cut = tarn-maid, a morsel. 

Tonos, tension, and tonthrys {Hesiod), commotion = tonn, a wave. 
Tonthorys, a loud noise = dwndwr. 
Toreo, to perforate = torri, to break. 
Tomeuo, to turn = turnie. 
Tree ho, to run = rhedeg. 
Tromeros, trembling = trwm, heavy. 
Tropos, a turn = tro. 

Trypkos, a fragment = torri, to break; try w ami, to pierce. 
Tn de (Doric for su de), thou too = tydi. 
Tymbos, tymbon, a tumulus = tommen. 
Tynchano, to befall = tyccio, tyceiant, success. 
Typhlos, blind = tywyll, dark. 
Typho, to singe = deivio. 
Tyrannos, a prince = teyrn. 
Tytthon {Homer), a little = tippy n. 

Zeo, to boil = sio, to simmer. 

Leibniz, Adelung, Ottfried Mtiller thought it was the Keltic 
that supplied to the Latin the non-Hellenic portion of that lan- 
guage {De Belloguet). Some primitive speech appears to have 
affected the Greek as well; as may be inferred from the lost sound 
known as the Digamma, and from the non-Hellenic forms found in 
geography. The Kymric presents some reasonable claim to be that 



Ab, from = mab, a son, offspring. 

Abbas, abbat-is, an abbat = abaci. 

Abrado, to scrape off = bradw, worn away. 

Abscns, absent = absennol. 

Abstrnsus, perplexed = astrus, crabbed. 

Ac, and = ac. 

Accentus, accent = accen. 

Accersior, to fetch = kyrchu. 

Accipiter, a hawk = hebog. 

Accresco, to increase = achrwys. 

Acer, sharp = egr, hagr. 

Acerbus, bitter = chwcrw. 

Acernns, a maple-tree = masarn. 

Acridus x bitter = echrydus. 

Aculeus, a sting = kolyn. 

Acuo, to sharpen = hogi. 

Acus, a needle = awch. 

Addisco, to learn = addysg, learning. 

Addo, to add = addu, to proceed. 

Adduco, adduxit = addug, he brought. 

Adeo, to approach, adii'it = acth, he went. 

Aditus, a passage = adwy. 

Admissus equus, a stallion = amws. 

Admttto, to admit = addewid, a promise. 

Adnoto, to annotate = adnodi. 

156 Appendix. No. II 

Adoleo, to worship (with burning of incense) = addoli. 

Adorior, adortus, to attempt = adorth, studious. 

Adorno, to adorn = addnrno. 

Adoro, to worship = addoli; properly corresponding with adoleo. 

Adparo, to prepare = darparu. 

Adsono, to echo = adseinio. 

Advena, a stranger = advan. 

Adventura, an adventure = antur. 

Aedilis, a Roman officer charged with the reparation of public 

buildings = adeiladu, to build. 
Aequor, the sea = hoeg, sea-green. 
Aerumna, originally a fork to hang things on ; in a derived sense, 

' trouble ' = rhwym, bound. 
Aes, aer-is. brass = air, brightness. 
Aetas, an age = oed. 
Affectio, affection = affaith. 
Afflictio = avlwydd, misfortune. 
Ager, a field = acr, an acre. 
Agnus, a lamb = oen. 
Alienus, an alien = aliwn. 
Alius, another = ail, second, a match. 
Allegoria, an allegory = allcg. 
Alluvio, an inundation = lliv. 
Alodium, a freehold = anlloedd, wealth. 
Aloe, aloes = elyw. 
Altare, an altar = allawr. 
Alius, high = gallt, a steep. 
Amarus, bitter = avar, grief. 
Ambigo, to doubt = ammheu. 
Ambiguus, doubtful = ammheuus. 
Ambio, to surround = ambwyaw . 
Amictus, clothing = amdo, a shroud. 
Amnis, a river = avon; in Sanskrit, avani. 
Amoenus, pleasant ; in the Quichua of Peru, munay, love ; in 

Sanskrit, many a = addvwyn, agreeable. 

Appendix. No. II. 157 

Amp/itudo, fulness = antledd. 

Amp/us, ample = ami. 

Anachorcta, a solitary = ancr. 

Anchor a, an anchor = angor. 

Angc/us, an angel = angel. 

Angor, anguish = angau, death. 

Angulus, a corner = hong/. 

Anhelitus, breath = anad/, anciently anhclit. 

Animal, a living thing = anivail. 

Annuo, to beckon = amnaid, a nod, beckoning. 

Aperio, to open = ebyr (applied to the opening of flowers, &c). 

Apex, a point pig. 

Ap/uda (a Sabine term), coarse flour (A. Ge/lius) - blawd, fine flour. 

AppeUo, to appeal to =ymbil, to entreat. 

Apprehendo, to catch the meaning of something = amgyffred. 

Aposto/us, an apostle = aposto/. 

Aprilis, April = Ebrill, the opening month. 

Apius, fit = addas. 

Aqua, water = ach. 

Aratrum, a plough = aradr. 

Area, a chest = arch, an ark, a coffin. 

Archidiaconus, an archdeacon = archddiagon. 

Archicpiscopus, an archbishop = archesgob. 

Arduus, lofty = hardd, comely. 

Argentnm, silver = ariant, arian. 

Argumentor, to reason = argymmhennu. 

Aries, ariet-is, a ram = hwrdd. 

Arma, arms, instruments = arvan. 

Armarium, a press or aumbry = almari. 

Aro, to plough = aru, arcdig. 

Articu/us, an article = erthygl. 

Arvum, a field = eriv, an acre. 

Ascendo, to climb = csgyu. 

Asinus, an ass = asyn. 

Asperitas, sharpness = aspri, mischievousness. 

158 Appendix. No. II 

Assula, a spar = astyllen. 

Astutus, politic = astud, studious. 

Atrox, savage = ethrych-wyllt. 

Attempero, to season = ardymheru. 

Attrecto, to touch = adrywedd, the scent that hounds follow in 

Auceps, a fowler = hebog, a hawk. 
Auctor, an author = awdwr. 
Auctoritas, authority = azudurdod. 
Audeo, to dare = beiddio. 

Aula, a court of justice = hawl, a claim at law. 
Aura, a breeze = awyr, air. 
Auratus, golden = euraidd. 

Auriphrygium, orphreys, the ornament of a cope = gorffreis. 
Aurora, the dawn = gwawr. 

Aurum or ausum, from the Sanskrit ush, to burn, gold = aur. 
Austerus, severe = astrus, crabbed. 
Avidus, greedy = awyddus. 
Avis, a bird = avais. 
Autem, yet, beside = hi autem, they too, hwythau; me autem, me 

too, minnau; eum autem, him too, yntau; haec autem, she too, 

hithau; nos autem, we too, ninnau. 
Auxilium, help = achlus. 
Axilla, an arm = asgell, a wing. 
Axis, an axletree = echel. 

Bacca, a berry = bach, small. 

Baculus, a staff = bagl. 

Bajulo, to carry = baich, a burthen. 

Balaena, a whale = balaen, steel. Perhaps a metaphor. 

Bancus, a bench = maingc. 

Barba, a beard = barv. 

Baro, a soldier (emphatically, a man) ; in Low Latin, a baron = 

Basia, kisses = bus, gwe-vus, a lip. 

Appendix. No. II 159 

Batuo, to beat = baeddu. 

Baxea (Plautus), a wooden clog = bacsio, to tramp. 

Bclua maris, a sea beast = morvil, a whale. 

Bcncdictio, blessing = bendith. 

Benedictus, blessed = bendigaid. 

Beneficium, a loan of land conferred by the emperor on the Roman 

veterans; thence, a feudal tenure or feoff; lastly, a boon or 

benefit = benffyc, corrupted into benthyg. 
Bestia, a beast = bwyst-vil. 
Bibo, bibit-um } to drink =yved. 
Blatero, to prate = baldordd. 

Bonitas, goodness; hence, nobility = bonedd, noble descent. 
Brassica, cabbage = bresych. 
Brevis, short = byrr. 

Brockus, having jagged teeth = br6ch, a badger. 
Bruma, winter = barrug, a cold mist. 

Brusca [Pliny), a gnarled knob in a maple tree = brysg, a mark. 
Brutus, brutish = brwnt. 
Bucca, the cheek = bdch. 
Bufo, bufon-is, a toad = llyffant. 
Bursa, a purse =pwrs. 
Buteo, a buzzard = bdd y gwerni. 

Cado, to fall = codwm, a fall; and cwyddo, to fall. 

Caducus, falling = caddug, darkness attending sunset. 

Caedes, slaughter = cad, battle; kcd, havock. 

Coldarium, a caldron = callawr. 

Calendae, the first day of a month = dydd Calan. 

Calidus, warm = clyd. 

Calix, a cup, a chalice = caregl, in the latter sense. 

Calico, to ken, to be able=gallu. 

Callidus, crafty = call, shrewd, knowing. 

Callus, hardened flesh = calcd, hard. 

Calx, lime = calch. 

Camisia, a shirt = casmai. 

160 Appendix. No. II. 

Campus, a field = campau, games of athletes. 

Camurus, crooked = cam. 

Cana/is, a channel = canaw/, cano/, middle. 

Cance/ti, rails = canghcU, a chancel of a church. 

Cande/a, a candle = cannwyll. 

Candeo, to whiten = cannu, to bleach. 

Candidus, white = cannaid. 

Cano, to sing = canu. 

Canonici, canons of cathedrals, originally men living under religious 

rules = kynhonwyr . 
Cantilena, a song = cathyl. 
Cantor, a singer = cantor. 
Canus, hoary = cann. Canutus = canwy. 
Capellanus, a chaplain = caplan. 
Caper, a goat = gavr. 
Capio, to snatch = hipio. 
Capistrum, a snaffle = kebystr. 
Capitanctis, a captain = capten : not cadben, a battle chief, a term 

of distinct origin. 
Capitolavium, head- washing on Maundy Thursday = dydd Ian 

1 Cab/yd: 
Capihdum, the chapter of a cathedral = cabidwl. 
Cappa, a cope or mantle worn in quire = cappan cor. 
Captivitas, captivity = caethiwed. 
Captivus, a captive = caeth. 
Career, a prison = carchar. 
Cardo, car dinis, a hinge = corddyn. 
Caritas, caritat-is, affection = cariad, love. 
Carpentum, a chariot = carvan, a beam; kerbyd, a chariot. 
Carrus, a car = carr. 
Cams, dear = car, a kinsman. 
Casens, cheese = caws. 
Cassns, worthless = eds, odious. 
Castanea, a chestnut tree = castanwydd. 
Castellum, a. castle = caste//. 

Appendix. No. II. 161 

Castigatio, punishment = kystydd. 

Castigo, to punish = kystwyo. 

Castrum, a camp or fort = caer. 

Casula, a chasuble or priest's vestment at mass = casul. 

Catena, a chain = cadwyn. 

Catus, a cat = cath. 

Caucus, a bason = cawg. 

Cauda, a tail = c6d, cwd, a bag; cwtta, short. 

Can/is, pot-herbs = caw/, broth. 

Caussa, a cause = achaws. 

Cavea, cavella, a coop = catvell, a hamper. 

Cavo, to hollow out = cauo. 

Cavum, a hollow, a cave = ogoi>: cavn, a trough. 

Cavus, hollow = can : gau-brophwydi, ' false ' prophets. 

Kcdo, to give way = kadw yn 61. 

Kclla, a cell or pantry = hell: gwin-gell, a wine-store. 

Kelo, to hide = he hi. 

Kenttim, hundred = cant. 

Kenturio, a centurion = canwriad. 

Kera, wax = cwyr. 

Kerasus, a cherry tree = keiroes. 

Keres, the Latin goddess of corn ; hence ' cereal ' crops = keirch, oats, 

the cereal proper to the North. 
Kervix, the neck = gwarr. 
Kervus, a stag = kanv; plural, keirw. 
Kiborium, a cupboard or cabinet = kib, a pot. 
Kibus, meat = kibau, husks. 
/Cicatrix, a scar, craith. 
Kiker, vetches = keirch, oats. 
Kicur, tame = gwdr. 

Kicuta, hemlock = kegid; analogous to cocl, hollow. 
Kingulum, a girdle = kengl. 
Kippus, a stock = kyff. 
Kircueo, to circle = kyrchu. 
Kivitas, kivitat-is, a city, a state = h'wdawd, a people. 

1 62 Appendix. No. II 

Clades, a slaughter = lladd, to slay. 

Clamo, clamare, to shout = llavar, loud. 

Clangor, noise = clegyr, to cackle. 

Clams, br'ght = claer, llary. 

Claudo, to enclose = clawdd, a fence or wall ; claddu, to hide or 

Clandns, lame = cloff. 

Clanstrnm, a cloister or close, a confined place = elds. 
Clava, a club = clwppa. 
Clavis, clavem, a. key = allwedd. 
Clavns, a nail = clan, secure. 
Clemens, gentle - llyvn, smooth. 
Clocca, a bell = cldch. 
Cludo, to shut up = cuddio. 
Clunis, the hip = ctiin. 
Coadnno, to unite = hyttuno. 
Cochleare, a spoon = llwy. 

Coctum; e.g., aurnm coctum, refined gold = coeth, aur coeth. 
Codex, the stump of a tree, a wooden board, a book originally 

made of boards = coed, wood. 
Coecns, blind = coeg, vain. 

Coena, a dinner or principal meal = Tciniaw and cwynos. 
Conors, cohort-is, a band of soldiers = gosgordd, a train. 
Columba, a dove = colommen. 
Columna, a pillar = colovn. 
Coins, a distaff = cogail. 
Collatio, a setting together = kyvladd, suitable. 

, and collatae pecuniae, an impost = kyllid, income. 

Collatro, to bark = kyvarth, 'by transposition.' 

Collis, a hill = col, a projection. 

Colloco, to arrange = Icyvlen; (in a secondary sense), to hire = kyvlogi. 

Collnceo, to shine forth = hyvlwg, luminous. 

Collnctor, to struggle with = kyvhtdd, to hinder. 

Comedo, to eat =kyvedd, to feast. 

Comedere, comesse = hyvysn, to consume. 

Appendix. No. II 163 

Comes, coin it-cm, a partner = kydwcdd. 

, a companion = kydymaith. 

Comitas, courtesy = kyweithas. 

Comitatns, a train of followers = kymdcithas. 

Comitinm, an assembly = cwmmwd, a commot. 

Commeatns, a supply of provisions = menedd, possessions. 

Commcndo, to bequeathe = hymmynu. 

Commcnsurattis, suitable = kymmhesnr. 

Commercium, exchange of wares = kyngwcrthydd. 

Comminatio, threatening = kymmincdd, battle. 

Comminno, to break to pieces = kymmynu, to hew or chip. 

Commisceo, to mingle = kymmyscu. 

Commoda, advantages = kyvoeth. 

Commodo, to reconcile = kymmodi. 

Commodus, advantageous = kymmhwys. 

Commotio, disturbance = kymmwy. 

Commovco, commotum, to stir = kyvodi, to rise. 

Communio, the Holy Communion = Kymmun. 

Communis, common = kyvnn. 

, wonted = kynnevin. 

Compages, a setting together = kyvagos, close. 

Compar, a mate = hymmhar. 

Comparo, to get up or set in order = kywciriaiv. 

, to compare = kymmharu. 

Compello, to compel = kymmhell. 

Compleo, to complete = cwhlhau. 

Complctio maris, the sea-tide = kymmlawdd mdr. 

Complcxus, complex = kymmhlyg. 

Compono, to comprize = kyffrcd; whence the term Kyffredin (vulgus), 

the Commons, all comprized or reckoned together. 
Compono, to arrange = kymmoni. 
Compositns, set in order = kymmhwys, meet. 
Comprchendo, to take up = kymmeryd. 
Comprobo, to approve = kymmhrwyaw, to advantage. 
Comedo, to grant = caniattau. 

164 Appendix. No. II 

Conkentus, harmony = Tcynghanedd. 

Concilio, to gather together = kynnull. 

Concilium, a council = cwnsli. 

Concino, to agree = kynghanu. 

Concordia, an agreement of minds = kynghor, counsel. 

Concordo, to agree = kyd-gordio. 

Concresco, to grow up = kynnyrchu. 

Conditio, a disposition = kynneddv. 

Condo, to lay up, to hide = cuddio. 

Conduco, to bargain = kynnyg. 

Conducti milites, hired troops = kyndod, a band. 

Confectio, a making up = kyffaith, dressing of leather. 

Confero, contul-i, to collect = kynnull. 

Confessio, confession = kyffes; e.g., gldn gyffes, the Sacrament of 

Confession. Kyffes Ffydd, a Confession of Faith. 
Confinis, a border = kyffin. 
Confiteor, to confess =kyvaddev. 
Conformo, to conform = kydffurvio. 
Confortor, to succour = kymhorth and kynnorthwy. 
Confrater, an associate = kymmrawd. 
Confremo, to ring again = kyffroi, to wake up. 
Congeries, a heap = kyngherth, entangled. 
Congestum, heaped up = kynghest. 
Congrcdior, to meet = kynghreiriaw, to confederate. Also, to engage 

in battle = kyhydreg. 
Conjicio, to guess = kynnyg. 
Conj'ux, a wife, a partner = kywedd. 
Connitor, connixus, effort = kynnudd, growth. 
Consecro, to hallow kyssegru. 
Consensus, agreement = kysswyn. 
Consentior, to agree = kydsynied. 
Consilium, counsel = kyssul. 

Consolido, to solder or to join together = kyssylltu. 
Consolor, to comfort = kyssuro. 
Consonus, agreeing = kysson. 

Appendix. No. II. 165 

Constralum, covered = kyvystrawd, a saddle. 

Constringo, to bind tightly = kystrin, secrecy. 

Constructio, grammatical construction = kystrawen. 

Contendo, to strive = kyndynn, a man of strife. 

Contention strife = kynnenn. 

Couticeo, conticui, to hold one's peace = kynnhewi. 

Contineo, to hold or contain = kynnwys. 

Continuus, holding together = kyttnn. 

Contorquco, to writhe or twist = kynddeiriawg, furious with emotion. 

Contraho, contractus, a contract = kyvathrach, alliance. 

Contrarius, adverse = Armoric, contraul ; Kymric, kythraul ; the 

Adversary, the Antiquus Hostis or Old Enemy, as S. Gregory 

the Great calls the Devil. 
Contribulo, to vex = kythryblu. 
Contribution a grant = kynnhreth. 
Contrudo, to crowd = kythrudd, perturbation. 
Contundo, to bruise = kystuddio: to afflict, kymmhwyo. 
Conturbatio, disturbance = kynnwrv. 
Conhirbo, to disturb = kynnhyrvu. 
Convcntus, a convent = cwveint. Also, kenvaint vocn, a herd of 

Cofiverro, to sweep clean = kyweiriaw. 
Converto, convertit, to exchange = Icyngwcrthydd, what is given in 

Cojwictus, living in common = kyweit/ias, society. 
Co-opertura, a cover = cwvert. 
Copula, a couple = cwpl; cwvl, an embrace. 
Copulatio = cov/eidio, to embrace. 
Coquina, a kitchen = kegin. 
Coquus, a cook = c6g. 
Cor allium, coral = cwrel. 
Corium, leather = croen, skin. 
Cornus, a cornel-tree = cwyros. 
Cornu, a horn = corn. 
Corona, a crown = coron. 

1 66 Appendix. No. II. 

Corpus, a body = corph. 

Correctio, a setting right = kyvraith, law. Also, a rebuke = kerydd. 

Corrigia, a shoe-latchet = carrai esgid. 

Corylus, a hazle-tree = collen. 

Costa, a rib = cost, a side, a coast. 

Coxa, the hip = coes, the leg. 

Crassus, heavy = eras, high baked : bras, thick. 

Crates, cratella, a grate = gradell, a gridiron. 

Creator, the Creator = Creawdwr. 

Creatura, a. creature = creadur. 

Creber, thick, frequent = r/iev. 

Credo, to believe = credit. 

Creo, to create = creu. 

Cribellum, a rake = cribell. 

Cribrum, a comb = crib. 

Crinis, hair = rhawn, horse-hair. 

Crispus, curley = crisb and crych. 

Crudelis, cruel = creulawn. 

Crudus, unripe, unseasoned = cri, raw; croyw, fresh. 

Crumena, a leathern purse = croen, skin. 

Cruor, gore = crau. 

Crus, a leg = esgair. 

Crux, a cross = crvg; in later times, croes. 

Crystal/us, crystal = crisial. 

Cubile, a bed = gwely. 

Cubitus, an elbow = cuvydd. 

Cuculus, a cuckoo = c6g. 

Cucullus, a cowl = cwccwll; and cochol, a cloak. 

Culices, flies = kylion. 

Culpa, a fault = cwl. 

Cultellus, a knife = hyllell. 

Cutter, a coulter or plough-share = cwlltwr. 

Cultus, cultivation = coledd. 

Cumulus, a heap; hence in a derived sense, a cloud = cwmmwl. 

Cuneus, a wedge = cun. 

Appendix. No. II, 167 

Cufiicu/us, a cony or rabbit = cwningeu. 

Cupa, a cup = cxvppan. 

Cupidus, covetous = kybydd, a miser. 

Cuprum, copper = copr. 

Cttra, care = cur, ache. 

Currens, aqua, a stream = kerhynt. 

Curro, to run = gyrru, to drive. 

Currus, a car = carr. 

Cursus, a course = cwrs. 

Cur tots, short = cwtta; corr, a dwarf. 

Curvum, crooked = crwmm. 

Curvus, bent = gwyr. 

Cuspis, the point of a spear = cospi, to punish. 

Cutis, the skin = cwd, a bag. 

Chrismatio, the Sacrament of Chrism or Confirmation = Crysvad. 

Dama, a doe = gavr danys, through the French dain. 
Damnum, loss = damwain, hap. 
Debeo, to owe = dylcu. 

, debet, it is owing = devawd, custom ; deddv, law. 

Debitois, due = dyledus. 

Decanus, the Dean of a cathedral church = dcon. 

Decido, to fall out, to happen = digwyddo. 

Declaro, to clear up = disgleirio, to shine. 

Decuma, the tenth or tithe = degwm. 

Decuplum, the tenth = czvbl, entire. 

Decus, grace, comeliness = teg, fair. 

Defectus, a defect = diffyg. 

Defcndo, to defend = diffyn. 

Deficio, to fail = diffygio. 

Dcfiuo, to flow forth = dylivo, to drip. 

, to proceed = dcilliaw. 

Defodio, to bury diffodd, to quench. 
Deinde, thence = oddi yna. 
Deitas, the Godhead =y Duwdod. 

1 68 Appendix. No. II. 

Deleo, to blot out = dileu. 

Deletum, blotted out = dylaith, death. 

Deligo, to chuse = dethol. 

Delineo, to mark out = dilyn, to follow. 

Deliquium, a fainting fit = llewyg, llwgva. 

Delubrum, a shrine = delw, an image. 

Demando, to require = dytnuno. 

Demeto, to cut down corn = diweddu, to finish. 

Demo, to take away = diddymmu, to abolish. 

Demoneo, to summon = dyvynnu. 

Dens, dent-is, a tooth dant. 

Densus, thick = dwys. 

Denude, to strip = dynoethi. 

Denuo, again = dyna. 

Dependeo, to hang down = dibyn, a precipice. 

, to hang on = dibynnu. 

Deporto, to carry = dyborthu. 

Depravatio, a spoiling = divrawd, a laying waste. 

Depreteor, to under-rate = dibris, worthless. 

Descendo, to descend = disgyn. 

Describe, to describe = dysgrivio. 

Descriptio, a description = dysgriviad. 

Deserta, desert places = diserth. 

Desicco, to dry up = dysychu. 

Desperatus, hopeless = disperod, astray. 

Destillo, to drop = distyllio. 

Destinatio, purpose, destiny = tesni. 

Destructio, a break up = distrych tonn, the foam of a wave. 

Destruo, to destroy = distrywio. 

Desubito, suddenly = disyvyd. 

Detego, to uncover = didoi, to unroof. 

Deus, God = Duw: perhaps originally the same as the Sanskrit 

Dyaws, the Zeus, Dios of the Greeks, meaning the clear 

ethereal sky, the image of the unseen God. 
Develo, to strip = dihwylo. 

Appendix. No. II 169 

Devotus, devout = dihexvydtis. 

Dexter, a war-horse = eddestr. 

Dextera, the right hand = dethan or deheu. 

Diabolus, the devil = dt'avol. 

Diaconus, a deacon = diacon. 

Dialectike, the art of logic = dilechdid. 

Dictito, to say = dywedyd. 

Dies, day = dydd; diau, as in tridiau, three days. 

Difflo, to blow out = diffodd. 

Diluo, to dissolve = hidlo, to drop. 

Diluvium, a deluge = diluw. 

Ditnico, to strive = mic, spite. 

Dimidium, the half = dimmai, a halfpenny. 

Diminuo, to lessen = divynnio, to chop up. 

Diri, wicked men = diriaid. 

Dirimo, to break up = dirymmu, to abrogate. 

Diskerno, to exhibit = disgyrnu dannedd, to show the teeth, to gnash. 

Discipulus, a disciple or learner = dysgybl. 

Disco, to learn = dysgu. 

Discus, discul-us, a dish = dysgl. 

Dispello, to dispel = disbwyllo, to cure. 

, to draw out = dispeilaw cleddyv, to draw the sword. 

Dispensator , a steward = distain. 

Dispertior, to distribute = dosparthu. 

Disseco, to dissect = disgywen, manifest. 

Dissipatus, dried up = dispydd : dispaidd, an eunuch. 

Distringo, districtus, reduced to shivers = dystrych tonn, the spray 

of a wave. 
Ditio, a lordship = tiid, a region. 

Divello, to pluck up, to clear = diwyll, to cultivate land. 
Divcrto, to divert, or in low Latin, ' to amuse ' = divyrru. 
Dives, rich = tew, fat, rich; e.g., terra dives, tir tew. 
Divestio, to strip = diosg. 
Divinatio, divination, conjuring = dctvaiut, midnight, the witching 


170 Appendix. No. IT. 

Divino, to divine = dewinio. 
Divinus, a diviner or wizard = dewin. 

, a divine or theologian = dewinydd. 

Divisio, a division = dewis, choice. 

Divitiae, riches = devaid, sheep, the most primitive form of wealth. 

Diu, ago = hwy, longer. 

Diurnus, a day = diwrnod. 

Do, to give = dodi. 

Doctus, learned = doeth, wise. 

Dolor, pain = dolur. 

Domitor, The Subduer, God = Dovydd. 

Domo, to tame = dovi. 

Dona, gifts = doniau. 

Donatus, a famous grammarian = dwnad, a grammar. 

Donee, until = hyd oni. 

Donnm, a gift = dawn. 

Drulla, a dray = drbl. 

Dulce melos, sweet melody = dwsmel, a dulcimer. 

Dumeta, thickets = twyni. 

Duplex, twofold = dyblyg. 

Duplus, double = dwbl. 

Durus, hard = diir, steel. 

Dux, a. leader, a duke = di\g, tywysog. 

Ebibo, ebibitum, to drain = yved, to drink. 

Ebrius, drunken = brwysg. 

Ecce, lo, behold = accw; Italian, eccof 

Ecclesia, the Church = Eglwys. 

Edo, esum, to eat=ysu, to consume; Sanskrit, ush, to burn. 

Effectus, an effect effaith. 

Effluvium, an overflow =yn yfflwn, in shivers. 

Egenus, indigent = anghenus. 

Egestas, want = eisiau. 

E/'ulo, to wail = wylo. 

Atpendix. No. II 171 

Elcctrtim, amber = elidr. 

Elcctus, chosen = etholedig. 

Elccmosyna, alms = eluscn. 

Eleemosynarius, an almoner = amnerydd. 

Eletnentum, an element = clven. 

Elido, to dash = erh'd, to harass. 

Eligo, to chuse = ethol. 

Eluceo, to shine forth = cglwg, bright; e/wc/i, joy. 

Emendo, to amend = emendaw. 

Emotio, emotion = emod. 

Episcopus, a bishop = esgob. 

Epistola, an epistle = epistol. 

Epistomium, a spout =ystw. 

Ercmita, a hermit or solitary = ermid, meudivy. 

Esse, to be, being = oes, an age. 

Eiim, him = ev. 

Eval/o, to clear = c/iwa/u, to disperse. 

Evatigeh'um, the Gospel = Evengyl. 

Examen apum, a swarm of bees = haid wenyn. 

Excavo, to scoop =ysgdu. 

Exce/sus, high = tic he/. 

Excipio, to take up =ysgtpio, to snatch. 

Exczpti/tis, a snare =ysgwvy/, a prey. 

Excommum'cu, to excommunicate =ysgymmuiw. 

Excoriatus, peeled 0% scoured =ysgarth, offscouring. 

Excorio, to scour = ysgwrio. 

Excuso, to excuse = esgusodt. 

Exctitto, to shake out =ysgwyd and ysgydio; also, esgitd, nimble. 

Excmplum, a sample = stamp/. 

Exiguus, few =ychydtg. 

, scanty = ei'siwedig, poor. 

Existi'matio, esteem = cdmyg. 

Exorior, to spring up, to be born = esgor, to give birth to. 

Expello, to thrust out =yspellu. 

Expendo, to deal out, to spin or shell pease = yspeiniaw . 

172 Appendix. No. II 

Expletus, full, complete = esplydd. 

Explico. to unfold =ysp/ygu. 

Exploro, to spy out = yspi'o. 

Expono, to expound = esponio. 

Expositus, set forth, assured = ysbys, certified. 

Exscalpo, sca/pere, to scrape = ysgravellu. 

Exsculpo, to carve, to seize = ysgwvyl. 

Exccare, to cut out = ysgar, to separate, to divorce. 

Exseco, to cut out = yszgo, to bruise. 

Exsi'h'o, to issue forth = esill, offspring. 

Exspecto, to look out = yspcithiaw. 

Exspuere, to spew out = ysbwria/, sweepings, rubbish. 

Exsul, an exile = swil, distrustful, shy. 

Extendo, to stretch forth = estyn. 

Extentus, stretched out ystwyth. 

Exterreo, to frighten =ystwrdio, to rate or scold. 

Extimtis, outermost = cithav. 

Extorris, an outsider = eithyr, a foreigner. 

Extra, besides = eithr, but. 

Extractum, drawn out = ystre, a course. 

Extraneus, a stranger = estrawn, 

Extumeo, to swell up = ystyvnig, obstinate. 

Extundo, to hammer out = ystuno, to vex. 

Fab a, a bean =ffa. 
Faber, a joiner = saer. 
Factum, a fact =ffaith. 

, a thing done = gwaith, work. 

Facu/a, a torch =ffagyl, a blaze. 
Fagus, a beech-tree = ffaivydd. 
Fa/co, a hawk = givalch. 
Fa/lax, deceptive = gwallawg. 
Fallo, to deceive = gwall, fault. 

, to fail =ffaelu. 

Fafsus, false =Jfals. 

Appendix. No. II 173 

Famulus (in Oscan, fame/), a servant = mod; in Irish, m#o/, a 

shaven person, as slaves were wont to be. 
Fart] to speak = llcvaru. 
Faskella, a bundle =ffasgcll. 
Faskia, a swaddling band = gwasgu, to squeeze. 
Fash's, a bundle of rods = batch, a burthen. 
Fateor, to own = addev. 
Fa turn, fate =-ffawd. 
Favco, favet, favours = ffawd. 
Favilla, ashes = w/a>. 
Favor, favour =ffavr. 
Februus, February = Chwevror. 
Felo, a felon =Jfel, crafty. 
Femina, a female = benyw. 
Fenestra, a window =.ffencstr. 
Fermentum, barm or yeast = burym. 
Ferox, fierce =Jfer, strong. 

Ferrum, iron =Jferr, intense cold; haearn: in Spanish, hicrro. 
Ferveo, to boil = berwi. 
Fervidus, hot = brwd. 
Festino, to hasten =ffestinio; ffest, fast. 
Fes turn, a feast = gwest. 
Fetus, pregnant =ffaeth, ripe. 
^fcitf, a fig =#)'*. 
Fides, faith =jfydd. 
Figo, to prick =pigo. 
Finis, end = ////, //*. 
Firmamentum, the sky =ffurvavcn. 
Firmus, steady = $j'rz\ 
Fistula, a conduit =pisty//. 
Flaccidus, flabby = //ace. 
Flagellum, a whip =Jffaugd/. 
Flagro, to burn, to glow as fresh vegetation does = blaguro, to 

blossom, to burgeon. 
Flamma, a flame fflamm. 

174 Appendix. No. IT. 

Fiasco, a flask or flagon = fflasg. 

Flavus, pale yellow -=jfawliw. 

Flecto, to bend =plethu, to weave. 

Floccus. a lock of wool =Jfluwc/i, a full head of hair. 

Fluenta, streams = Want, fluent. 

Fluidus, flowing =ffrwd, a stream; also, hidl, distilling. 

Fluo Jtuere, to flow = I/wo/ lliveir-iant, a stream. 

, =ffreuo, to gush out. 

Fluvius, a stream = lliv. 
Focus, a hearth = ffoc, a forge. 
Foedus, foul =ffiaidd. 
Foenum, hay = gwaun, a meadow. 
Foetus, offspring = ffaeth, ripe. 
Folium, a leaf = gwull, foliage. 
Folk's, bellows ffull, haste. 

Foils, fontana, a fountain = ffynnawn; in Breton, fonteun. 
Foris, abroad = ffivrdd and fforest. 
Forma, a fashion =ffurv. 
Formica, a pismire = morgrug. 
Forum, a market =ffair. 
Fossa, a ditch =Jf6s. 

Fossatum, a military entrenchment = ffossawd. 
Fovea, a den ffau. 

Fragilis virga, a light rod =ffrcwyll, a switch. 
Frango, to break =Jfrwch, a violent outlet. 
Frater, a brother = brawd. 
Fraus, fraud-is, fraud =ffrawdd, harm. 
Fregi, I have broken = breg, a breach. 
Fremo, to chafe -=ffrojnmi. 
Fretum, a firth or narrow sea =ffrwd. 

Frigeo, to grow chilly = barugaw (pronounced brigo), a word ex- 
pressing the fall of the rime or hoarfrost. 

, to starve = trigo. 

Frigo, to fry =ffrio. 
Frio, to crumble = briwo. 

Appendix. No. II 175 

Frivolus, a weakling =ffrll. 

Froenum, a bridle =Jfrwyn; and ffrocn, nostril. 

Fructus, fruit =ffrwyth. 

Frustro, to hinder = rhwystro. 

Frustum, a fragment =ffrwst, haste. 

Frutcx, a sprout ffrwst, soon. 

Fuctis, a disguise =jfitg. 

Fugio, to escape =$oi. 

Fulgco, to shine = gwoleuo, to lighten. 

Fuligo, soot = huddigyl. 

Fumarius, a chimney = ffumer. 

Furca, a fork = fforch. 

Furia, a fury=^w>r, a vehement onset. 

Fur nits, an oven = ffwm. 

Fustis, a cudgel =-ffust. 

Galea, a helmet = kcih'og, a cock; i.e., galeatus avis, a crested bird. 

Galliis, a cock = keiliog. 

Gaiidiiim, joy = hoyw, gay. 

Gemelli, twins = gevelliaid. 

Gemma, a jewel =gem. 

Genae, cheeks = genau, lips. 

Genita, a daughter = geneth, a girl. 

Genor, to be born = <??". 

Gentilis, one of a clan = kenhedyl, a clan or race. 

Gentilitas, gentilitatis, a clan = kenhcdlaeth. 

Gestio, to play = castiau, tricks, games. 

Gilvus, pale red = gwelw. 

Glabcr, bald = cfoz;, corrupt, sick. 

Gladiiis, a sword = cleddyv. 

Glarca, gravel = graean. 

Globus, a ball = globyn, a mass. 

Glomus, a ball = clamp, a mass. 

Gluten, glue = /</. 

Glutino, to glue = glynnii, to adhere. 

176 Appendix. No. II. 

Glutto, a glutton = glwth. 

Gradior, to walk = kerdded. 

Gradus, a step = grddd. 

Grammatical grammar = gramadeg. 

Grandis, big = crawn, heap. 

Granum, grain = grawn. 

Gratia plains, gracious = rhadlawn. 

Gratia, grace = rhad. 

Gressus, steps = grisiau. 

Grillus, a grasshopper = grill, a chirping noise. 

Grex, a herd = gre. 

Grunno, to grunt = gryngian. 

Grus, a crane = crehyr. 

Gula, the throat =y gylla. 

Gurges, a spendthrift = gwrgi, a ravenous dog. 

Giistus, taste = gwst, moist. 

Guttur, the throat = gwddwv. 

Habenac, the reins of a bridle = avwynau. 

Habilis, able = abl. 

Habitatio, a dwelling, home = haddev. 

Hac node, to-night = henoeth, heno. 

Haedus, a kid = hydd. 

Haeres, an heir = aer. 

Hedera, ivy = eiddiorwg. 

Helveolas, pale red = gwelw, pale. 

Hie, he; haec, she, hi; hanc, her, honn; hi, they, hwy; hnnc, him, 

hwn; hi antem, they too, hwythan. 
Hircus, a goat = iwrch, a roe-buck. 
Hirrire, to neigh (Festns.) = gweryru. 
Hirsntus, prickly, harsh = arswydns, repulsive. 
Hirtns, rough = hurt, stupid. 
Hispidus, rugged = hispydd, barren. 
Historia, a story =ystori; also, ystyr, meaning. 
Hiulcus, gaping = bwlch, a gap. 

Appendix. No. II. 177 

Hodie, to-day = hcddyw. 

Honcstus, honest = gonest. 

Honoratus, honoured = anrhydedd, honour. 

Hora, an hour = awr. 

Hordcum, barley = haidd. 

Horridus, horrible = hyll. 

Hortus, a garden = gardd. 

Hospes, a guest = osp. 

Hospitium, an hospice or inn =yspytty. 

Humilis, humble = huvyll. 

Humilitas, humilitat-is, humility = uvylltawd. 

Humus, moist ground; humidus, moist = wv, flowing. 

Hyades, the wet stars = hwyaid, ducks. 

Hymnus, a hymn = emyn. 

Ibex, the steinbock of the Alps=jy bwch, the goat par excellence. 
Ictus, a blow = ich, that which penetrates, sharp. 
Idoneus, a rich man = eidion, oxen; hence, the owner of them. 
Ignis (Sanskrit, agni), fire = egino, to spring up as vegetables by 

Illi, they; illi duo, they two = ill dau. 
Immitis, savage = anvad. 
Immortalis, undying = anvarwawl. 
Imperator, a military commander or Emperor = Ymherawdwr. Im- 

pero, to order = peri. 

Impeto, to assail =ymbwyo. 

Imploro, to beseech =ymbil. 

Import- a ticium frumentum, imported corn = ymborth, nourishment. 

Imprudens, unwise = ammhrudd. 

In, the preposition 'in'=^w. 

Incendo, to kindle = ennyn. 

Incommodus, unfit = anghymmhwys . 

Incomparabilis, incomparable = anghymmharawl . 

Iticonditus, ill-framed = anghynnwys. 

Incongruus, unsuitable = anghyngres. 

178 Appendix. No. II 

Incurro, to set on = ymgyrchu. 
Incus, an anvil = eingion. 
Incutio, to engage = ymgydio. 
Inde, thence =yna. 
Induviae, clothes = amdo, a shroud. 
Ineptus, silly = anaddas. 
Inferna, the lower region or hell = uffern. 
Infidus, faithless = anffydd. 
Infinitus, not ended = anniben, endless, slow. 
Informis, shapeless = anffurv. 
Ingenium, a man's nature = anian. 
Inimici, enemies = envys. 

Initium, beginning = preserved in Df Mawrth Ynyd, Shrove Tues- 
day, Initium Quadragesimae , the beginning of Lent. 
In querela, in a quarrel = ymgeccru, to wrangle. 
Inqmsitio, an inquiry =ymgais. 
In-quit, he saith = yn gweyd. 
Inruptio, an invasion = anrhaith, spoils. 
Insono, to echo = amseiniaw . 
Instabilis, unsteady = anystywallt. 

Instrumentum, instrument = ysturmant, a Jew's harp. 
Insula, an island =-ynys. 
Inlendo, to wrestle =ymdynnu. 
In terra-mentum, burial = terment. 
Intus, within =yn ty, in the house, at home. 
Inungo, to anoint = enneinio. 
Invidus, envious ynvyd, foolish. 
Ira plenus, ireful = irllawn. 
Iratus, angry = eiriad, dreadful. 
Ita, yes = ie. 
Item, besides = hevyd. 
Iter, itin-eris, a journey = hynt. 

Jugulum, the throat = gwegil, the nape of the neck. 
Jugum, a yoke = iau. 
Jusculum, broth = isgell. 

Appendix. No. II. 179 

Juvencus, young = iettanc. 
Juventns, youth = ewaint. 

Labasco, to decay = llesg, feeble. 

Labor, labour = llavur. 

Labor, to slip = llithro. 

Laboriosus, laborious = llavnrus. 

Labrusca, a wild vine = brwysg, drunken. 

Lac, lact-is, milk = Uacth. 

Lacus, a lake = llwch. 

Laedo, to hurt = //add, to slay. 

Laesio, a hurt =gloes, anguish. 

Laesus, hurt = clais, a mark of a blow. 

Laevigo, to smooth = Uyvnhdu. 

Lacvis, smooth = llwvn. 

Lacvns, oblique = Ueddv. 

Laicns, a layman = gwr lleyg. 

Lambo, to lick = Uyvn. 

Lamina, the blade of a sword = Uavn. 

Lana, wool; lanugo, downy hair = gwldn. 

Langueo, to relax = gollwng. 

Languesco, to languish = llesghau. 

Latiguidus, weary = llnddedig. 

Lanista, a fencing master = llain, a sword. 

Lapido, to stone = llabvidio. 

Lapis, a stone = clap, a round mass. 

Latebra, a covert = Hetty, a place of refuge. 

Latex, juice, liquor = llaith, moist. 

La tr ones, robbers = lladron. 

Latus, wide = llydan. 

Laurtis, a bay-tree = llaivr-wyddcn. 

Lans, laud-is, praise = llawdd and clod. 

Laxo, to loose or discharge = llocsi. 

Laxus, loose = llaes. 

Lcctica, a litter = lleit/iig, a footstool. 

180 Appendix. No. II. 

Lector, a reader = lleawdr. 

Lectus, a bed = Hetty, a shelter. 

Legio, a legion = lleng. 

Lego, to read as lleain. 

Leo, a lion = llew. 

Lepra, leprosy = clavr. 

Lethum, death = llaith. 

Levament-iim, & rising = levain, leaven. 

Levis, smooth = llyvn. 

Lex, a law = llech, a stone. The Law given to Moses was written 
on tables of stone. 

Liber, a book = llyvr. 

Liber (aditzis), a free passage = llwybr, a path. 

Lignum, timber = llwyn, a grove. 

Lilium, a lily = lili. 

Lima, a saw = lliv; also, limaius, sharpened = llymm, sharp. 

Limpidns, clear = /limp. 

Linea, a line = llinell. 

Linum, flax = llin. 

Liqnesco, to melt = llesgdu, to be relaxed. 

Lis, lit-is, contention = Hid, anger. 

Littera, a letter = llythyr. 

Lividus, ashy pale = llwyd. 

Lixivium, lye-ashes = lleisw. * 

Locellus and loculus, a safe-box = llogell. 

Loco, to hire = Hog, wages. 

Locus, a place = lie. 

Locus ta, a locust = lieges t. 

Locutio, a speech = llochwydd, a prayer. 

Longa, a long boat or ship = Hong. 

Lorica, a coat of mail = llurig. 

Lubricus, slippery = llwvr, faint-hearted. 

Luceo, to lighten = llewychu. 

Lucerna, a lantern = llugorn and llusem. 

Lucidus, bright = lluched, lightning. Lucet, it shines. 

Appendix. No. II 181 

Lu-crum, gain = elw. 

Luctor, luctaris, to withstand = lluddias. 

Lumbricus, an earth-worm = llyngyren, a worm. 

Lumbus, the loin = y llwyn; also, llwmm, bare. 

Lumen, light = llewyn. 

Luna, the moon = llitn, in Df Llun, Monday. 

Lurco, a glutton = llyngcu, to swallow. 

Luridus, sombre = lliir. 

Luscus, a man that is dim-sighted, as affected by glaring heat = 

llosc, burning; in Armoric, heat. 
Luscinia, a nightingale, a bird that is heard in warm weather = 

perhaps from luscus and llosc. 
Lutum, mud = llaid; lludxv, ashes. 
Lux, light = lliich, Hug, and llewych. 

Maceria, a rough wall = magwyr, a partition. 

Machina, a machine = megin, a pair of bellows. 

Macto, to slay = maeddu, to injure. 

Mactus, nourished = maeth. 

Macida, a spot = magi. 

Madeo, to be drunk = mwydaw, to moisten. 

Madidus, moist = maidd, whey. 

Maenia, walls or fortifications = macn, a stone, pi. menu. 

Magi's, more = mwy.' 

Mdgister, a master = mcistr. 

Magnitudo, size = maint. 

Magnus, great = myg, majestic. 

Major, greater = mawr, great. 

Maledictio, a curse = melldtth. 

Malitia, malice = malais. 

Ma/us, evil = mall; y Vail, the Evil One. 

Mamma, the mother's breast = mam, mother. 

Mando, to eat = mant, mouth. 

, to order mynnu. 

Maneo, to abide = man, a place, abode. 

1 82 Appendix. No. II. 

Manganellum, a war engine = mangnel. 

Manica, a glove = maneg. 

Mantile, a mantle = mantell. 

Mantisa, a profit = mantais. 

Manubrium, a handle = mcnybr. 

Manus, a hand = mini. 

Mare, the sea = mor; Sanskrit, mirah; German, meer. 

Margarita, a pearl = mererid. 

Margo, a brink = bargod, eaves. 

Marinus, a seaman = morinwr. 

Marra, a ram = maharen. 

Martellus, a hammer = morthwyl. 

Martyr, a martyr = merthyr. 

Masticatus (cibus), chewed meat = mestig. 

Materia, matter = madredd. 

Maturatus, ripe = addved. 

Medicina, medicine = meddyginiaeth. 

Medicus, a physician = meddyg. 

Medulla, the marrow = meddal, soft ; in a derived sense, meddwl, 

mind, thought. 
Mel, honey = mel. 
Melius, better = gwell. 
Melleus, honeyed = melus, sweet. 
Membrana, parchment = memrwn. 
Membranula, a shred = mymryn. 
Memor, mindful = myvyr, studious. 
Mens, ment-is, mind =ymmennydd, the brain. 

= mynmi (inentem habeo), to will. 
Mensura, a measure = mesur. 
Meo, meantes, to go = myned. 
Mercatus, traffic, a market = marchnad. 
Merula, a blackbird = mwyalch. 
Metallum, metal = mettl. 
Meto, to reap = medi; meddu, to measure. 
Metrum, a measure or metre = medr, to skill. 

Appendix. No. II. 183 

Mcttio, to fear = methu, to fail. 

Metis , mine, my = man. 

Micans, glittering = mychedyn, the sun. 

Migratio, a wandering = crwydrad. 

Mini, to me = i mi. 

Miles, a soldier = milwr. 

Mille, a thousand = mil. 

Milliarium, a milestone = milltir, a mile. 

Milvtis, a cormorant = mulvran. 

Minister, a servant = menestyr. 

Minutum (tempus), a minute = mnnud. 

Miuutus, fine, thin = manwaidd; main. 

Miracuhim, a miracle = mirach. 

Miranda, admirable = mirain. 

Miror, to gaze on = mir, comely. 

Mitia, dainties = moethan. 

Mitis, mild mivyth, mwydig, mocthns; esmwyth, smooth. 

Mitto, to let go peidio; also, to remit = madden. 

Modes ins, modest = moddns. 

Modins, a measure = mwys. 

Modulus, a hay-cock = mwdwl. 

Mo/a, molendina, a mill = melin. 

Molaris, a cheek-tooth = malurio, to grind. 

Moles, a mass = mwl. 

Molcstia, trouble = molest. 

Molior, molitus, to attempt =ymavlyd, to lay hold of. 

Mollis, soft, relaxed = mwyll; also, miwail, smooth. 

Mollities, softness = malldod. 

Molo, to grind = main. 

Monac litis, a monk = mynach. 

Moneta, money = mwnai. 

Monile, a necklace = mwnivgyl, the throat. 

Mons, montis, a mountain = mynydd and intent. 

M'jiiumentum, a monument = mynwent, a cemetery. 

Morior, to die = marw. 

184 Appendix. No. II. 

Morosa, a nice, dainty lady = mursen (in a bad sense). 

Mortahs, mortal = marwol. 

Morum, a blackberry = mwyar. 

Morus, a mulberry tree = morwydd. 

Mos, a manner or habit = moes; also, maws, moral. 

Motus, motion = mwth, speedy. 

Afoveo, to stir = ckwyvio, to wave. 

Mox, soon, presently = moc/i, quick. 

Mucro, a sword = mygr, bright. 

Mucus, the filth of the nose = mygn, mire. 

Mu/tum, much = maith. 

Mu/us, a mule = mul. 

Muneratio, a bestowal = munerawd. 

Munificus, liberal = mwynvawr. 

Munus, a gift = mwynhdu, to enjoy; also, kym-mwynas, an obligation. 

Mums, a wall = mur. 

Musa, the Muse, wit = tnwys. 

Miiscus, moss = mwswg. 

Mussito, to murmur = mwstr, a muster. 

Muto, to remove = mudo. 

Mutus, dumb = mud. 

Naevus, a blemish = niweid, an injury. 

Napus, a turnip = maip, turnips. 

Natalis, natalic-iiis {Christi), 'the Birthday' or Christmas day = Na- 
talie or Nadolig Crist. 

Natrix, a water-snake = neidr, pi. nadroedd. 

Natura, nature = natur. 

Nauci, a nut = cnau, nuts. 

Navo, navare, to work strenuously = gwnav, I will do it, from 
gwneuthur ', to do. 

Ne, not = ni. 

Nee, nor = nac. 

Neco, to kill = nychu. 

Appendix. No. II. 185 

Negatio, a denial = naccad. 

Nego, to deny = naccdu. 

Negotium, business = negcs, through the French negoce. 

Nemo, not one = neb un. 

Nepotes, nephews = neiod. 

Neptis, a niece = nith. 

Nervi, nerves, strength = north. 

Neuter, neither = ncodr. 

Neutralis, neutral = nidrol. 

Nidus, a nest = nyth. 

Nimis, too much, excessive = nxvyvus, wanton. 

Nives, snows = nyv. 

No, to swim; navigo, to sail = novio, to swim. 

Noceo, nocitum, to hurt = niwaid. 

Noctc hes tenia, last night = ncithiwr. 

Nomen, a name = enw. 

Nona, the ninth hour or noon = nawn. 

Nonna, a nun, a term borrowed from Egypt, where it signified 

' an aged woman ' = nain, a grandmother. 
Nos, we = ni : nos autem, but we = ninnau. 
Nota, a mark = nod; and nawd, a character. 
Noto, to mark = nodi. 

Notus, known = hynod; also, gnawd, customary. 
Novem, nine = naw. 
Novitas, novelty = nevoid, a change. 
Novitius, new = newydd. 
Nox, night = nos; in Sanskrit, nisa. 
Nubcs, clouds = nyv, nev; Sanskrit, nab hah, the sky. 
Nucleus, a kernel = cnyivyll, cnywyllen. 
Nudus, naked = noeth. 
Xumcn, the Divinity = Ndv. 
Numerus, a number = niver. 
Nupera hora, recently = neithiwr, yesterday. 
Nuptiac, nuptiarum, a wedding = neithiawr. 
Nutrimcntum, nurture; nutrio, to nourish = mcithrin . 

1 86 Appendix. No. II. 

Nutus, assent = nawdd, protection. 
Nux, a nut = cncuen. 

Obedio, to obey = uvuddhdu. 

Obitus, decease = obediw, a heriot due to the feudal lord on the 
tenant's demise. 

Obstinatus, stubborn =ystyvnig. 

Occasio, an occasion = achlysur. 

Occidens, the setting sun, the west = ozhideint. (Nennius.) 

Occino, to sing as ill-omened birds do = ochain, a sigh. 

Occludo, to shut up = achludd, to hide; whence mac Mud haul, sun- 

Occo, to harrow = ogi. 

Occulo, to hide = gochel, to avoid. 

Occupo, to take up = achub. 

Octava nox, the eighth night = wythnos, a week. 

Octo, eight = wyth. 

Octihts, an eye = gotwg, sight; but the plural golygon, eyes. 

Offerenda (in French, Offrande), the Mass or Eucharistic Oblation 
= Offer en. 

Offerens, a priest or he that offers sacrifice = offeiriad. 

Oleum, oil = olew. 

Olwa, an olive tree = olew-wydden. 

Olor, a swan = alarch. 

Omitto, to pass by = gommedd, to refuse. 

Omni die, every day = beunydd. 

Opera, a work = gwobr, work's pay. 

Opus, oper-is, a work = gober. 

Ora, a border = goror. 

Oratio, a speech = araeth. 

Orbis, the world, an orbit or circumscription = bro, a district. 

Ordo, an order, the sacred ministry = urdd. 

Oriens, the sunrise, the east = dwyrain. 

Origo, a source = argre. 

Orior, to rise = dwyre, arwyre, and orwyrain. 

Appendix. No. II 187 

Omits, an ash-tree = onnen. 

Ovis, a sheep = davad. 

Ovum, an egg = ivy; ova, eggs = wyau. 

Pagtts, a village =//, a dwelling; hence lywys or Powis-\zx\& in 

.Prt/tf, a spade =pdl. 

Palatt'um, a palace = palas, through the French palais. 
Palatus, the palate = bids, the taste. 
Palleo, to turn pale = pallu, to faint. 
Pallium, a mantle =pall. 
Palma, a hand = palv; also, pawen, a paw. 

, a palm-tree = balalwyv. 

Palpo, to grope = palvalu. 

Pains, a pool =pwll; also, pawl, a pole. 

Pando, to open =pant, a hollow. 

Paneterium (Low Latin), a bread-store = pantri. 

Pant's, bread = pain, fine flour. 

Pannus, cloth =pann. Pannwr, a fuller; pandy, a fulling-mill. 

Papa, the Pope = 7^3. 

Papains, the Papacy = Pabaeth. 

Papaver, a poppy =pabi. 

Papilio, a tent = pa bell. 

Papyrus, a rush = pabwyr; also, papur, paper. 

/frr, a match =par. 

Parabola, a j arable =-parabl. 

Paradisus, a Paradise = Paradwys. 

Paralysis, palsy =parlys. 

Paratus, ready =.parawd. 

Paries, pariet-is, a partition-wall = pared. 

Parma, a shield = parvais. 

Pars, part-is, a part =parth. 

Paro, to order =peri. 

Par -oc hits, a parish priest = periglor '. 

Pasclta, Easter = /fr^. 

1 88 Appendix. No. II 

Pasco, to feed = pesg*. 

Pascor, to graze =pori. 

Patella, a pan = padell. 

Patco, patens, bare ground, the open =paith, desert, unoccupied 

Paternoster, the Lord's prayer, ' Our Father," &c. =y Pader, the 

Pater, &c; Paderau, beads, or the recital of several Paternosters. 
Paucitas, smallness = bychodedd. 
Paucus, little = bach. 
Pavimentnm, a pavement =palmant. 
Pavio, to beat against =paffio, pwyo. 
Pavo, pavon-is, a peacock =paun. 
Pavor, fear = braw. 
Peccatum, sin pechawd. 
Pecco, to sin -=pechu. 

Pec ten, a comb =peithyn, a weaver's stay. 
Pcdalis, a foot's measure =-pedawl, a horse's shoe. 
Pedes tris, a foot passenger = peddcstyr. 
Pedites, infantry = peddyd. 
Pello, to drive afar =pell, far. 

Penates, household gods = pennacthiaid, presidents. 
Penitus, utterly -=pen iddo, an end to it. 
Penna, a pen = pin. 
Penso, to weigh -=pivyso. 
Peractus, perfect =^peraidd, ripe. 
Percntio, to strike = ergydio. 
Perdix, a partridge =petris. 
Peregrinus, a pilgrim = pererin. 
Perfectns, perfect = pcrffaith. 
Periculum, peril =perygl. 

Per-media, through =pen>edd, the entrails, the interior. 
Persona, a person, the parson of a parish = person. 
Pcrtinentes, belongings = perthynasan, relations. 
Pertineo, to belong to =perthyn. 
Pes, ped-is, a foot =pedd. 

Appendix. No. II 189 

Phiala, a vial = ph'io': paeo!, a holy water stoup. 

Pica, a magpye = //, p'iogcn. 

/'it en, the pitch-tree =pyg, pitch. 

Pi/a, a ball =pel. 

I*ilus, hair = blew; in French, poil. 

Pinus, a pine-tree = pin-ivy dd. 

Pper, pepper = tupur. 

Piscatio, fishing =pyscotta, to fish. 

Piscator, a fisherman = pysgodwr . 

Piscis, a fish =pysg. 

Pisum, pease =pys. 

Pix, pitch =pyg. 

Placitum, a law-suit = plaid; in French, plaids. Also, plcgyd. 

Plaga, a pestilence -pla. 

Planta, a plant = plannigyn. 

Plantae, plants, young trees = plant, children. 

Manto, to plant = plannn. 

Planum, a level or clearing = llan. 

Piatanus, a plane-tree = llydau, spreading. ({ Piatanus patidis diffusa 
rami's ' Virgil.) 

Plaudo, to applaud = bloeddio, to shout. 

Plaustrum, a waggon = llestr, a vessel. 

Plausus, applause = bloddest. 

Plcbs, the people or commons -plwyv, a parish. 

Plecto, to plait =plethu. 

Menus \ full = llaivn; llamv, a tide; llenwi, to fill. 

Plcrumque, for the most part = llwyr. 

Plico, to fold =plygu. 

Plumae, feathers =p/uv, phi. 

Plumbum, lead = phvm. 

Plures, more = llawer, many. 

I'luvia, rain =gialaw. 

Poena, a penalty =poeti, pain. 

Pn'iiitcntia, penance =penyd. 

fhem'teo, to do penance --pcnydiu. 

190 Appendix. No. II. 

Pollen, fine flour = peilliad. 

Pondo, a pound weight = pwnn, punt. 

, ponder-is (genitive case) =pynnyr, a pack. 

Pondus, a weight =pwys, through the French pois. 

Pons, pont-is, a bridge = pont. 

Popina, a cook shop =pobi, to bake. 

Populus, the people =pobl; pawb oil, all entirely. 

, a poplar tree =poplys. 

Porcellus, a. pig = porcl/ell. 

Porta, a gate -=porth. 

Porto, to convey =-porthi, to feed. 

Partus, a haven porthladd. 

Post's, a lintel = post. Perhaps from positus {lapis), a stone or other 

thing set up to indicate distance. 
Pot-est, potis est, he can, he possess :s =piau. 
Practicus, practical =praith. 
Praeda, a flock of sheep, plunder = praidd. 
Pracdator, a robber = preiddwr. 
Praedicatio, a preachment = pregcth. 
Praedico, to preach = pregcthu. 
Praescns, present = presennol. 
Praesepe, a manger =preseb. 

Praesidium, a defence = pryseddva and preswylva, a camp. 
Praesto, speedily =prest. 
Prandium, a luncheon =prain. 
Pravus, wicked = brau, brittle, worthless. 
P-rec-atia, an imprecation = rheg. 
Prehenda, to take = prynnu, to buy. 
Premo, to press, to squeeze = briwa, to hurt. 
Pressura, a pressure =prysur, hasty. 
Prctium, a price =prid-zverth; that is, pret-ii vert-us, worth the 

price. When pretium came to be pronounced and written 

precium, the Welsh got the word pris through the French 

Prima liora, the hour of Prime = awr briv. 

Appendix. No. II. 191 

Primatus, superiority = bri, dignity, precedence. 

Primula (veris), the primrose = briallu. 

Primus, chief = priv. 

Privatus, private or peculiar = priawd. 

Probatio, a proof =proviad. 

ProbOj to prove =provi. 

Procclla, a storm = brochcll. 

Procu/, afar = pell. 

Prodo, to betray = bradu. 

Prqfessio, profession -=-proffcs. 

Profundum, the deep = pryffwnt, the centre. 

Prohibitum (in the Oscan, Pru/iipid), a forbidden thing = r/iybudd, 

a warning. 
Prologus, a prologue = prol. 
Prophcta, a prophet = prophwyd. 
Prof>rius, proper =propr, neat. 
Provincia, a province =prew. 
Prudcns, sage =prudd. 

Prudentia, prudence =pryd, reflection, thought. 
Psalferium, a psalter = sallwyr. 
Puber, lusty, young =pybyr. 
Pulcher, beautiful =pevyr. 
Pulchritudo, beauty =pryd. 
Pulli cantus, the cock-crowing = Pylgain or Plygain, the early Mass 

on Christmas day. 
Pullus equinus, a mare's foal = ebol. 
Pulmentarium, gruel = llymru. 
Pulver, dust = pylor. 

Pulvinar, a feather cushion; from the Welsh pluv, feathers. 
Punctum, a point =pwyta, a stitch. 
Putigo, impingo, to pierce or peck =pigo. 
Putiiceus, purple, bright deep Ted=pfiion cochav. 
Punio, to punish = pocni, to hurt. 
Pit/go, to cleanse =puro. 
Purus, pure =piir. 

192 Appendix. No. II 

Puteus, a well =pydew. 
Putreo, to rot =pydru. 
Putris, naughty = budr % unclean. Putres ocirfi {Horace), golygon 

Pyrus, a pear-tree = per en; from per, sweet. 

Qua, which way = /to. 

Qua cunque, which way soever =pa bynnag. 

Quadragesima, Lent = Garawys. 

Quadrangulus, four cornered =pedrogl. 

Quadratus, square =ysgwdr. 

Quadrilateralis, four square = betrual. 

Quacso, to seek, to get = ceisio. 

Quaestor, a receiver of tribute = keisiad. 

Quaestus, cost = cost : ve gyst, it will cost. 

Qua/is, such as = mdl; pa valf 

Qualitas, a sort = gwehelyth, a stock. 

Qualus, a hamper = catvell. 

Quam, how? = pa ham, why? 

Quamdudum, how long?=^ hyd f 

Quando, when =pan. 

Quantitas, bigness = maint. 

Quantus, how many? = pa vaint? 

Quasi, in a manner =pa sut. 

Quatuor (in Aeolic Greek, petores; in the Oscan, petora), four = 

Quern ad-modum, how ? =pa vodd? 
Querela, a complaint, a quarrel == cweryl. 
Quernus, oaken =pren, a tree. 
Quertdus, complaining = goriawl. 
Qui, who = pwy ? 

Quicunque, whosoever =pwy bynnag. 
Quid, what ? = beth ? 

Quidquid, whatever; in the Oscan, pitpit (Festus.)=pa beth? 
Quies, quiet-is, rest = hedd; echwydd, the calm of evening. 

Appendix. No. II. 193 

Quicsco, to sleep = kyscu. 

Quinquc, five =pumf>. 

Quisquiliae, sweepings = gwehilio7i, gweddill. 

Quo, by how much =po. 

Quondam, formerly = kynt. 

Quot, how many? = pet {Talicsin). 

Rabies, madness = rhaib. 

Radius, a ray = rhaidd, a spear. 

Radix, a root = gwraidd. 

Rado, to scrape = rhathu. 

Rapax, greedy = rheibus. 

Rapio, to snatch = crap {olwg), a moment's glance. 

Raptim, in a hurry = rhawth. 

Rastellum, a rake = rhadell. 

Rastrum, a rake = rhaw, a. spade. 

Ratio, ration-is, a reason = rheswm. 

Ratus, resolved, determined = rhaid. 

Raucus, hoarse = cryg. 

Rebellio, rebellion = rhyvel, war. 

Rector, a ruler = rheiddwar. 

Rectum, right = rhaith. 

Redditus, set free = rhydd, free. 

Reddo, to render = rhoddi, to bestow. 

Redimo, to redeem = rhivymo, to bind. 

Reditus, a return, rent = rhent. 

Regalis, royal = rhial. 

Regina, a queen = rh'iain, rhwyvanes. 

Registrum, a register = rhcstr. 

Regula, a rule = thiol. 

Regulator, a manager = rhaglaxc. 

Reliquium, the remainder = rhelyxv. 

Remcdium, a remedy = rhwymcdi. 

Remigo, to row = rhwyvo. 

194 Appendix. No. II 

Remus, an oar = rhwyv. 

Ren, the reins = arenau. 

Rete, a net = rhwyd. 

Revereor, reverit-us, to regard with awe = rhyverthwy, a portentous 

Revideo, to look back at or regard a thing = rhyveddu, to admire. 
Rex, a king = rhwyv. 
Rheda, a chariot = rhedeg, to run. 
Rigeo, to stiffen = rhewi, to freeze. 
Ringo, to grin = rhingcian. 
Ritus, a method = rhith. 
Rivus, a bank = rhiw, an acclivity. 
Rixa, strife = ymryson. 
Rixator, a striver = rhyswr, a warrior. 
Rosa, a rose = rhosyn. 

Rostrum, a snout = taro (by transposition). 
Rota, a wheel = rhod. 

Rotari, to take a turn = rhodiaw, to walk about. 
Rotulus, a roll = r^o/. 
Rotundus, round = crwnn. 
Rubellio, a roach = rhuvell. 
Rubidus, red = rhudd. 

Rudera, ruins = rhwd, rust. Rudis, uncultivated. 
Ruga, a wrinkle = crych. 
Rugio, to roar = rhuo; also, rhoch, a grunt. 
Rm'na, ruin = rhewin. 

Ruitur-us, about to rush = rhuthro, to rush. 
Rumor, a. stream (in an old poet cited by Cicero and in Virgil) = 

rhyverthwy, an inundation. 
Rumpo, to break off = rhympio, to break an engagement ; rhwmp, 

an auger. 
Runa, verse = rhin, a charm. 
Rus, cultivated land = rhws. 
Ruta, the herb ' rue ' = rhut. 
Ruti/us, red dyed = rhuddell, ruddle. 

Appendix. No. II 1 95 

Sacapcrium, a scrip = ysgrcppan. 

Saccus, a sack = sacli. 

Sacramentum, a sacrament = sacraven. 

Sacrifkiiun, a sacrifice = Segyrffig, the Sacrifice of the Mass. 

Sagax, shrewd =ysag, studious. 

Sagitta^ an arrow = saeth. 

Saliva, spittle = haliw. 

Salix, a willow-tree = helyg. 

Salsamentum, sauce = selsig. 

Sambucus, an elder-tree =ysgaw. 

Sajictus, holy = sanct. 

Sauna, banter = senn. 

Sauo, to cure = swyno. 

Sapiens (in the Oscan, sipus), a wise man = syw. 

Sapo, sapon-is, soap = sebon. 

Sapor, taste = sawyr. 

Saturn, that which is sown, a crop = had, seed. 

Saturitas, fulness, dung = siwtrws, a mass, debris. 

Scaber, scabratus, rough =ysgyrryd. 

Scala, a ladder = ysgol. 

Scamillum, a bench =ysgemmydd. 

Scamnum, a stool to mount up by = ysgavn. easy. 

Scapha, a boat =ysgrapf. 

Scapular e, a scapular ^ysgablar. 

Scarifico, to lance a sore =ysg- iffinio. 

Scatco, to abound =ysgadati, h-jrrings, the most abundant fish in 

the British seas. 
Sccleratus, criminal =ysgeler. 
Schola, a school = ysgol. 

Scliolastici, scholars, or in Church phrase, ' clerks ' = ysgol licigion. 
Scintilla, a spark = ysglcnt, rebounding. 
Scobs, saw-dust =ysgoew, light. 
Scopae, a besom =ysgub. 
Scorbutics, foul matter = ysgerbwd, a carcase. 
Scoria, refuse metal = ysgar, to separate. 

196 Appendix. No. II 

Scortum, an harlot =ysgarth, refuse matter. 

Scribo, to write =ysgrivenu. 

Scrinium, a screen or shrine =ysgrm. 

Scriptura, a writing, the Holy Scripture = Yr Ysgrythur. 

Scruta, trumpery =ysgrwd, a carcase. 

Scutella, a dish =ysgutell. 

Scutum, a shoulder, a shield = ysgwydd. 

Seco, to cut = sigo, to bruise. 

Securitas, idleness = seguryd. 

Securus, idle = segur: steer, safe. 

Sedatus, settled = syth, straight. 

Sedes, a seat = eisteddva; hedd, peace. 

Sedile, a seat =ystol, a stool. 

Seges, a crop = hesg, sedge. 

Semita, a bye-path = kemz'ad, a border. 

Senator, an elder = henadur. 

Senatus, a senate = senedd. 

Senex, old = hen. 

Sensus, sensorzttm, sense = synwyr. 

Sejitio, to perceive = synm'aw, synniad, feeling. 

Sefiaro, to set apart, to spare = arbed. 

Septem, seven = saith. 

Sequor, to follow = in Irish, seichim; Welsh, haig byscod, a shoal 

of fish. 
Serenus, fair = seirian. 
Sericum, silk = sirig. 

Serpens, a serpent = sarph; Sanskrit, sarpa. 
Serra, a saw = serr, a sickle. 
Serum, the evening = hwyr. 
Severus, stern = sarrng, sour. 
Sevutn, tallow = saim. 
Sibilo, to hiss = s'io. 
Siccus, dry = sych. 
Sidera, stars = sir. 
Sidus, a constellation = sewyd (Talicsin). 

Appendix. No. II. 197 

Sigillum, a seal = sil. 
Signa, constellations = sygnau. 

Signo, to cross one's self in token of surprise = synnu, to mar- 
Simia, an ape = simach. 
Similis, like = haval and hevelydd. 
Simplex, simple = syml. 

Simulo, to counterfeit = siommi, to disappoint. 
Sindon, fine linen = syndal. 

Singulus, single = sengl (in the sense of ' celibate '). 
Siren, a mermaid = sywen. 
Situs, a position = sutt, swydd. 
Soboles, offspring = eppil. Sovl, stubble. 
Sol, the sun = Sid, used only in Dydd Sid, Sunday. 
Solidus, a shilling = swllt. 

Solum, ground as sail, foundation ; and sylvaen. . 
Sonus, a sound = sain, son, and swyn. 
Sordes, filth = sorod, dregs. 
Soror, a sister = chwaer. 
Sors, sort-is, a lot = syrthio, to fall out. 
Spatium, space =yspaid. 
Speculor, to spy =yspio. 
Spiculum, a dart =yspikell. 
Spinus, a sloe-tree =ysbyddadcn. 
Spiritus, a spirit = yspryd. 
Splendidus, splendid = ysplennydd. 
Spolio, to plunder = yspeilio. 
Spolium, plunder = yspail. 
Spongia, a sponge =ysbtvng. 
Spuma, foam = ysgwyv. 
Stabulum, a stall =ystavell, a chamber. 
Stadium, a distance =ystod. 
Stamen, the warp =ystov. 
Stannum, tin =ystaen. 
Status, a condition or estate =ystdd. 

198 Appendix. No. II. 

Stella, a star =ystivyll, e.g. Dydd Ystwyll, Festum Stellae, the Epi- 
phany. Perhaps through the French estoille. 

Stemuto, to snore =ystrewi. 

Stimulo, to urge = teimlo, to feel. 

Stimulus, a prick = swmwl. 

Stola, a priest's stole =ystol. 

Stomachus, a stomach = ystumog. 

Strages, destruction =ystryw; connected with which is the Latin 
struo, to design evil. 

Strata viarum, a paved causeway = ystrad. 

Strenuus, valiant = ystrin, a battle. 

Suavis, accusative suavem, sweet = syvi and mevus, both words sig- 
nifying ' strawberries,' the sweetest fruit the Kymry knew of. 

Subdo, to put down = soddi, to sink. 

Subitaneus, sudden = sydyn. 

Submovco, submotus, to remove = symmud. 

Subnoto, to take note of = sy 111111, to wonder. 

Succus, juice = siig. 

Sudor, sudos, sweat = chivy s. 

Sudus, fair, clear = syw. 

Sugo, to suck = sugno. 

Sulcus, 2l furrow = sylch. 

Sum, I am = wyv; mi y sy. 

Summa, a sum = swmm. 

Super bus, proud = syberw. 

Sur-culus, a spray = osgyl, by transposition. 

Surdus, deaf = swrth, slow. 

Susurrus, a whisper = sibrwd and sisial. 

Syllaba, a syllable = sillav. 

Sylva, matter = sylwedd, substance. 

Tabella, a tablet = tavell, a slice. 
Taceo, ticui, to be silent = taw, tewi. 
Talio, a requital = talu, to pay. 
Talpa, a mole = talp, broken earth. 

Appendix. No. II 199 

Tapes, tapestry = tapin. 

Tata, father /^. 

Taverna, a tavern = tavarn. 

Taurus, a bull = tarw. 

Tecta, roofs or houses = tat. 

Tectum, a house = ty. 

Tego, to roof or cover = tot. 

Tela, weapons = tac/au, arrows. 

Tempera, to temper = tymmheru. 

Tempestas, a storm = tymmhestl. 

Templum, a temple = tcml. 

Tcmpus, tempor-is, time = tymp and tymhor. 

Temu-lentus, warm with drink = twym. 

Tendo, to stretch = tynnu. 

Tener, tender = tyner. 

Tentus, strained = tynn, tight. 

Tenuis, thin = teneu. 

Tcpidus, lukewarm = tes, heat. 

Ter-ebell-um, a wimble = ebill. 

Teres, smooth = ter, fine. 

Terminus, a boundary = tervyn. 

Tero, to bore through = treiddio. 

Terra, earth = tir, land; daear, earth; in Sanskrit, dhara. 

Terribilis, terrible = teryll. 

Tertiana, the ague =y dyrton. 

Tertius, third = trydydd. 

Testis, a witness = tyst. 

Tetricus, harsh = tcrrig. 

Textus, a text = tes tun. 

Thesaurus, a treasure = trysor. 

Thyrsus, a sprig = tusw; e.g. thyrsus lactucae, ' a sprout of lettuce,' 

in Suetonius; tusw vriallu, 'a posy of primroses,' in Drych y 

Priv Oesoedd. 
Tiunio, to tinkle = tingcian. 
Toga, a gown = twyg. 

200 Atpendix. No. II. 

Tollo, to take away = toliaw, to spare. 

Tonus, a tune = ton. 

Torqueo, to twist = torch'. 

Torques, a wreathen chain = torch. 

Torreo, to parch = torn', to crack. 

Torta, twisted bread = torth, a loaf. 

Tractatus, a treatise = traethawd. 

Tracto, to treat of = traethu. 

Tractus, drawn out, expanded = traeth, a flat sea-beach. 

Trado, to hand down = traddodi. 

Traho, to draw = trot, to plough ; treio, to ebb. 

Trames, a path = tramwy, to traverse. 

Tranquillus, still = trangc, death. 

Trans, across = traws. 

Transeo, to pass by = trosi. 

Transgredior, to transgress = trosedd, transgression. 

Trans mare, beyond sea = tramor. 

Transmeo, to traverse = tramwy. 

Transtrum, a cross-beam = trawst. 

Tribus, a tribe = trev, a town. 

Tributum, a tax = treth. 

Tricae, impediments = dyryswch, perplexity. 

Triduum, three days = tridiau. 

Trinitas, the Holy Trinity =y Drindawd. 

Tripos, a trivet or tripod = trybedd. 

Tristis, sad = trist. 

Trudo, to thrust = trwyddo, through. 

Trulla, a vaulted room = trial, a throne : trulliad, a butler in at- 
tendance in the hall. 

Trusus, thrust away = dyrys, perplexed. 

Trux, savage = drwg, evil; e.g. viri truces, gwyr drwg. 

Tu, thou = ti. 

Tumeo, to swell = tyvu, to grow. 

Tumidus, swollen = tywydd, weather, generally applied to bad weather ; 
bydd tywydd, it will be a storm. 

Appendix. No. II. 201 

Tumulus, a mound, a tomb = tommcn. 

Tundo, tunder-e, to thump = divndivr, noise. 

Turba, a crowd = tyrva. 

Turbcn, a storm = twrv, commotion. 

Turgeo, to swell with anger = twrch, a boar. 

Turma, a troop = twrv. 

Turn's, a tower = tu>r. 

Tursio, a sturgeon = tivrch. 

Tussio, to cough = tusian. 

Tussis, a cough -=pcswch. 

Tuns, thine = tan. 

Typicus, similar = tebyg. 

Typus, a fashion = tyb, an opinion. 

Udum, moist = uwd, pap for infants. 
Uligo, moisture = gwlych. 
Ulmus, an elm-tree = llwyn. 
Ultimus, the last = olav. 

Ultra, beyond, in excess oi=uthr, wonderful. 
Um-bilic-us, the navel = bogcl. 
Unda, a wave = tonn. 
Unguentum, ointment = ennaint. 
Unguis, the nail of a toe or finger = cwin. 
Unicus, only one = unig. 
Uniformis, uniform = unffurv. 
Unio, to unite = uno. 
Uuitas, unitat-is, unity = undod. 
Unus, one = un. 

Urgeo, to press, to drive =gyrru. 
Urna, an urn = givrn. 

Uva, a grape = connected with the Welsh root-word II v, signifying 
'flowing liquor;' gnyv, that which runs out. 

Vacca, a cow = buwch, y vuwch. 

Vacillo, to move up and down = gic<irll, a knitting-needk . 

202 Appendix. No. II. 

Vacuitas, emptiness = gwagedd. 

Vacuo, to empty = gwdghau. 

Vacuus, empty = gwdg. 

Vado, to go = gwadn, the sole of the foot. 

Vadum, a ford or shallow = gwaddod, sediment. 

Vae, alas ! = gwae. 

Vagina, a scabbard = givaen. 

Vagitus, an infant's wail = gwaedd, a cry. 

Vagor, to rove = gwasgaru, to scatter. 

Valde, exceedingly =gwala, over-much. 

Valeo, to be able = gallu. 

Vallis, a valley = gwaelod. 

Vallum, a wall or entrenchment = gwdl. 

Vanit-as, weakness, vanity = gwendid. 

Vanus, weak, vain = givan. 

Vapulo, to be beaten = gwabio, to strike. 

Varius, spotted = mywyr, 'meniver,' a rich fur. 

Vassus, a lad in waiting = gwds. 

Vastatus ager, a clearing in a forest = gwastad, a flat, level ground. 

Vectura or veha, a sledge or plough-cart = gwcdd, a yoke. 

Vel, even as = vel. 

Vellico, to pluck = gweyll, tweezers. 

Vellus, a fleece = blew, hair. 

Velox, swift = hwylus, easy. 

Velum, a sail = hwyl. 

Vena, a vein = gwythen. 

Venenum, poison = gwenwyn. 

Venio, venttcm, to come = myned, to go. 

Ventil-abrum, a winnowing fan = givyntyll. 

Ventus, the wind = gwynt. 

Venus-tas, beauty = gwen, a smile. 

Ver, the spring = gwerydd. 

Verbum, a word = gair : berv, a verb. 

Ver go, to bend aside = gwyro. 

Vermis, a worm =pryv. 

Appendix. No. IT. 203 

Veronica, 'the Vernacle* or legendary picture of Christ impressed 

on a handkerchief =y Vcmagl. 
Versus, a verse = givers. 
Vertex, a summit = gwarthas. 

Vertigo, vcrtigin-is, in the sense of emotion = chwerthin, a laugh. 
Vcrtns, power = gwerth, price: gxvyrth, a miracle. 
Vern, a spit = bcr. 
Vents, true = gwir. 
Vesica, a bladder = chxvesigcn. 
Vesper, evening = gosper. 
Veterasco, to wax old; Italian, vecchio, old = gweccry, weak, old, 

Vexo, to vex = gwasgu, to oppress. 
Vids, viatis; viaticus, a journey gwaith, a battle. 
Vibro, to quiver = givibio; also, ewybr, quick. 
Vicia, vetches = gwyg. 
Victito, to fare = bwyta, to eat. 
Victns, food = bwyd. 
Vic us, a village = gwig. 
Video, to see = gwydd, sight. 
Viduus, single, a widower = gweddw. 
Vieo, to hoop = .^wtf k, to knit. 
Victns, withered = gwyw. 
Vigeo, vigens, to flourish; also, vegetns and vigesco, lively = gwy< h. 

Vi^il. a watcher = bugai/, a shepherd. 
Vigilia, a watch, an holyday = givyl. 
Vigiliae, vigils of holydays mywyliau. 
Vigilo, to watch = gwylicd. 
Viginti, twenty = ugeint, again. 

Vigor, strength = gwryg; also, gwychr, bold, vigorous. 
Vi/is, cheap = givacl. 
Villanns, a husbandman = bilain. 
I'illnSy hair = blew. 
Vin-cnlnm, a chain = cwlwm, a knot. 

204 Appendix. No. IT. 

Vinum, wine = gwin. 

Viola, a violet = mill. 

Viper a, a viper = gwiber. 

Vir, a man or husband = gwr. 

Virago, a woman = gwraig. 

Virga, a twig = brig. 

Virgo, a maiden = merch. 

Virgulta, twigs = gwrych, a thicket. 

Viridis, green = gwyrdd; gwrid, bloom. 

Virilis, manly = gwrol. 

Vires, strength = bryw, lively. 

Viscera, bowels ymysgaroedd. 

Vita, life = bywyd; also, chwyth, breath, the primitive analogue of 

Vitigin-eus, belonging to a vine =gwydn, clammy, tough. 
Vitis, a vine = gwydd, trees. 
Vitium, vice = gwyd. \ 

Vitricus, a. step-father = ewythr, an uncle. 
Vitrnm, glass = gwydr. 
Vitulits, vitu-lo, a calf = Ho. 
Vivax, lively = bywiog. 
Viverra, a ferret = gwiwer, a squirrel. 
Vivus, alive = byw. 
Vocalis, a vowel = bogel. 

Vocatio, a call = gwaedd: gwahawdd, an invitation. 
Volnn-tas, will = balon, willing. 
Vomitus, a vomit = chivy d. 
Vomo, vomer e, to vomit = bwrw, to pour out. 
Voro, to swallow = bwrw, to pour out. 
Votum, wish, pleasure = bodd, satisfaction. 
Vulnus, a wound = gweli. 
Vulva, the womb = bol. 

Appendix. No. II. 205 

Messrs. Betham and Edwards say, the one, that few Latin 
words exist in the actual Kymric; the other, that none existed in 
the ancient form thereof. I leave the above lengthy vocabulary to 
tell its own tale. Only I would warn the reader, that whereas 
terms expressing Christian belief and practice come from the Greek 
through the Latin, and others expressing complex ideas and foreign 
loan-words may safely be referred to the Roman domination, many 
seemingly borrowed words belong to the common heritage of Aryan 
speech. The latest Teuton and the earliest Kelt have retained 
fragments of primaeval language. 



Abranas, an ape (Hesychius) = Erse, abran, mischievous. 
Agassaios, a good hound (Oppian) = Welsh, gust, a bitch. 
Alauda, a lark (Suetonius) = W. alou-adar, the musical bird. 
Ambactus, a serf or slave (Pestus) = W. amaethwr ', a husbandman. 

(Z)<? Belloguet.) 
Arinca, rye (Pliny) = W. r^>g\ 

^4, applied by the Taurini (of Turin) to barley = W. liaidd. 
Bacaudae, applied to an insurrection in Gaul under Dioclesian = 

W. bagad, a disorderly troop. 
Bardus, a singer of heroic lays = W. bardd. 
Barrtis, a Sabine term for an elephant = W. barr, top, high. 
Bascauda, a basket, a term borrowed by the Romans (Martial) = 

W. basged. 
Benna, a Gallic panier on wheels (Cato) = W. y venn. 
Bctula, a birch-tree (Piiny) = W. bedw; Sanskrit, pittala, pale 

Brake, fermented grain (Pliny) = W. brag. 
Bulga, a leathern sack = W. bwlgan, a sack. 
Capauna, in the modern Italian as well as in the old Gallic, a hut 

= W. caban. 
Cateia, a Gallic barbed spear (Virgil) = W. cad, battle. 
Caterva, a troop of soldiers (Vegetius) = W. cad-tyrva. 
Caurus, a strong west wind = W. cawr, a giant. 

Appendix. No. III. 207 

Kerns Caesar, an ambiguous cry of a Gaul, preserved by Servius; 

meaning either gadewch Caisar, let Caesar go ! or, very possibly* 

cachgi Caisar, Caesar is a coward ! A coward knight is called 

' y Marchawg cachiad 1 in the Saint Greal. 
Kervisia, ale {Pliny) = W. cwrwv. 

Kcra, the Alpine cow giving excellent milk = W. caws, cheese. 
Kirkius, the violent north-west wind = W. kyrch, assault. 
Coccus, with the Galatians a shrub producing a deep red dye = (.V. 

Jerome.) = W. <:6cn, red. 
Covinus, a waggon = W. cowain, to carry land produce. 
Didoron, a sort of tiles two palms long among the Gauls (Pliny.) = 

W. deuddwrn. 
Endromis, a thick winter garment used by the Gallic Sequani 

(Juvenal) = W. yn drom, heavy. 
Esox, a large fish caught in the Gallic rivers = W. cog, a salmon; 

Basque, izoquia. 
Essedum, a Gallic war-chariot = W. eisteddva, a seat. 
Gaesum, a Gallic javelin = W. ymgais, an aim. 
Gigonia, a name given to a rocking-stone near the western ocean 

(Ptolemy.) = W. gwingo, to vibrate. 
Glastum, woad = glas, blue. 
Gliscomarga, white marl = W. glwys-marl. 
Gurdus, a Keltiberian term for 'a fool' (Quintilian.) = W. hurt, 

Guvia, a lever (S. Isidore.) = W. gwiv. 
Liduna, the sea-tide (Marccllus of Bordeaux, Dc Bclloguet.) = W. 

llydan, the broad. 
Litana, a name given by the Boii of Italy to a vast forest in their 

country = W. llydan, wide. 
Marca, among the Kelts a horse (Pausauias.) = W. tnarch. 
Matarcs, a Gallic javelin (Caesar.) = W. mad-tar aw, good thrust. 
Meddixtuticus, the title of a chief magistrate among the Samnites 

(Livy) = W. meddu-tiid, ruler of the people. 
Mirmillo, a gladiator who wore the image of a fish on his helmet 

(Festus, De Bclloguet) = W. morvil, a big fish or monster. 

208 Appendix. No. Ill 

Murcus, a fellow who maimed himself to escape military service 

{Ammianns Marcellinns) = W. musgrell, idle, wretched. 
Nero, Suetonius tells us this name signified 'strength' in the Sabine 

language = W. nerth, strength. 
Pcmpedula, the cinque-foil {Apidcius) = W. pump-dail. 
Petorritum, a Gallic four-wheeled car {Horace) = W. pedwar-rhod. 
Planarete, a plough with two wheels in the Veronese {Pliny.) = W. 

plann[u] arad[i'\ the planting plough. 
Ploxenum, a Cis-Alpine Gallic term for a 'a carriage-box {Qm'ntil- 

ian, De Belloguet) W. blwck, a box. 
Palis, fern = W. rhedyn. 
Scovies, an elder-tree = W. ysgaw. 
Soldurius, a Gallic term {Caesar) meaning a retainer, a man in 

pay = W. sawdiwr, a soldier. 
Taxea, lard {S. Isidore.) = W. tewychu, to grow fat. 
Thyreos, a shield {Pansanias .) = W. tarian. 

Tomentum, a stuffed bed (a Gallic invention) = W. twymn, warm. 
Tripetia, a three-footed stool {Sulpicins Severns) = W. trybedd. 
Tncceda, a pork sausage, (whence the Roman name Tncca) = from 

the W. tewychu, to fatten. 
Vargae, thieves {Sidonius ApoIIinaris.) = Armoric, goarag, bowmen ; 

W. gwarrog, bow; Erse, bearg, a robber. 
Veltris, a harrier {Monachus S. Gallensis, De Belloguet.) = W. 

gwyllt-red, the wild runner. 
Vergobretus, the title of a Gallic magistrate at Autun, who had 

power of life and death {Caesar.) = Erse, Fear-go-breath; W. 

gwr-gobrwyydd, the man that awards penalties. 
Virgae, the colour 'purple' {Servius, De Belloguet) = W. gwridawg, 

Volema, a kind of large pear {Senmis on Vergil.) = Erse, folaml/, 

Zephyrus, the west wind = Erse, seaf-iar. 



Thk Basque language presents strong presumptions of antiquity 
far exceeding those of the Keltic, Latin, or Teutonic. Its resem- 
blance to the monosyllabic Turanian stock, especially the Polynesian 
and American branches, might tempt us to believe the Euscaldunac 
to have preceded the rest in their arrival in the West, and to have 
reached the further West beyond the Atlantic in pre-historic times. 
Their legends betray the existence of some connexion with Ireland 
at a remote period; and Tacitus was not altogether wrong in assigning 
an Iberian, that is, Euscaric origin to the dark-complexioned Silures 
of Glamorgan. The comparison of the following vocables mav prove 
interesting to the reader. 

Agor, to open = Basque, cguairea, the dawn. 

Agoriatf, a key = B. a germ. 

Air//, a scream = B. aicca, the wind. 

Aran, a mountain = B. arranoa, an eagle, the bird that haunts in- 
accessible cliffs. Arima was the Phrygian term for ' mountain.' 

Asgwrn, a bone = B. assurra 

Attr } gold = B. urrea. 

Avon, a river = B. ibaya. 

Bar, high place = B. b/irua, a summit. 

Bcrtlmxvg, wealthy = B. abcrea, a flock, the ancient source of wealth; 
and aberatsa, riches. 

Bu, an ox or cow = B. beta, a cow. 


2IO Appendix. No. IV. 

Bys, a finger = B. bcsoa, an arm. 

Carreg, a stone = B. arria. 

Carrog, a brook = B. errequia. 

Dwrdto, to scold = B. deadarra, a cry. 

Dyn, a man or servant = B. duenean. 

Eidion, an ox = B. idia. 

Eira, snow = B. Hurra. In the Aymara of Peru yurac is ' white.' 

Eirin, plums = B. arana, a plum. 

Garw, rough = B. garra. 

Gauav, winter = B. gaua, night. 

Glaswellt, green grass = B. lastoa. 

Gwaed, blood = B. odda. 

Gwallt, hair = B. ullea. 

Gwas, a youth, an attendant = B. gaztia. 

Gwasgod, a covert = B. bason, a wood ; connected with the Doric 
Greek, bassai\ thickets, and the English bush. 

Gweilgi, the sea = B. gueldz, the calm sea. 

Gweryd, moss = B. uguerra. 

Gwres, heat = B. goria. 

Gwrid, blush = B. gorria. 

Gwrryw, male = B. arra. 

Gwydd, a goose = B. antzarra; in German, Ganz. 

Huan, the ' sun ' ; the same words, h and s being interchange- 
able. Perhaps the Peruvian huayna, handsome youth, is con- 
nected with it = B. su } fire; Sanskrit, suncfyu, the same. 

Hwrdd, a ram = B. ardia, a sheep. 

Uwyad, a duck = B. ahatea. 

Ion, lord = B. Jaincoa. 

Isel, low, still = B. isil, I am silent ; Latin, sileo. 

Llan, a clearing, a village = B. landa, an open place. 

Llawr, the ground = B. lurra, the earth. 

L/et'rwg, light = B. illargia. 

Mam, mother = B. ama. Amma was the Egyptian term for an 
abbess or mother in religion. 

Mwydro, to become infatuated or distracted = B. modurria, fatuity. 

Appendix. No. IV. 21 1 

Mvnvdd, mountain = B. tncndia. 

Oer, cold =s B. urn, water. 

Pashvn, a staff = B. bastoca; French, baton. 

Pen, a head ; Gaelic, kean; B. gaina. 

Rhno, to roar = B. orrqya, a roaring. 

SeV, stars = B. izarra, a. star ; Sanskrit, tdra. 

Sz'wgr, sugar = B. sagarra, an apple. 

Tad, father = B. aita; Sanskrit, tdta; Homeric Greek, atta. 

U/w, ashes = B. ube/a, pale; Sanskrit, /, to burn. 

Yn dda, well (adverb) = B. undo. 

Yscnbor, a threshing floor or barn = B. escnbarca, a threshing fan. 



Whatever resemblance these venerable languages may present must 
be due to a common inheritance of thought in their primitive 
Iranian home, not to a communication between them in their final 
settlements. If Deffrobani, the home of the Kymry in the mythic 
' land of summer,' be not Taprobane (Ceylon), they at least have 
left material monuments strangely resembling the Indian cairns of 
Malabar ; and Taliesin dreams of long-robed sages, who might be 
Brahmins, if geographical difficulties could be overcome. But the 
existence of Cyclopean remains in India, Greece, and Britain, may 
be due to the very early dispersion of nations owning a common 
heritage of ideas ; nor is it yet established that the Sanskrit, with 
all its wealth of diction and metaphysical lore, is more ancient than 
the Hellenic or Keltic. Its development may have been aided by 
the gorgeous colouring of oriental skies ; as the Greek may have 
borrowed its incomparable lucidity from the happy perfection of its 
seas and atmosphere, or as the Keltic may have assumed a sombre 
hue from the swamps and forests of the West. 

Amser, time = Sanskrit, amasa. 

Aran, the name of a mountain in North Wales and of a valley in 

the Pyrenees = S. aranya, a wild forest. 
Bara, bread = S. bharana, food. 

Brig, a mountain summit ; the same in Illyrian = S. bhrgu. 
Byddar, deaf=S. bad'ira. 

Appendix. No. V. 213 

Cairn: , a branch = S. qanku, a stem. 

Caterwcn, a spreading oak = S. Kataru, 'What a true! 1 

Carreg, a stone = S. karkara, lime, hard. 

CraU) clotted blood = S. kravya, raw flesh. 

Cuckiaw, to frown = S. knk, to bend. 

Aj^ a stem = S. qapha, a root. 

Chwarcl, a missive engine = S. svaru, an arrow. 

ZW/, leaves = S. da/a, a leaf. 

Dam, a piece = S. darana, a division. 

Dawn, a gift = S. ddna. 

Derw, oak. = S. fl^r?/, a tree. 

Dodi, to give = S. W. 

Do/, a valley = S. da/a, a cleft. 

Z?or, a gate = S. dvdr. 

Dwr, water ; Erse, dobhar = S. dab'ra, the ocean. 

Eirin, plums = S. arani. 

Emyd, evydd, brass = S. nmd, light. 

Entyrch [jicv], heaven = S. antariks'a, the deep sky. 

Gauav, winter = S. hima, snow. 

Graean, a pebble = S. grdvan, a stone. 

Gwahannwyn or gwanivyn, the spring = S. vasanta. 

Gwanc, desire = S. vdncd. 

(hvdncg, a wave = S. vana, a strong wave. 

Gtveddi, prayer = S. vet, to ask : hence the Vedas. 

Gwerncn, an alder-tree = S. varana, a tree. 

Given, to spin = S. ve. 

Gwrysg, shrubs = S. rtiksha, a tree. 

Gteysti, a wage = S. vis'ti. 

Haidd, barley ; Erse, saidh, wealth = S. sdd/iu, excellent. 

Hdv, summer = sura, the sun. 

Hep/an, to snore = S. sv<"ip, to sleep. 

Hevin (Cornish, gwaintoin) = Zend, Mmtna, summery. 

Hir, long = S. cira. 

Lbl, a lullaby = S. lal, to rock. 

LlanCy a scion, a. youth = lanko, a branch. 

214 Appendix. No. V. 

Lleuad, the moon = S. klaidd. 

Lloer, the moon = S. glaur, light. 

Llywen, the west, derived perhaps from the earliest period, when 

the salt lake or Sea of Aral was to the west of the primitive 

Aryas = S. lavana, salt ; lavanoda, the sea, the brine. 
Mes, acorns = S. mash, to mash up, to smash. 
Moron, carrots = S. mida, a root. 
Nad, a. cry = S. nada, a river. 
Nadu, to cry = S. nad, to utter a sound. 
Naid, a leap = S. nat, to dance. 
Nochd (Erse), night = S. nakta. 
Parvati, in the Hindu mythology the consort of Siva and goddess 

of the earth = W. pridd, earth, soil. 
Peth, a thing = S. pet-va, a particle. 
Pone, a hillock = S. punga, a heap. 

Porus, an Indian king subdued by Alexander the Great ~pdr, lord. 
Pridd, earth = S. prt'vi. 
Rhwmn, rhwnin, a pear = Persian, romand, a pomegranate; Sanskrit, 

ru, to flow, from the abundant juice. 
Teg, fair = S. tegd, splendour. 
Y wybr, the sky = S. ab'ra. 



It will be seen that the Kymry adopted some of the following 
names from the Aeneid of Vergil, the sole classic read in the Welsh 
monasteries, I suspect. It was S. Cadoc's favourite study. The 
clear meanings suggested by other names, <a>vavTa a-vviroiaL, would 
savour of a remote antiquity. 

Achilles, the hero of the Iliad = W. Echell and Achelarwy. 

Adonis, of Phoenician origin = W. adon, lord. 

Adraste, the goddess of fate = Erse, adhras, worship, awe. 

Aegeus, king of Athens = Erse, aighe, valiant. 

Aeneas, accusative Aencan, the hero of the Aeneid = W. Einiawn. 

Aias or Ajax, an Homeric hero = Erse, agh, a bull. 

Alecto, one of the Furies = Erse, allaidh, savage; W. alaeth, wailing. 

Almon, a warrior in the Aeneid = the Cornish Elmon (e.g. Trev- 

Amalthea, the nurse of Jupiter = W. amallid, genial warmth. 

Amphitritc, the goddess of the sea = W. am-drwyth, pervading. 

Anius ('rex Anius idemque sacerdos ' Vergil) = Erse, anitis, a 

Aonides, the Muses = Erse, aoinoa, a swan ; W. awen, poetic in- 

Ares, the god of war = Erse, air, slaughter; W. aeru, to slaughter. 

Ariadne, the spouse of Bacchus = W. eirian, beautiful. 

216 Appendix. No. VI. 

Arsaccs, a favourite name of the Parthian kings = Erse, arsaigh^ 

Assaracus, a king of Troy = the Brut y Brenhinedd gives 'Asser ' 

as the Kymric equivalent. I suspect Asser of Menevia, bishop 

of Sherborne, king Alfred's tutor, adopted his name from the 

Biblical Asher; the K-elts being partial to the Hebrews, as 

were the Puritans. In France we meet with Jesse bishop 

of Orleans, and even with Aholibah ! (Ooliba) a bishop of 

Ate, the goddess of vengeance = Erse, aithe, revenge. 
Caranus, a prince of Macedonia {Justing = W. caran, chief. 
Caunus, in Greek fable = W. Caw. 

Kinyras, a king of Cyprus = W. Gynyr; Irish, Connor. 
Clio, one of the Muses = W. Llio. 

Clotho, one of the Fates = W. clwydd, one that causes to come to pass. 
Creusa, the Trojan wife of Aeneas = W. croessen, maiden. 
Crocus, the flower so called ; also, a Greek name of a man = Erse, 

crock, red, blooming. W. crock, vehement. 
Danaus, a most ancient leader of the Greeks = Erse, dann, bold. 
Deucalion, the Greek Noah = W. dylan, the sea. 
Diomedes, the Grecian hero = the Welsh equivalent of his name 

would be Duw-medd, possessed of God; or, Dwyv-zaSdd, divine 

Dione, the Homeric mother of Beauty = W. droynwen, the alluring 

Doris, a sea-goddess = W. dur, water. 
Erechtheus, a king of Athens = Erse, arrachda, mighty. 
Eros, the god of love = W. eiros, scarlet, deep blushing. 
Galatea, a nymph = W. galacth, the milky way. 
Ganymedes, a prince of Troy = W. cain-wedd, fair aspect. 
Gargittius, the dog of Geryon = W. gwrgi, a huge dog. 
Geryon, the monster of Tartessus, slain by Hercules = gerwin, 

Gorgones, fabled objects of terror with the Greeks = Erse, gorg, 


Appendix. No. VI. 21 J 

Haba, the Doric form of Hebe the goddess of ripe youth = W. Mv, 

summer, the prime of the year. 
Helena, the fairest woman of Greece = Erse, mine, beauty. W. 

elain, a fawn. 
Hermes, the messenger of the gods = Erse, armes, presage. 
Irene, peace = W. Enircin, quiet. 

Iris, the goddess of the rainbow = W. >r, green, blooming. 
Nemesis y the goddess of retribution = Erse, ncamh-ais, cruel. 
Oidipous, Oidipod-os, king of Thebes = the Kymric equivalent would 

be chwydd-vawd, swollen-foot. 
Orcos, the god of hell = W. erch, terrible. 
Papaios, a name very properly (in Herodotus's judgment) applied 

by the Thraeians to the Father of the gods, as it meant 

' fatherly ' = Bugarth Papan, the Father's fold, was ' heaven ' 

with the Cornish, as William Baxter asserts. 
Paris, prince of Troy = W. Peris. 

Patroclus, the friend of Achilles = W. Padrogl. {Triads.) 
Priamns, king of Troy = W. Periv, e.g. ab Kedivor. {Triads.) 
Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles = W. Fyrr. 
Rhadamanthns, a judge in Hades = W. rhawdd-mant, open mouth 

or sentence. 
Rhoctus, one of the Titans = W. Rhitta Gatvr. {Triads.) 
Seilenus, the chief of the wood-gods = W. Elain, 'a fawn'? 
Telamon, the father of Aias = Erse, taihnh, sling. 
Triton, the sea god = W. tri-tonn, 'the third' or powerful 'wave;' 

Erse, triath, a wave. 




In offering the subjoined list, I do not pretend that the Kymric 
with its modern orthography .exactly represents the original names 
even as disguised by Roman taste or affectation ; but, taken as guesses, 
the forms suggested may lead to the discovery of the genuine and 
primitive. An honest guess may be more fruitful than a blank 
and supercilious ignorance. 

Ambigatus, a Gallic king (Livy) = amygaid, protector. 
Androgens, a traitor British prince = an-drwg-was, the evil man. 
Balanus, a Gallic prince (Livy) = balaen, steel ; or, Armoric, balan, 

Boadicea, queen of the Iceni = Aregwedd Voeddawg, the victorious. 
Caburus, a chief of the Helvii (Caesar.) = cawr, the giant. 
Caractacus, the British hero = Caradawc; Erse, Carthach. 
Carvilius, a British chief (Caesar.) = Cdr-Be/i, dear to Belinus. 
Casticus, a Gallic prince (Caesar .) = castiawc , accomplished. 
Catamentel-es, a Gallic prince (Caesar.) = cat-wynty '11, 'the fan' or 

impeller ' of battle.' 
Cativtdcns, a chief of Liege ( Caesar?) = cdt-walch, the hawk of 

Catnmandus, a Gallic chief at war with Marseilles, B.C. 388, (Justin 

xltii. 5.) = cat-van, battle-field. 
Cavarinus , a Gallic chief (Caesar.) = Gavran. 

Appendix. No. VII 219 

Cogidumnus, the British chief who betrayed his country to Ostorius 

Scapula ss Cbch-Dwvn, the chief of Devon. (Baxter.) 
Combutis, a general under Brennus in Greece (Pausanias.) = Erse, 

combaithe, succour. 
Commius, a prince of Arras (Caesar.) = commiaw, discourse, i.e. the 

Conctodunus, a Gaul opposed to the Romans (Caesar.) = kyndynn, 

Convictolita nis, a chief of Autun (Caesar.) = kynwyd-llydan, wide 

Coitus, a king of the Graian Alps = coth, the elder. The name 

seems to be allied to Cotys (king of Thrace). 
Divico, a Helvetian chief B.C. 107 = diviawc, ferocious. 
Divitiacus, another Helvetian (Caesar.) = dcvcidiawc, abounding in 

sheep, rich; or else, divindiawc, valiant. 
Donnas, king of some Alpine tribes = dwun, swarthy. 
Dumnacus, a chief of Anjou (Caesar) = Dyvnog, which name in 

S. Modomnoc's case answers to the Latin Dominicus. 
Duratius, a Gaul friendly to the Romans = driid, valiant. 
Drusus, a Roman name, but probably borrowed from the Cis- 

Alpine Gauls = traws, the adversary. 
Empone, a Gallic heroine (Tacitus.) = unbennes, lady. 
E-pasnactus, a Gallic ally of Rome (Caesar.) = e-pasg-gnawd, the 

Eporedorix, a chief of Autun (Caesar )= e-pbr-twrch, the princely 
b >ar ? Selden, in his notes on Drayton's Poly-Olbion, makes 
this name Teutonic and the same as Fried-rich. 
Ga/ba, a king of Soissons (Caesar.) = Calvan; Erse, galbha, force. 

Suetonius makes the name mean ' very fat.' 
Ga/gacus, the Caledonian hero = Gwallaw c ; according to Theo- 

philus Evans, Aneurin Gilgoch. 
Gaston, a favourite name in the Keltic Aquitaine = Erse, gasta, 

Gobanitio, a chief of the Arverni (Caesar.) = gov-anuydd, smith. 
Immanuentius. a British king (Caesar.) = Maenwyn. 

220 Appendix. No. VII. 

Indutiomarus, a Gallic chief {Caesar) = ynad maivr, the great judge. 
Liscus, a Gallic vergobret (Caesar.) = llwysawc, hallowed. 
Litavicus, a chief of Autun (C) = Clydawc; the same name as 

Chlodwig, Ludovicus, or Clovis. 
Litem, a prince of the Arverni (Posidonius ) = llewyrn, the meteor. 
Lugotorix, a Gallic prince (C) = llwyd rhi, the gray lord. 
Luterius, a chief of Quercy (C.) = Elidyr or Elidurus, the same 

name as Hlothair and Luther. 
Mandubratius, a British traitor = Avarddwy Vrds. 
Maponos, the Keltic Apollo = Mabon ab Modron. 
Maricus, a Gaul thrown to the lions, who refused to devour him 

(Tacitus.) = Meurig. 
Ollovico, a Gallic prince friendly to Rome (C) = golo-vig, protector. 
Orgetorix, a Gallic chief (C.) = erch-twrch, terrible boar. 
Oscar, son of Ossian = Erse, 'champion.' 
Prasutagus, husband of Boadicea = Brasydawg. 
Procillus, a Gallic chief (C.) = brochwel, blustering. 
Segonax, a Gallic chief (C) = Erse, seanach, elder. 
Ser/o, a Gallic name in the early middle age = ser-loyw, star-glow. 
Tancred, the noblest of crusaders = tanc-rhi, prince of peace. 
Tarchon, an Etrurian chief (Vergil); also, Tarcondimotus, a prince 

of Cilicia (Cicero), perhaps allied to twrch, a boar, and applied 

to princes, e.g. y Twrch-trwyth. 
Tasgetius, a Gallic chief (C) = tasgydd, task-setter. 
Teutomatus, a Gallic chief = Duw-tadmaeth, nursling of God. 
Thessalorus, a Gaul who attacked Delphi under Brennus (Justin) 

= twyssawl-wr, the leader. 
Vercingetorix, a Gallic chief (C) = Erse, fear-cean-go-turus, the man 

who is at the head of the State. 
Vergasillaunus (C) = Erse, fear-go-saelan, standard-bearer. 
Verodoctius, a Helvetian (C) = gwr doeth, wise man. 
Virdumarus, a Gallic chief (C.) = gwr du mawr, the great dark man. 
Urganda, the enchantress = eurgain, the brilliant. 



In attempting this investigation we are reduced to probable con- 
jectures grounded on the slippery base of etymology. I am c >n- 
vinced that the wealth of the induction here supplied, in most cases 
by my own industry, deserves attention, though I may often have 
been led astray. The testimonies supplied by the names of Rivers 
are especially remarkable. Nor have I scrupled to insert what may 
prove only instances of the felicity of the Keltic tongues in sug- 
gesting meanings, where classical Antiquity fabricated absurd myths 
to account for what it could not solve. For example, my resolution 
of Arcadia into the Kymric Ar-goed, ' the wooded highland,' ought 
to gain assent, where a fabled Areas, son of Zeus and Callisto, ex- 
plains nothing. In grouping together rivers which bear a common 
name, I classify the presumed later forms under that which I find 
nearest the parent home of the Kelts. Nor do I think it necessary 
to separate ancient from modern geography. It does not follow 
that names, which have not come down to us in a Latin garb, are 
really of recent or later invention. 

The river Annas in Gwalior = W. avon, river. The Anas or 

Gnadiana in Spain ; the Avo in Galicia ; the Anza in Italy. 
Caberis or Cavcry in India = W. Iu'w-yr, apt to overflow. The 

Chaboras in Mesopotamia ; the CkabrtUi in Macedonia. 

222 Appendix. No. VIII. 

The river Dhona, in India = tan, spreading. The Donaw or Danube 
in southern Europe ; the Tanqis or Don in Scythia ; the Tonus 
in Argolis ; the Daven in Cheshire ; the Don in Yorkshire ; 
the Doon and the Devon in Scotland. Perhaps the two first 
and two last may come from W. dovn, deep. 

- Indus = Sanskrit, sindhn, the sea. The Strides in Ariana ; the 
Sind or Shannon in Ireland. 

Kainas in India == W. cam, white ; Latin, candidus amnis. The 

Kennet; W. cannaid, bright, in Berks. ; the Ken in Westmore- 
land ; the. Ken in Kirkcudbrightshire, N.B. ; the Cain in Mont- 
gomeryshire ; the Pistyll Cain in Merionethshire. 

Logur in India = W. llachar, glittering. The Lugar in Ayr- 

shire, N.B. ; the LJychwr or Loughor in S. Wales. 

Loony in India = W. llaiven, joyous. The Lianne in France ; 

the Lune by Lancaster ; the Lyne near Dunfermline (Llawen, 
Llywarch Hen) ; the Leven in Scotland. 

Ravee by Lahore = W. rhev, strong. The Rlia in Scythia ; the 

Rhebas in Bithynia ; the Roja in Venetia ; the Roya in Li- 
guria ; the Areva in Keltiberia ; the Onvell in Suffolk. 

Sabee near Delhi in India = W. saw, obstructive. The Zabis 

or Zab in Assyria ; the Savus in Numidia {Mela.) ; the Stf/to 
or Savio falling into the Adriatic {Pliny) ; the Savo in Cam- 
pania ; the Save in Gascony ; the Sabis or Sainbre in France ; 
the Soiv in Staffordshire. 

Sewan in India ; the Seyon and Sionnc in Switzerland ; the &?- 

quana or W>/? in France = Erse, seach-an, winding river ; the 
Seiont or Segont by Caernarvon ; perhaps akin to Saguntum in 
Spain ? 

Sookree in India = W. sugyr, sweet ? the Sucro or Xncar in 


7oo>tf in India = W. /yw, pouring ; the Tua in Portugal ; the 

Tlwuc in Poitou ; the Tow by Towcester ; the Towy in South 
Wales ; the Tweed in Scotland. 
Mount Maleus in India Sanskrit, Mala, a bare mountain ; Malea 
in the Peloponnese ; Malo/a, an Alpine pass in the Engadine ; 

Appendix. No. VIII. 22$ 

the Afo/r, a bare ridge near Geneva = W. moe/, bare ; Mod 
Siabbd in Snowdonia, and others in Wales. 

Turkestan, Persia, &c, Armenia. 
The river Ochus in Bactriana = W. og, rapid; the Ock in Berkshire; 
the Okement in Devon; the Ogvanw {Gwalchmai.); the Ogwen 
in Caernarvonshire. 

Akcs in Chorasmia = W. ac/i, water ; the Akis in Sicily. 

Albanus, in Armenia = W. ahven, pure white ; the Almus in 

Moesia ; the Albtnca in Etruria ; the Fons Albunca of Horace ; 
the Fons Hchrina in Campania ; the A/wen of Merioneth : per- 
haps, also, the Elmund in Kashgaria, and the Almond in Scot- 

Araxes in Armenia = W. crch, violent ; the Orcos in Thessaly ; 

the Morgns or Oreo in Piedmont ; the Morge in Switzerland 
as W. morcath, the roaring of the sea; the Ourcq in Champagne; 
the Irk in Lancashire. 

Arms in Persia = the Aeron in South Wales ; the Arun in Sussex. 

Attmck in Turkestan = W. cthryg, impetuous ; the Atrax in 

Aetolia ; the Ettrick in Scotland. 

Candriakes in Gedrosia = W. candeiriawc, wild. 

Kyros in Armenia = W. carrog, a torrent, or carawg, a wild 

boar ; the Caravaca in Murcia, Spain ; the Carawg in North 

Daradax in Armenia = W. tardd-wysc, bursting water ; the Tar- 

taro in Italy; the Tartessus in Spain. 

Elymandcr in Persia = W. E-llimyn-dwr \ the sharp water ? 

Erindcs in Persia = W. rhint, a groove ? 

Manais, in Persia = W. manaw, that extends ; the Menoba in 

Spain ; the Menai in North Wales. 

Mardus, a tributary of the Caspian Sea = W. Marth, flat. 

Mygdonius in Mesopotamia = mtic/i-don, the dark wave ? 

Orontes in Syria = W. r/wnt, playful. 

Stratiga in Mesopotamia (S. Epiphanins) = W. ystranr, trick, 

the wayward river. 

224 Appendix. No. VIII. 

The river Tonderos, in Persia [Pliny .) = W . dwndwr, a loud noise; 
English, thunder; the Tyndarus in Laconia. 
Mount Cambalidus in Persia {Pliny), a branch of Caucasus = 
W. cwm-bal, high combe ; connected with Combat, Combalaz, 
&c, in Switzerland. 

Carrhae, a city in Mesopotamia = W. caer, the city. 

The Caurarani, a people in Arabia, whose name meant 'rich in 
herds ' (Pliny.) = Erse, caor, a sheep. 

The Chomari, a people east of the Caspian Sea, possibly a remain- 
der of the Kymry. 

The Gumbritae, a people on the borders of India (Pliny.), possibly 
of the primaeval stock of the Kymry. 

The Turkae or Turks of Tourkistan = Qu. from W. twrch, ' a wild 
boar,' the symbol of warlike ardour ? 

The Uxii, a people in Persia = Qu. from W. wysc, water.. Cf. the 
isle of Uxi off the coast of Peru. 

Lychindus, a fen in Armenia = W. llychwin, dusky. 

Oroandes, a mountain in Armenia = W. gorvan, a high place. 


The river Buges (Pliny.) = W. bwg, a scare, or bibch, a buck ; the 
Buech in Provence. 

Carambtikes (connected with Keltica), (Pliny.) = W. caran-bwch, 

the goat's head. 

Kyrnaba = W. chwyrn-wy, the impetuous water. The Quirna 

on the Simplon ; the Dorovemia or the Dwr-chwym, an old 
name of the Stour in Kent ; the Churn by Cirencester ; the 
Cerne in Dorset. 

Gerrhus = W. garw, pi. geirw, rough. The Cervo in Piedmont; 

the Arve by Geneva ; the Garumna or Garonne in France. 

Hypanis or Bog = W. wbain, howling. 

Silys, as the Scythians call the Jaxartes flowing into the Cas- 

pian (Pliny.) = W. silyn, the source or outlet of water, or else 
sil, fish-spawn. The Sela in Messenia ; the Silis in Venetia ; 

Appendix. No. VIII. 225 

the Si/ in Portugal ; the Sihl near Zurich ; the Sieu/e in Au- 

vergne ; the Scille by Lons-le-saulnier. 
The river Turuntus or Velica in Russia = Sanskrit, taranta, a torrent; 

dravanti, river ; Basque, turunta, a trumpet ; W. twrwnt, loud, 

resonant. The Tiaranthus in Moldavia ; the TruenUim or 

Tronto in the Abruzzo ; the Tordino running into the south 

Adriatic ; the Tordine by Tarare (Lyonnais) ; the Druentia or 

Durance in Dauphine. 
The Abii, a Scythian people near the Maeotis = perhaps ' gwlad 

Gavis ' in the Triads may refer to them. 
The Budaei or Btidifii = Erse, buidhe, 'yellow' haired. 
The Geloni (Russia) = W. a/on or ge/ynion, enemies ? 
The Oor-pata, ' man-beaters,' as the words meant in the Scythian 

tongue {Herodotus.) ; a name given to the warlike females, the 

Amazons = W. gwr-baeddu, man-beaters ? 
The Roxolani, the Russians = W. rhwch-ivlan, rough wool. It is 

notorious that rude sheepskins still form the garb of the 

Russian peasants. 
The Thyrsage/ae, a people on the Palus Maeotis = W. tyrsacth, 

' draw the shaft,' that is, archers. 
Rlriphaei monies, the Ural mountains in Russia = W. rhiff, that 

Rubeas, a cape on the Northern Ocean {Philemon) = W. rhibyn, 

a projection. 

The Danubian Provinces and Southern Germany. 

The river Licus or Lech in Bavaria = W. l/ug-wy, bright river. 

The Luxia in Baetica (Spain) ; the Arricge or (as Froissart writes 
it) Liege in southern France ; the Loxa or Lossie in Suther- 
land (Scotland) ; the Lugg in Herefordshire ; the L/ugwy in 
North Wales. Cf. Latin /ux, luc-is, light. 

Temes in Transylvania = Sanskrit, tdmasa, water. The Tabbia 

in Liguria (Italy ; the Tabuda or Scheldt in Belgium, allied to 

the Tamuda in Mauritania {Me/a.) ; the Tava in Moravia ; the 

Thames = W. tav-wysc, spreading water ; the Tame in Oxford- 

226 Appendix. No. VIII. 

shire ; the Teme = W. Tevidiog in Salop ; the Tavy in Devon ; 

the TCiv by Cardiff; the Taw by Barnstaple ; the Tawy by 

Swansea ; the Tay in Scotland. 
The river Vindo or Wartach in Bavaria = W. gwyn-don, the white 

wave or eddy. 
Abnoba, the Schwarzwald or Black Forest in Swabia, the birthplace 

of the Danube = W. abwy-ntm, vehement flow, or avon-bv, the 

raw or infant river ? 
Aquincum, Old Buda in Hungary = W. ach-yn-cwm, water in the 

Artobriga, a town in Noricum (Austria) = W. artk-brig, the bear's 

Burnum, a castle in Liburnia {Pliny) = W. bwm, an intrenchment. 

Born in Auvergne was the castle of the famous troubadour 

Bertrand De Born. 
Campodumim, Kempten a town in Bavaria = W. dinas y camp an, 

the city of the games. 
Camicae Alpes, the Alps of Carniola = W. alp-gamau, the high- 
lands of cairns. 
Carnuntum, Altenburg a town in Hungary = W. caer-neint, the 

fort of torrents. 
Kelemantia, a place in Moravia = W. kelvaint, stock. 
Clunia, Feldkirche in the Tirol = W. llwyn, the grove. 
Eburodunum, Brunn in Moravia = W. Dinevwr, Dinevor. 
Gabromagus, Krems a town in Austria = W. gavr-maes or gavr- 

magh, the goat's field. 
Hercynia sylva, the Black Forest = W. erc/z-van, terrible place ? 
Idunnm, Windischmatrey in Bavaria = W. y dun, the hill fort. 
Mount Marmolatta, one of the Tirolese Alps in the splintered 

Dolomite district = W. marmor-ldth, the chalky wand ? 
Martiana sy/va, the Black Forest = W. coed-marth, the heavy wood. 
Meh'odunum, Milensko in Bohemia = W. din-mael, the iron fort. 
Meran in the Tirol = W. marian, gravelly soil. 
Naunia {Pliny), the Val di Non in the Tirol = W. nonau, the 

streams ; nannan, the ravines. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 227 

Pons Oeni, Innsbruck = W. pont-avon, river bridge. 
Tcriolis a castle in the Tirol = W. tir-iol, a pleasant spot. 
Vendenis a city in Servia = W. givcn-dinas, the white fort. 

Northern Europe. 
The river Albis or Elbe = W. alb-ivysc, white water. The Elwy 
in North Wales. 

Nava or Natv in Rhenish Prussia = W. navawl, that which 

forms or deposits soil. The Nabalia in Guelderland ; the Na- 
bius in Keltiberia (northern Spain). 

Obrincus or Moselle = W. ob-rhwngc, loud motion. 

Rhenus or Rhine = W. rhe, to flow. 

Rotte by Rotterdam in Holland = W. rhwth, wide, open. 

The Arrottx in Burgundy ; the Rother in Sussex and in Yorkshire ; 
the Rotha in Cumberland. 

Ruhr near Ruremund in Guelderland = W. rhawr, roaring. 

Scaldis or Scheldt in Holland = W. isga/-dwys, thick foam. 

Viadrus or Oder in Prussia = Erse, beathra, water. 

Vistida in Poland = W. gwys-twyl, deep fear ? 

Visurgis or Weser = W. gwy-sorig, sullen stream. 

The Aesthonii, a people on the Baltic, whose language approached 

the British (Tacitus, Germania.) = W. aes-don-wyr, men of the 

ample buckler ? 
The Borussi or Prussians = W. brwys, big well-grown men. 
The Bructeri, the ancient people of Guelderland = W. brwch-twrv, 

the excitable ? men of strong impulse. 
The Germani=W. garni, the war-cry. 
The Gugerni or Sicambri, a tribe on the lower Rhine = W. gwg- 

gem, the frowning sirs. 
The Lygii, men of Silesia = W. //ug-wyr, the pestilential ? 
The Osi=W. aws, defiant? 

The Quadi, men of Moravia = W. cdd-wyr, warriors. 
The Rugii, men of Rugen in the Baltic = W. r/nvawg, thick 

The Ubii, a tribe of Gauls on the Rhine = W. wb-wyr, the exiles. 

228 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Argentoratum, Strassburg = W. caer-arianrod, the city of the silver 

Bannomanna, a Kelto-Scythic name anciently applied to some ele- 
vated region in the Northern Ocean, probably Norway {Pliny.) 

= W. ban-van, the highland. 
Borbetomagns, Worms on the Rhine = W. maes-pryved, the field 

of worms, that is, serpents, as e.g. the Worm's Head, the 

Orme's Head in Wales. 
Cronium Mare, the Frozen Sea of the north = W. mor-crawn, the 

congealed sea. 
Dort in Holland, called by Froissart Dourdrech = W. dwr-drech, 

the impetuous water. 
Maguntiacum, Mainz on the Rhine = from the Erse, magh, field. 
Manarmanis, Harlingen in Friesland = man-aerven, the place of 

Rigomagus, Remagen in Rhenish Prussia = W. rhyg-maes, rye-field. 
Vosania, Oberwesel on the Rhine = W. gwys-an, deep river. 

Asia Minor. 
The river Aesacus in the Troad. The Eisack in the Tirol. 

Arycandus in Lycia = W. argannaid, very bright. 

Karesos in the Troad {Homer?) = W. cor-wys, eddying water. 

The Correze in Aquitaine ; the Corys in Merioneth ; the Keir- 
iog or Chirk in Denbighshire ; the Cere by Aurillac, and the 
Cher by Tours in France. 

Evenus in the Troad = W. e-wenn-wy, white water. The 

Ewenny in Glamorgan. 

Hy litis in Lydia = W. tell, sudden. 

Lamns in Cilicia = W. Ham, a leap. The Lemme in the Jura, 

which forms a fine cascade, ' la chute de la Lemme.' The 
Learn by Warwick. 

Sarus in Cappadocia = W. sdr, wrath, i.e. the angry river. 
The Sars by Santiago in Spain {Mela.) ; the Sarine in Switzerland ; 

the Sanr in Luxemburg. 

Siberis in Galatia = W. hyverw, boiling over, inundating. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 229 

The Syverns in Attica {Pliny xxxvii. g) ; the Sybaris in south Italy; 
the Iberns or Ebro in Spain ; the Hyver in South Wales. 

Simois in the Troad = Erse, saimh, quiet. The Simmeti in 

Switzerland ; the Semoy in Belgium ; the Samara or Somme in 

Tame, the fountain of the Pactolus in Lydia ; the Atarnes in 

Thrace ; the Tarn in Languedoc ; the Tern in Salop ; the Tren 
or Trent in England ; the Trininm in the Abruzzo. 

Tembrogins in Phrygia {Pliny) = W. tcm-brog, the swelling ex- 

The lake Tatta Pains in Lycaonia = W. tawd, extended. 
The Treroi in Mysia =. Erse, treoirac/i, vigorous. 
The Teukroi=W. dewr, stout. These two Kimmerian tribes were 

driven from Mysia by the Thracian Maesi, long before the 

Trojan war. {Herodotus) 
Mount Berekynthos in Phrygia = W. berwyn, white peak. 

Bcrmius in Macedonia ; Berwyn in Merioneth. 

Dindymns in Galatia = W. din-dwym, the sultry fort ? 

Ida in Asia and Crete = W. gwydd, woodland. 

Taurus in Cilicia = W. torr, 'the hill' pre-eminently, from torri, 

to break ; abrupt. The Torr by Glastonbury. 

Amorinm, a strong town in Phrygia = W. all-mor, a secluded spot. 

Aspetidus, a city in Pamphylia = W. aspant, a hollow depression. 

Carambis, a promontory of the Euxine = W. caran-bn, the ox's 
head. It was opposite Kriou-metopon in Taurica. 

Gordium in Phrygia = W. gor-ddn, the black summit. 

Pessitins, a town in Galatia, with a richly endowed temple of 
Cybele = W. pcncs-wyn, the blessed district. 

Tavinm, the town of the Gallic Trocmi in Galatia {Pliny.) = per- 
haps from Tav, as in Llandav. A bishop of Tavium, the 
Galatian Llandav, attended the Council of Nicaea. 

Termessns, a city in Pisidia = W. tcr-maes, fair field. 

I'i/idia, a place in Galatia = W. gwent, an open plain. 

230 Appendix. No. VIII. 


The river Akesines (Thucydides) = W. acli-iesin, bright water. 

Araros, an affluent of the Danube {Herodotus iv. 48.) = W. 

arav, slow. The Ararius or Aar in Switzerland ; the Arar 
or Saone in France ; the Are in Yorkshire. 

Ardiscos (Pliny.) = W. hardd-wysc, fine water. The Ardeche in 


Brongos (Herodotus?) = W. bronawg, full bosomed. 

Kontadesdos = allied to W. kyndawd? 

Tearos, a salubrious river in Thrace (Herodotus.) = W. ter, pure. 

The Terias in Sicily (Thucydides?). The Ter in the north of 

Trauos = Sanskrit, dravanti, a river ; or W. traws, sharp. 
The Tresa in Lombardy ; the Dranse in Dauphine. 

Mount Edon = W. e-dun or y-ddmas, the fort. 

The Moesi = W. maes-wyr, men of the plains; the Bryges = W. brig- 
7vyr, hill-men ; and the Thyni = W. tywyn-wyr, coast-men, be- 
tween the Danube and the Bosphorus, became the ancestors of 
the Mysians, Phrygians, and Bithynians of Asia Minor. (Plinii 
Nat. Hist. v. c. 32.) 

The Thrakes, presumably Keltic in origin = W. treck-wyr, the more 


The river Echedorus = W. ech-dwr, parent of water. 

Eordaeos = W. hwrdd, the ram. 

Erigonos = W. e-rhig-on, the water groove. 

Genusus (Lucan.) = W. gwen-wysc, fair water. 

Lydius = W. //wyd, the gray river. 

Lynkestos = W. llyngc-kest, the swallowing paunch. 

Rhocdias (Pliny.) = W. r/iwydd, free. 

Strymon = W. ystrym-on, the main stream. 

Suemis = W. swyv, foam. 

Mount Pimpla = W. pwmpyl, a knoll or projection. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 231 


The river Achclons in Aetolia = W. ac hcl-wysc , water in the 

Acheron in Aetolia = Erse, achar-on, sharp river. 

Alphaeus in Arcadia = W. alp-wysc, water of the highland. 

Amphrysos in Thessaly = W. amvrwys, luxuriant around. 

Balyras in the Peloponnesus (Pausanias) = W. ballasarn, blue. 

The torrent Balira in the valley of Andorra in Spain. 
The lake Boibeis in Thessaly, that of old inundated the country 
= W. baw, slime, mud. 

Bolbd limne in Macedonia (Thucydides.) = W. llyn-bol, expansive 

The river Charadros in Phocis = W. rhaiadr, waterfall. 

Kelydnos in Epirus = W. kelyddon, the brakes or coverts. 

Kephissos in Attica = W. kyff-ivysc, the main water. 

Kladaos in Arcadia (Xenophon.) = W. cleddeu, sword ; or, pos- 

sibly, clwyd, warm. The Cledden in Pembrokeshire ; the Clwyd 
in Denbighshire ; the Clyde in Scotland ; the Glyde in Ireland. 

Kokytos in Epirus = W. crdck, violent ; or, c6ch-chwydd, red 


Crathis in Achaia = Erse, crathaidh, tremulous. 
Dirkc, a fountain near Thebes = Erse, dearc, an eye. 
The river Eurotas in Laconia = W. rhwth, the wide river. 

Iardanos in Crete (Hesiod.) = W. ir-ddon, the fresh wave. The 

Eridanos or Po, ' nullo amnium claritate inferior ' (Pliny Hi. 
16); the Irthing in Cumberland. 

Ilissos in Attica = W. il-wysc, the bubbling water. 

Ladon in Arcadia = W. llydan, the broad. The Loddon in 


Lethe, the fabled river of oblivion = W. llaith, death. 
Libethra, a fountain in Magnesia = W. llethyr, steep. 

The river Minykos in Thessaly (Homer) = W. mynych, rapid. The 
Mincins in north Italy. 

Neda in Arcadia = W. nedd, whirling. The Neaethus in Cala- 

232 Appendix. No. VIII. 

bria ; the Nide in Lorraine ; the Nethe in Belgium ; the Nedd 
or Neath in Glamorgan ; the Nidd in Yorkshire ; the Nith and 
the Nethan in Scotland. 
The river Olbios in Arcadia = W. elwy, the joyous. The Elwy by 
S. Asaph. 

Olyras near Thermopylae = W. llyr, water. The Liris in south 

Italy ; the Laeros in Spain {Mela.) ; the Lair a by Plymouth ; 
the Liger or Loire in France ; the Leir by Leicester (Caer-lyr), 
now corrupted into Soar. 

Peneios in Thessaly = W. pen-wysc, head water. 

Selimnos in Achaia = W. selwyn, keen. The Selune in Nor- 


Thyamis in Epirus. The Tamega in Portugal ; the Teivi in 

South Wales ; the Teviot in Scotland. 
The Achaez] the ancient stock of Greeks = W. ach, water ; the sea- 
Acarnania, a wild part of Greece = W. allt-garn, craggy steep. 
Aetoh'a, a district whose inhabitants were reckoned the most wicked 

in Greece = W. aethawl, prickly, offensive. 
Ambrakia, a city of Epirus at the end of a gulf = W. amffrach, 

at the bend ; Latin, amfractus. 
Arakynthos, a mountain in Greece = W. aran-gwyn, the white 

Arcadia in the Peloponnese = W. ar-goed, the wooded upland. 
Lyktonia, a submerged land under the Aegean sea = W. llug-ton, 

the luminous strand. 
Marathon in Greece = W. marth, flat, the plain. 
Skyros, an isle in the Aegean = W. esgair, the spur. Cf. the 

Skironia saxa in Attica, and the Skerries off Mona. 
Tenedos, an isle in the Aegean = allied with Ynys Daned or Thanet 

in Kent. 
Trikaranon, a Greek fortress [Xenophon^) = W. tri-carafi, the three 

Cambunii montes in Thessaly = W. cam-bryniau, the bent or beetling 


Appendix. No. VIII. 233 

Mount Erymanthos in Arcadia = W. eiry-mynydd, snowy mountain. 

Hyntettos in Attica, famed for honey = W. y medd, mead ? 

Maenalos in Arcadia = W. maenawl, stony. 

Olympos in Thessaly = W. Iwtnp, a mass. 

Ordymnos in Lesbos = W. gor-ddiovn, precipitous. 

Othrys in Thessaly = W. uthyr, terrible. 

Parnassos in Boeotia = W. par-natvs, spear of nature. 

Pelinaion in Chios {Strabo.) = W. pellen, a round mass. 

Pindos in Thessaly = W. pen-dwys, massive head. 

Saoke in Samothrace = W. sawch, an heap. 

Skardos in Dalmatia = W. esgair-du, the black spur. 

Tilphyssos in Boeotia = W. Diphwys, precipitous, in Merioneth. 
Ascra, a mountain village in Boeotia = Erse, aisgcir, mountain ; 

W. esgair. 

Bcmbinadia, another name of the Nemean wood in Arcadia {Pliny, 
iv. 6) = Erse, Beinn-feadha , the woody heights. 

Blenina, a town in Arcadia {Pansanias.) = W. blacnau, the ex- 
tremities of a vale. 

Boeotia, a province rich in pastures as W. buod, oxen. 

Brilessos, a mountain in Attica = W. breilw, a rose. 

Calydon, a forest in Aetolia = W. kelyddon, the coverts. 

Candavia, a mountain district of Epirus {Cicero?) = W. can-ddv, 
white spread. 

Cnidos, a town in Caria = W. cnibd, ' a crop,' fruitful. 

Daulis, a city of Phocis = W. dul, a dale. 

Dodona, a city of Epirus = W. dazvd-on, water-deposit. 

Doris, a district on the Kephissos = W. dibr, water. 

lalysos, a city in Rhodes = W. ial-wys, fair water. 

Ithake, the home of Odysseus, termed by Homer hylicssa, ' the 
wooded ' = W. gwyddawg, of the same meaning. 

The Lokroi Opountioi, near Boeotia = W. Lloegrwys Epynt, the 
Ligurians of the upland slopes. 

Mount Tomaros in Thesprotia = W. to-mawr, great roof. 


234 Appendix. No. VIII. 


The river Alabus = W. alaw, a water-lily. 

Damyrias {Plutarch) = Sanskrit, tamasa, water. The Tamara in 

Spain ; the Tamar in Devonshire. 

DcJas = W. du-las, dark blue. The Dulas in North and South 

Wales ; the Douglas in Lancashire and in Scotland. 

Gela (Thucydides.) = W. geleu, that which flows imperceptibly. 

The Geleu in Denbighshire. 

Her minium = W. ir-avon, fresh river. The Irvon in Radnor- 

shire ; the Irvine in Scotland. 

Motychanes = W. mwth-uc henaid, rapid murmuring. 
Mount Acragas = W. y graig, the rock. 

Aetna = W. aeth-nev, piercing the sky. 

Argennum = W. ar-gwyn, the white upland. 

Eryx = W. erch, terrible. 

Hybla, famed for its honey W. hyvelydd, the sun. 

Lilybaeum, a cape = W. Hob, bulging out. Cf. Lopper, an ex- 

tension of Mount Pilatus into the Lake of Lucerne. 

Malimnus, full of apple-trees = W. aval-llwyn, apple-grove. 
Mtrgantium, a city = W. mor-gamt, great plain. 

Rhodunia , the crater of Aetna (Livy.) = W. yr odyn, the lime kiln. 
Tauromenium, a city = W. tawr-meinz] the formidable walls. 


The river Acalandrus in South Italy = W. ack-lawnder, abundance 

of water. 
The lake Acherusia in Campania = W. ac/irwys, plenty. 
The river Akiris in South Italy = W. agwyr, winding. 

Addua in Lombardy = W. add-wy, redundant water ? from its 

destructive floods. 

Aesar = W. aeserw, bright. 

Albula, the primitive name of the Tiber = W. alp-ul, the high- 

land stream. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 235 

The Aponi Fontes, Abano in Venetia = W. Ffynnon Aban y the 

tumultuous spring. 
The river Aprusa in South Italy = W. ehr-wys, quick water. 
Artafa'a, a fountain among the Lmc s try gone s, a Keltic people in 

Campania, signifying 'the bear's fountain' [Apollom'us R/iodius.) 

=s W. Arthog, a name known near Barmouth in Wales. 
The river Clanis in Etruria = W. g/dn, fair. The Glanc by Ro- 

mont in Switzerland ; the Clain in Poitou. 

Bedesis, near Ravenna = W. bedw-wys, the birch river ; also 

called the Ronco = W. r/iongca, hollow. The Ranee in Bri- 

Bormida in Piedmont = Erse, borram, to swell. 

Bradanns in Calabria = Erse, bradau, a salmon. 

Clitumnns in Campania = W. lliv-dwvn, deep stream. 

Clusone in Piedmont = W. glwys-on, pure water. 

Crevola on the Simplon = W. crev, a cry. 

Dobbia in Piedmont = W. dyvi, deep ; Erse, dnbh; W. <///, 

black. The I dub a in Arragon ; the Dubis or Daubs in Bur- 
gundy ; the Douve in Normandy ; the Z?o# in Staffordshire ; 
the Duvey in North Wales. * 

Galcsus in Calabria = W. gdl-wys, fair water. 

Grana in Piedmont = W. gran, lustre. 

Hylas in Calabria = W. u/-/as, blue water. 

/r/V? or Scrivia in Lombardy = W. zr, fresh ; ysgriv, jagged. 

Labinius in North Italy = W. llavyn, a blade or sword. 

Lambrus, an affluent of the Po = W. llamre, swift. 

Libarna or Lavagna in the Apennines = W. lliveiriain, flowing 

in a torrent. 

Lima and Lemuris in the Apennines = W. ///'^, torrent. The 

Lamia in Portugal. 

Mcdama in Calabria = W. medd-avun, soft stream. 

Merula in Liguria = \V. mer-ul, rich water. 

Metniirus in Calabria = W. myd-taur, flowing surface. 
Neminia, a fountain in Samnium, allied to Nevyn in North Wales 

and to Nemausus or Nismes in its meaning, 'sacred.' 

236 Appendix. No. VIII. 

The river Olane, a tributary of the Po, {Pliny Hi. 16.) now the 
Olona by Milan = W. alon, harmony. The Alagnon in Au- 
vergne ; the Aulne in Britanny ; the Alaunus, Allen, or Avon in 
Dorset ; the Alne by Henley-in-Arden ; the Alne in Northum- 
berland ; the Alun in Flintshire ; the Allan in Scotland. 

Ollius or Oglio in Lombardy, a turbid stream = W. gwyllt, wild. 

The Ulla by Sant, Iago in Spain ; the Olle in Dauphine ; the 
Oltis or Lot (a wild stream) in the Cevennes. 

Pactins in Apulia = W. paith, a straight course. 

Pisaurus = W. pisawr, spouting, gushing. 

Rubicon = W. rhuv-ig, red and impetuous. 

Rutuba, Rotta near Ventimiglia = W. rhiidd-wv, the red stream. 

Sabatus, an affluent of the Vulturnus = W. savaddou, calm. 

Samnia in Venetia = W. sarnau, the stepping-stones. 

Scultenna, an affluent of the Po = W. ysglcnt, rebounding. 

Sermenta in Val Sesia = W. servan, dizzy. 

Sertta in Piedmont = W. serin, precipitate. 

Sessites, Sesia in Piedmont = W. swysiad, impulse. The Suze 

in West Switzerland. 

Tanager in Calabria = W. tdn-agwyr, spreading awry, winding. 

Tanarus or Tar anus = W. taran, thunder. The Tarannon, an 

affluent of the Severn in North Wales. 

Taro in the Apennines = W. tar, shock. 

Tilaventum in Friuli = W. tail-avon, river deposit. 

Timavus in Venetia (with hot springs) = W. twym-avon, warm 


Tinea, near Nice = W. tywynnu, flashing. The Tyne in Scot- 


Tosa or Toccia in Piedmont = W. tocc, quick. The Toss by S. 

Gall in Switzerland ; the Touques in Normandy. 

Umbro or Ombrone in Italy as W. Hymyr, the Humber. 

Vesciris, by mount Vesuvius = W. gwescrydd, agitated. 

Vesubia, near Nice = W. gwts-wv, water in motion. 

Vulturnus in Campania = W. gwyllt-dwrn, wild eddy. 
Larius lacus, the Lake of Como = W. llary, gentle. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 237 

Mandurium in Apulia = W. mann-dwr, place of water. 

Pantanus lacus -- W. pant-an, river in a hollow. 

Papyrius or lake of Bracciano = W. llwch-pabwyr, reedy lake. 

Sabatinus = W. llwch-savaddon, the calm lake. 

Sebinus lacus, the lake of Iseo in Lombardy = W. llwch-scbin, the 

confined lake. 
Si'acha, a Kimmerian name of lake Avernus near Cumae, preserved 

by John Tzetzes = W. sych, dry, of volcanic origin. 
Trasi menus, a lake famous for the defeat of the Romans = W. 

traivs-vann, the ill-omened place. 
Marc Tyrrhenian, the Tuscan Sea = W. Mor Tcryn. 
Mountains : Col d } Albergian in Val Pellice in Piedmont = W. al- 

brtg-gain, the high white summit. 

Alburnus in Lucania = W. al-bwm, a mighty heap. 

Alpes = W. Mynneu, from the Latin montes, the mountains. 

Apenninus = W. penn-wyn, white head. 

Balmadant in the Vaudois valleys = W. bal-mawdd-ddant, the 

peak of the expanding tooth. Serre le Cruel, ' the cruel saw,' 
is another Vaudois locality. 

Balsille = W. bdl-sil, the peak of the outlet. 

Bolca, near Verona = W. bwlch, jagged, basaltic. 

Braulio, a portion of the Stelvio = W. brawl, swelling out. 

Brans, and Mont Brouis above Nice, (covered with lavender) = 

W. brwys, luxuriant. 

Brenner, an Alpine pass = W. bre-cn, the summit. 

Broglia, by Courmayeur = W. brawl, swelling. 

Cent's = W. kean or penn-wysc, head of the water. 

Kiminius in Etruria = W. kevn, the back or high ridge. 

Coelius, one of the hills of Rome = Erse, coill, a wood. 

Col d^Artercva, near Courmayeur in Piedmont = W. bwlch- 

arthrev, the pass of the huge bear. 

Cunarus, now Mount Corno, the highest peak of the Apennines = 

W. ciin-aran, the chief mountain. 

Garganus = W. y gaer-gann, the white fort. 

Gaurus, near Naples = W. gawr, azure ? 

238 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Mountains : Genevre = W. gwen-vre, the white summit. 

Gingunum in Umbria = W. pen-gwvn, white crest. 

Graiae Alpes = W. creigiau, the rocks. 

Grivola in Piedmont = W. criviaw/, indented. 

Hirpinus in Samnium = W. Mr-pen, the long head. 

Lucretilis {Horace?) = W. Uiig-crethyU, bright. 

Muanda and Moud, two passes in Val Sesia in Piedmont = W. 

bwlch-y-mant, ' the pass of the mouth ' or opening. 

Oropa in Piedmont = W. yr hvb-al/t, the swelling height. Y 

Robe//, a mountain in Merioneth. 

Penninae Alpes = W. alpau penwyn, white topt high crags. 

Stelvio = W. yste/v, rude. 

Tabnrmis in South Italy = W. ta-bwrn, spreading mass. 

Tersiva, a snowy summit of the Graian Alps = W. ter-swyv, 

clear ice. 

Tnrlo, an Alpine pass in Piedmont = W. twrlla, a marmot. 

Vesula or Vt'so = W. syll-va or gwydd-va, place of vision. The 

latter denotes in Wales the summit of Snowdon. Cf. Mount 
Voidhia by Patras in the Morea. 
Tribes or nations : The Brnttii on the strait of Messina = W. 
brwyd, ' rent,' with allusion to the country. 

Falisci in Etruria W. ffal-wysc, whirling water. 

Genauni, the Keltic tribe of the Val d'Agno in North Italy = 

W. gwynion, the fair race. 

Hcrm'ci, a people of Latium, so called from Herma, in the 

Sabine tongue, signifying ' stones ' = Erse, cairneach, stony ; W. 
arennigion, mountaineers ? 

Iktymuli in the Val Anzasca = W. ith-mwl, a mass of wild corn. 

Laestrygoncs, a Kimmerian people who were ' sons of Neptune,' 

i.e. pirates in South Italy before Homer's time = W. llesteir- 
iawg, obstructive. 

Lebui, between Brescia and Verona = W. llcb, pale yellow. 

lepontii in the Val d'Ossola = W. llc-pant-wys, they of the glens. 

Ligurjs of West Italy, probably the same as the Iberi of Spain 

and the Lloegrwys of Britain = W. //yr, ' the sea,' seamen. 

Appendix. No. M II. 239 

Tribes or nations: Ombriri or Umbrs] a people of Illyricum and of 
Italy = W. Kymry. 

Salasst in the Val d'Aosta = W. salw-wfis, sickly men. Per- 

haps cretinism early prevailed there. 

Tanrini, near Turin = W. torr, a steep hill. 

Uencti, the men of Venice and of Vannes in Britanny = W. 

Gwynedd and Guenct, the fair country ; North Wales. 

Vestini in Samnium = Erse, luchd-faistine, wizards. 

Abe/fa, a town in Campania = Erse, abhal, apple. 

Anxur, " in the language of the Volsci " {Pliny Hi. 5.) the name of 
Tarracina = W. acserw, bright. 

Apulia, a province of South Italy, = W. Gwlad y Pwyl. {Brut y 
Tyuysogion, A.D. 1260.) 

Ardca, a city in Latium = Erse, airde, height. 

Ariminum in Gallic Italy = W. ar-vin-wy, on the water's edge. 

Arpinum, a town in Samnium = W. ar-pen, the high summit. 

Bagnasco, a place in the Apennines = W. bann-wysc, height of the 

Balmuccia in the Val Sesia = W. bal-miich, the dark peak. 

Banlia in Campania = W. bant (in Gwentian dialect), upland. 

Barderate, Bra a town in Piedmont = W. barr-derwaidd, the oak 
summit. This may have been its Liguro-Keltic name ; but Sir 
Francis Palgrave derives Bra from brauda, broad, a Teutonic 
word which could scarcely date earlier than the Lombard occu- 
pation in the sixth century. 

Bencvcntum in South Italy = W. pen-gwent, head of the champain. 

Bcrgomtim in North Italy = W. brig-cwm, end of the combe. 

Brcgaglia, a valley in North Italy = W. breg-ae/, brow of the fissure. 

Brembana, a valley in the Bergamasque = W. brecu-ban, the con- 
spicuous summit. 

Brianza, a hilly tract near Como = W. brigant, the summit. 

Brixia, Brescia in Lombardy = W. brwysg, inebriate. 

Bur gum Ausugii in Venetia = \V. bwrc/i-awsog, defiant rampart. 

240 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Kaecubum in Campania, famed for its wine = W. cae-cwv, the 

sloping enclosure. 
Kaere in Etruria, and Carrea or Chieri in Piedmont = W. caer, 

a walled city. 
Caesena in Umbria = W. cae-sena, the fort of the Ra-sena. 
Calabria in South Italy = W. ca/a-vro, the point of the land. 
Camere in Calabria {Ovid. Fasti) = W '. ca-mer, the marrow or rich 

Carriers in Etruria = W. ca-Mawrth, ' Mars ' field. 
Camonica, a valley in North Italy = W. dul-cammawn, the valley 

of battle. 
Canter turn, a headland in Umbria = Erse, hean-tir; W. pen-tir, 

headland. Cf. Cantire in Scotland. 
Caniisium, a town of Apulia on the Aufidus, a violent stream = 

W. cann-wysc, white water. 
Cara/is, a seaport in Sardinia = W. cacr-heli, city of the salt sea. 
Carbantia, an old town in Lombardy = W. caer-pant, city in the 

Caristum in Lombardy = W. caer-wys, city on the water. 
Carmagnola in Piedmont = W. caer-maenawl, fort in rich soil. 
Carseoli, a city of Tuscany = Erse, caisea/, the bulwark. 
Casilinnm in Latium. Cf. Caer-sihn, Silchester, to the venerable 

ruins whereof Pliny's words still apply, as to the Italian city 

of yore 'Sunt et morientis Casilini relliquiae,' iii. 5. 
Casmona in Liguria = W. cds-mdn, the isolated fort. 
Cas-uent-illan-um in Umbria = W. cas-gwent-y-llan, the fort of the 

Cherasco in Piedmont = W. c/aer-wysc, clear water. 
Clastidium, Casteggio in Liguria = W. c/ds-tiid, the people's hold. 
Clatema in Cis-alpine Gaul {Cicero) = W. llad-wern, the rich 

Cotnum or Como = W. cwm, a combe. 
Corfiniwn in Umbria = W. cur-ffin, the border fort. 
Corioli in Latium = W. cor-iol (iawt), the choir of worship. 
Covto, an impregnable Venetian fort = Erse, com/i/a, a horn. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 241 

Cnmae, a Kimmerian city in Italy = W. cymmau, the glens. 
Cumero, a headland in Picenum = W. penrhyn Kymry. 
Dervio on the lake of C01110 = Armoric, dcrv; W. derw, an oak. 
Dnggia, Va/, in Piedmont = W. dol-ddnaivg, the dark valley. 
Eporedia, Ivrea, in a district anciently inhabited by Kelts (Galli 

Insubres) = W. cbol-rhydd, the free colt. Pliny says, " The 

Gauls call good horsebreakers Eporedicae," iii. 17. 
Eza, a fort above Monaco = Erse, ais, hill-fort. 
Felsina, the Umbrian name of Bologna, "cum princeps Hetruriae 

esset " {Pliny iii. 5.) = W. gwely-Sina, the settlement of the 

Ra-sena ' or Etruscans. (Archd. John Williams, Essays) 
Fesnlae, Fiesole by Florence = W. gwes-id, the place of water. 
Ilva, the isle of Elba = W. il-va, the place of ferment. Ou. 

whether of old volcanic ? 
Laberii campi in Campania = W. llavyr, spreading out. 
Lannvinm, a town = W. llan-wv, moist spot. 
Laveno on lake Maggiore = W. llawen, joyous. 
Liternnm, a town in Campania = W. llwyd-wern, gray swamp. 
Lncania, a province of Italy = W. ling-gain, fair light. 
Lima, a Ligurian city near Spezzia = W. llwyn, a grove. 
Maggia, Val, in Piedmont = W. dol-mai, the open valley. 
Mantna, city surrounded by water = W. mant-wy, mouth of the water. 
Masncntnm in south Italy = W. maes-gwent, the open field. 
Mediolannm, Milan = Erse, magh-lan ; W. macs-Ian, fair meadow; 

or W. midlan, field of battle. 
Mendrisio at the foot of craggy Monte Generoso = W. mcini-dyrys, 

intricate stones. 
Mevania in Umbria = W. mei-van, the open spot. 
Morbininm in Val Tellina = W. morben, the headland. 
Okelum, Exilles in Piedmont = W. nchcl. high. Cf. Okelum pro- 

montorium, Spurnhead. 
Olloccia, Val, an offshoot of Val Anzasca = W. DyfFryn-Golych 

(Glamorgan), the vale of worship. 

Ravenna, the great harbour of the Romans, a town of the Sabines, 

originally Umbri or Kymry = W. yr havyn, the haven, 

242 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Raudii campi, near Milan = W. campau rhawdd, open plain. 

Rhcgium on the strait of Messina = rhwyg, a rent. 

R/gomagus, Trino in Lombardy = W. rhyg-vaes, the rye field. 

Roncalia, a famous plain by Milan W. rhonca-cail, hollow field. 

Sabatia, Savona in Liguria = W. sav addon, the calm water. 

Seguszo, Susa = W. seg-wysc, the inaccessible stream. 

Seriana, Val, in the Bergamasque = W. dol-seirian, bright valley. 

Sylva Sz/a, a forest in the Apennines = W. coed-selw, the remark- 
able wood ; as in Selwood Forest. 

Tarpeium saxum, a rock at Rome = W. Erse, tarp, a clod. 

Tifcrnum in Umbria = W. ty-gwem, house in the meadow. 

Tigulia, a Ligurian town on the bend of the Gulf of Genoa = Erse, 
tz'gh-uz'leann, the house at the elbow or bend. 

Treba, a town of the Aequi = W. treva, town. 

Trebzda, a town in Samnium = W. tre-ba/a, the town where 
streams meet. 

Ulvemum = W. ul-gwem, the moist meadow. 

Venusia in Apulia = W. gwen-wysc, white water. 

Verkellae in Piedmont = W. gwer-kyll, camp of the hazels. 

Verona in Lombardy = W. gwer-on, camp by the river. 

Savoy and Switzerland. 

The lake Acrom'us, or of Constance = W. achrwm, curved. 
The river Birse in Val Moutier = Erse, btr, water. 

Brz'da in Savoy = W. brid, eruption, i.e. of mineral waters. 

The Brid by Bridport in Dorset. 

Broye by Morat = W. brwch, foam or ferment. The Brigus 

or Barrow by Waterford in Ireland. (Ptolemy.) 

Kander near Thun = W. cann-dwr, white water. 

Divona or Divonne, near Nyon = W. dwyv-on, divine water. 

The Deba in Spain ; the Deva, Dyvr-dzvy, or Dee in Scotland 
and Wales. 
The Doron in Savoy = W. dwr, water. The Deveron by Banff in 

Appendix. No. VIII. 243 

The Li magus or Linmiat by Zurich = W. lliv-vagh, meadow-flood. 

Muotta in Schwyz as W. mwyth-wy, rapid water. The Meduacus 

or Medway in Kent. The Mowddwy in Merioneth. 

Reuss by Lucerne = W. rhwys, vigorous. The Reus in Spain* 

the Reissousc by Bourg-en-Bresse. 

Venoge in canton Vaud = W. gwenog, white stream. 
Mountains : Arolla, a glacier in Val d'Anniviers = W. aroll, a rift 

or split. 

Piz de Bemina in the Grisons = W. pig-bcrwyn, the peak of 

the white rift. 

Bre, near Lugano = W. bre, summit. Moel-vre in Merioneth. 

Brenets in the Jura = W. bre, summit. Dent de Brenleir ; Col 

de Breona in Val d'Herins. 

Piz de Cambrena in the Grisons = W. pig-cambre, the peak of 

the crooked summit. 

Kervin, the steepest of the Alps = W. gerwin, harsh. 

Dent de Nivolet in Savoy = W. dant-nivwl, tooth of the cloud. 

Dent d 1 Oclie in Chablais = W. dant-och, tooth of pain, from 

its escarped sides. 

Foroglio in Val Bavona = W. ffor-wyllt, wild pass. 

Gctnmi in Valais. Its Kymric equivalent would be Yr Eivl in 

North Wales ; Latin, gemelli, the twins. 

Jazi, Cima di, on Monte Rosa = W. ids, chill, unless the name 

is of Saracenic or Arabic origin. 

Jura, a long chain green to the summit = W. ir, green. 

Marchciruz, Col de, in Vaud = W. march-eirxv, the great cas- 


Moleson in West Switzerland = W. mocl-cs-on, the bare hill of 

the water-shed. 

Mom Jovis, Mont-joie, the Great S. Bernard = W. mwut-Jou, 

Jove's mount. 

Vanoise, Col de la, in Savoy = W. gwanas, the bulwark. 

Voketius, the Botzberg between Basle and Zurich = W. gwo- 

gwydd, an incline. 
The Allobroges in Savoy = W. all-bro-gwys, the foreigners. 

244 Appendix. No. VIII. 

The Ambrones, a Gallo- Teuton tribe that fought C. Marius, B.C. 
101= Erse, ambra, noble. Nennius makes them the same as 
the Aid-Saxons. Were they not akin to the Italian Umbri and 
our Kymry ? 

Rauraci, a Gallic tribe by Basle = W. rhawr-ach-wyr, the men 

of the roaring water, with allusion to the Rhine. 

Rhucantii, a tribe in the Prattigau = W. rhug-gaint, the broken 

ground. Its rocks are singularly escarped. Rugantyn is yet a 
place in Radnorshire. 

Tugeni of Zug = W. tnd-gain, the fair folk. 
Aesc/i, many places so called = Erse, ease, water. 
Agaunum, S. Maurice in Valais = W. agen, a rift. 
Avcnticum, Avenche = W. cwm-avonydd, the combe of rivers. 
Auxatna, Aime in the Tarentaise = W. ach-wv, water-in-motion. 
Berigentrum, Bourg S. Maurice in Savoy = W. Ber-Cyndrwyn, the 

pike of the Kentrones. 
Bourget under Mont du Chat = W. bwrch-geth, the terrible wall ? 
Brannovicum, Bramante, a forest and fort in Savoy = W. bran-wig, 

1 the dark clearing ' in the forest. 
Bregentium, Bregenz, and Briga = W. brig, summit. 
Darentasia in Savoy = W. taran-wysc, thundering water. 
Eburodunum, Yverdun in Vaud, and Embrun in Dauphine = W. 

identical with Dinevor in South Wales. 
Epaona, Evionnaz in Valais = W. eppynt, the slope. 
Evian in Savoy. Cf. Etvionydd in Carnarvonshire. 
Gunodurum on the Rhine = W. gwyii-dwr, white water. 
Haute- Combe in Savoy = W. allt-y-cwm, the steep of the combe. 
Lenincnm, Chambery in Savoy = W. llyn-yn-cwm, the lake in the 

combe, from Lake Bourget. 
Octodurum, Martigny in Valais = W. gwyth-dwr, angry water, from 

the devastations of the Dranse. 
So/odurum, Soleure = W. swl-dwr, soiled water. 
Talloire on the lake of Annecy = tal-llyr, end of the water. 
Tavannes or Dur-van in west Switzerland = W. dwr-vann, place of 


Appendix. No. VIII. 245 

Thonon in Chablais = W. twyn, an eminence. Cf. Tunnun in 
Numidia. Thonon rises steeply above Lake Leman. 

Turicum, Zurich = W. dwr-y-cwm, the water of the combe. 

Uginc in Savoy, famous for its cattle-fair = W. yc/tain, oxen. 

Findonissa, " on a narrow hill between the Aar and the Reuss " = 
W. gtvyn-dyno-wysc, the fair plot by the water. 

Fitodurum, Winterthur = W. gwyth-dwr, impetuous water. 

Yvonand, near Neufchatel = W. y-ffynnawn^ the fountain. 

Spain and Portugal. 

The river Aturia in Keltiberia = W. dur, water. 

Fluvia, an affluent of the Ebro = W. ffloyw, bright. The Floye 

near Dinant in Belgium ; the Flayosc in Provence = W. ffloyw- 
wysc, bright water. 

Ivia among the Artabri of Spain, " etiamnum Kelticae gentis " 

{Mela.) = \V. gwy, water. The Wye in South Wales ; the Wye 
in Derbyshire ; the Wey in Dorset. 

Ketobrica^ St. Ubes in Portugal = kcth-brig, frowning hill. 

Llobregat in Spain = W. llwv-brcgawd, the leap in the fissure. 

Menlascus or Orio in Biscay = W. macn-llasawg, blue stones. 

Mimics or Minho in Galicia = W. myn-wyf The Monnow by 

Monmouth ; the Mnnda or Mondego in Portugal = W. mwyn- 
wy, the gentle water. 

Ozecarus in Portugal = W. wysc-arw, rough water. The Os- 

carus or Ouche in Burgundy. 

Sicanus, an affluent of the Ebro (T/iucydides.) = W. syc/i-an, 

dry river. 

Tagtis in Portugal = W. tawc/i, the sea-like or broad river. 

Tordera, an affluent of the Ebro = hvrdd, noise. 

Tulcts by Tarragona = W. twrch, wild boar. . tvon Twrck in 


Urinm in Baetica = W. wyrc, spreading. The Wyre in Lan- 

cashire ; the Wyre in Cardiganshire. 

Vernodubrum in the Pyrenees W. gwem-dwvr, watery meadow. 

246 Appendix. No. VIIT. 

Dirkenna, a cold fountain in Keltiberia {Martial) = W. dwr-cain, 

-white water. 
Mountains: Mariani monies, the Sierra Morena = W. mynydd Meir- 

ion, the neat-herd's mountain. 

Vindins in the Asturias = W. mhi-ddii, the black edge. 

The Concani, a people in Biscay = W. kean-cann, white headed. 

Nertobriges, a Keltiberian tribe = W. nerth-br'ig, strong summit. 

Turditani in south Portugal = W. twrdd, tumultuous. 
Abobrica, a town in Portugal = W. avon-brig, river's summit. 
A/aba, a city of Keltiberia = W. alav, wealth ? 

Atialdwium in Baetica = Erse, aith-aoil-ditn, fort of the limekiln. 

Brigantium, Corunna = W. brig-gaint, extremity of the plain. 

Caladunum in Galicia = W. din-gal, fort of the peak. 

Calagurris in Keltiberia = W. clegyr, a rock. 

Clnnia, " Keltiberiae finis " {Pliny Hi. 3.) = W. llwyn, grove. 

Conimbrica, Coimbra in Portugal = W. conyn-brig, the verge of 

the hill. 
Contrebia in Keltiberia = W. kyn-trev, chief town. 
Fontarabia in Biscay = W. ffynnon rheibus, rapid source. 
Lastigi in Keltica (south Portugal) = W. llastig, hemmed in. 
Lucentum or Alicant in Spain = W. llug-gaint, bright plain. 
Menosca in Biscay = W. mann-wysc, the place of water. Also, 

Manosque in Provence. 
Pompelo, Pampeluna in Navarre = W. pwmpyl, a knoll. 
Sagutitum, "in Keltica" {Pliny, Hi. I.) = W. Caer-Seiont. Cf. Caer- 

Seiont or Caernarvon. 
Talabrica in Lusitania = W. tdl-e-brig, the verge of the summit. 
Talamina in Galicia = W. tal-avon, the head of the river. 
Vergentum, a town in Baetica = W. gwer-gwent, the men of the 

Vertobrigc, a Keltic town in Baetica = W. gwerdd-brig, the green 

Uctdtuniacum in Baetica = W. uchel-twynawc, high-banked. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 247 


Hie river Angrogne in the Vosges mountains = W. nn-grawn y the 
dammed-up river. 

Aran in Touraine. The Arun in Sussex ; the Aeron in South 

Wales ; the Ayr in Scotland ; the Erne in Donegal, Ireland. 

Artnby, a torrent in Provence = W. arth-wv, rude motion. 

Atax, Aude in Languedoc = Erse, athac/i, waves. 

Anttira, Eure = W. aweddwr, running water. 

Aveyron in Gascony. The Havar, Samarus, or Somme in 

Picardy ; the Havren, Sabrina, or Severn in Wales = W. havren, 
smooth How. 

Bethnnc, near Dieppe = W. bedwin, the river of birch-trees. 

Blavet in Britanny = W. b/awdd, fleet. 

RIcdona or Blc'onne, an affluent of the Durance = W. bleiddan, 

the wolf-river. 

Brcsc in Provence = W. braisg, full. 

Bresle in Normandy = W. brawf, swelling. 

Colme in Picardy ; the Colne in Essex, the Culme in Devon- 

shire, the Columvy or Clunn in Salop, the Kelnins or Spey in 

Domenon by Uriage in Dauphine = W. dwvti-on, deep river. 

Dourdonn, the ancient name of the Elorn in Britanny = W. 

dwr-dwvn, deep water. 

Drngcon, an affluent of the Saone = W. drwg-on, evil water. 

Dmna or DrCme = Sanskrit, d } ravanli, river. 

Elaver, Allier in Auvergne = W. e-//avar, the resounding. 

Erdre near Nantes; the Artro in Merioneth; the Cur/ry, in 

Wicklow, Ireland. 

Erom-vcnr = W. ffrwd-vawr, great stream, the sea-channel be- 

tween Ouessant and other islets in Britanny. The Phrudis or 
Somme in Picardy = W. ffrwd; the Frome, anciently Ffraw 
in Somerset (Asscr Mcnevcnsis.) ; the Ffrtiu\ in Anglesea ; the 
Forth, in Scotland. 
Gardon, near Nimes = W. garth-on, the river of the hill-flank. 

248 Appendix. No. VIII. 

The river Gers in Gascony = W. kyrch, violent. 

Glv in the Pyrenees, formidable by reason of its inundations = 

W. l/w, flood. 

Gniers by the Grande Chartreuse = W. gyrwy, speedy. The 

Guer in Britanny ; the Garvogue in Sligo, Ireland ; the Yar- 
row in Scotland. 

Guil in Dauphine = W. gwilw, turning. The Vilaine in Brit- 

anny. The Gwilw, now Willeybourne, in Wiltshire ; the Gwily 
in South Wales ; the Welland in Lincolnshire. 

Guisanne in Dauphine = W. gwys-an, deep river. 

Huveaune, near Marseilles = W. whwyvon, swelling river. 

Isc're or Isara in Dauphine = W. haearn; Gallic, isarn, iron, 

the iron river, from its dark waters. 

Iton, near Evreux ; the Ithon in Radnorshire ; the Eden in 

Cumberland ; the Ythan in Scotland, (the Ituna of Ptolemy). 

lay, near Lucon = W. llai, ' brown ' or dun-coloured. The Lee 

in Hertfordshire ; the Lay in Glamorganshire ; the Lee near 
Cork ; probably, the water of Leith in Scotland. Llywarch 
Hen mentions Aber-llai in that country. 

Ledus, Lez } near Montpelier = W. //aid, mud. 

Matrona or Marne = W. myrn-ivy, warm water. The Myrmvy 

in Montgomeryshire. 

Meduana or Mayne = W. meddv-an, soft river ? 

Menrthe, by Nancy = W. mivrth, precipitate. 

Mosa, Meuse in Belgic Gaul = W. mock, quick. 

Obris or Lorbe, near Narbonne = W. ob-rhwys, lively motion. 

Orne, by Caen in Normandy = W. orn, threatening. 

Oronaye, a torrent in Dauphine ; Goronwy in Anglesea, brim- 

ming water. 

Ourthe in Belgium = W. gwrdd, strong. 

Ouve'ze in the Ardeche = W. wv-wysc, the moving water. 

Raurarts, Herault in Languedoc = W. rhawr, brawling. 

Relec near Morlaix in Britanny = W. rhyllawc, the cleaver. 

Rhodanns or Rhone = W. rh6d, a wheel, whirling. The Roding 

in Essex ; the Rhondda in Glamorganshire. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 249 

The river Ribeirotte in Provence, an affluent of the Argens = rhi- 
ffrwd, the royal stream. The Ribroit or Ribble in Lancashire. 

Risle in Normandy = W. rhill, the furrow. 

Romanche in Dauphine = W. rhwmnai, the main channel. The 

Rhymny in Monmouthshire. 

Sarthe in Maine = W. sarth, serpent. 

Sauconna or Saone = Erse, sogh-an, the slow river. Avon Soch 

in Lleyn, Carnarvonshire. 

Sou/e, by Coutance in Normandy = W. swl, soiled, muddy. 

Tech in the Pyrenees = W. teg, fair. 

Tet in the Pyrenees = W. tcth, the cow's udder. 

Tongues in Normandy = W. twc, cutting. 

Ubaye in Provence = W. wv, flowing. 

Varus, Var in Provence = W. garw, rough. 

Vencon, an affluent of the Romanche = W. gwen-on, white 

river. Maen-gwenonwy in Lleyn, Carnarvonshire. 
The Ognon, an affluent of the- Saone ; the Gwynion by Dolgelly. 

Verdon, an affluent of the Durance = W. gwerdd-on, green river. 

Viennc, by S. Claude in the Jura = W. buan, quick. The 

Boyne in Ulster. 

Vire in Normandy = W. gwyr, green or fresh. 

Mountains : Ban de la Roche in the Vosges = W. bdn-rhoc, the 

splintered highland. 
Cantal, an elevated district in Auvergne = W. caun-ta/, the white 


Chabertan, a part of M. Genevre = W. camberth, slanting brake. 

Gebenna, the Cevennes in Languedoc = W. keven, back or 


Ventoux in Dauphine = W. gwyntog, windy. 

Pelat in Provence = W. pel, the ball. 

Pclvoux in Dauphine = W. pel-vwch, the buck's ball. 

Pity de Pariou in Auvergne = W. pig-y-p&ri, the peak of flocks. 

Vogcsus, the Vosges, of a swelling rounded form = W. bog-wys, 

the protuberant district. 


250 Appendix. No. VIII. 

The Abrincatut, the men of Avranche in Normandy = W. avrwym- 

gddwyr, the irrepressible warriors. 
The Aedm\ they of Burgundy = W. aedd-wyr, the war-cry men. 
The Ambarri, a tribe above Lyons = W. am-barr, hill-men. 
The Ambi'aiii, they of Amiens in Picardy = W. ambwy-on } the 

close-mailed warriors, i.e., Cataphractarii Ambianenses. 
The Ambth'ates, they of Lamballe in Britanny = W. Am-bezh'-awd, 

dwellers around the tumulus. 
The Artzzorz'cz, the Britons of France = Erse, Armhoirich; W. ar- 

Tor-wyr, the sea-coast men. 
The Arvz'z, they of Maine = W. aer-wyr, warriors. 
The Atrebatcs, they of Artois = W. athrev-awd, the dwellers. 
The Azilcrcae, they of Evreux = W. mvl-erch, terrible light ? 
The Aztskz'z, they of Auch in Gascony = W. awsog, the defiant. 
The Bajocasses, they of Calvados = Erse, buidhe-gwas, yellow-haired 

The Belgae in northern France = W. beilchion, the proud. 
The Belksvaki, a very warlike tribe of Beauvais = W. be'Igwawc/i, 

The Biducasses, they of Bayeux = W. bci'dawgwys, vigorous men. 

[Beidawg Rudd was the son of Emyr Llydaw. (Englym'on 

Beddau Mt'/wyr.)] 
The Bihiriges, they of Berri = W. byd-rhi\ world-kings. 
The Britanni or Britons = W. brith or braith, alluding to the 

plaids of bright hues the Gallo-Britons delighted in. 
The Cadtirki, they of Cahors = W. cdd-wyr, men of battle. 
The Cambohctri in Dauphine = W. ctvm-//etbr, the steep combe. 
The Carnutes, they of Chartres = W. canvwyd, stud, horsemen. 
The Caturiges in Dauphine = W. cdd-rzg, war-kings. 
The Kcnomanni in Maine = W. cain-vann, the fair place. 
The Ebtirwikes, they of Evreux = W. evwrazg, from evwr, a shelter. 

[Evreux lies in a bowl, shut in by hills.] 
The Gallitae in the Maritime Alps = W. gal-wydd, the woodmen. 

Galloway in Scotland is also Gal-wydd. 
The Ideonni in Dauphine = W. eidion, oxen ; herdsmen. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 251 

Tlu- Lemovtkes, they of Limoges a W. Ilrm-yuig. the stem fort- 
The Lcxuvii, they <>t Lisieux = W. Ilu's-wy\ slimy water? 
The lingoncs, they of Langres = W. l/y/i-gai/i, the bright lake: the 

same name as Lyngein or Linger] in Herefordshire. 
The J/andul>it\ they of Auxonne in Burgundy = W. mann-Dyx -/. 

the locality of the Dubis or Doubs. 
The Morini on the English Channel = W. morinwvr, maritime 

people. Tractus Morinorum = W. Traeth Moryan. 
The Nannctcs and Nantuatcs, they of Nantes and of Nantua, from 
the root- word nant, a torrent and a hollow scooped by it, fre- 
quent in Wales. Cf. Nantpanton Hill in Leicestershire. 
The Nerusii in the Maritime Alps = W. ner-iuys, the mighty. 
The Oromansah] near Guines = W. gor-van-saivch, high tumulus. 
The Osismii in Britanny = W. os-is, the progeny of Is, Caer-Is. 
The -Parisii, tribes at Paris and on the Humber = W. p<iu<r-wys, 

graziers. (W. Baxter) 
The Pctrocorii, they of Perigord = W. pedrawg-gwyr, square or 

strong-built men. 
The Rcdones, they of Rennes in Britanny and of Reading in Berks 

= Armoric, Roman; W. rhedynog, a place full of fern. 
The Suessiones, they of Soissons = W. swys-on, impulsive. 
The Tarbelli, they of Tarbes in Aquitaine = W. tarv-yll, terrible. 
The Tencteri, a Gallo-German tribe on the Rhine = W. tcng-ter- 

wyr, the tough, sullen men. 
The Trckac, they of Troyes in Champagne = W. trick, superior. 
The Treviri, they of Treves in Germany W. trev-wyr, towns- 
The Vasconcs or Gascons of Aquitaine. the same as the Basques 

from the Euscaric basoa, wood, i.e. the woodmen. 
The Velocasscs, they of Rouen = W. be/-gwds, warlike. 
The Vergnnni, an Alpine Gallic tribe (Pliny.) = W. gwyr-gwynn, the 

white or fair men. 
The Volcae Arecomtkt\ in Languedoc = W. Belgwys-ar-e-cwm, the 
Belgae over the combe. 

252 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Aballo, Avallon in Burgundy = W. avalloji, apples. 

Alesia = W. ar-lech, on a rock. {Bullet.) 

Ampreck, Cape, by Boulogne = W. amfrach; Latin, amfr actus. 

Andcritum, Mende in the Gevaudan = W. rhyd-andrcd, the ford 

of the weald. 
Antissiodurum, Auxerre = W. annwys-dwr, redundant water. 
Aran, Val d\ in the Pyrenees = W. aran, an alp or elevated place. 

The Isle of Arran in Scotland ; Aran Benllyn in Merioneth. 
Arausio, Orange = W. ar-wysc, on the water, i.e. the Rhone. 
Arduenna, the forest of Ardennes in Belgium, and that of Arden 

in Warwickshire = W. ar-dwyn, in the bush. 
Arelatc, Aries = W. ar-laith, on moist soil. 
Argelez in the Pyrenees = W. ar-gel, the covert or retired spot. 

Argillae the Gauls called it. {Strabo.) 
Arvemia, Auvergne = W. arvaran, the highland ; or ar-wern, the 

upland meadows. 
Angus todunum, Autun in Burgundy = W. din-Azvst, Fort Augustus. 
Augustoritum, Limoges in Poitou = W. rhyd-Awst, Augustus' ford. 
Avarz'cum, Bourges = W. cwm-aweddwr, the combe of the Eure. 
Avenio, Avignon = W. avonydd, the rivers. 
Balaruc, a lake near Cette = W. bala-rhwyg, the burst outlet. 
Bangor in Belle-isle, in North Wales, and in Ireland = W. ban-gor, 

the high choir. Banchory-Teman in Scotland. 
Belcar or Beaucaire in Languedoc = W. caer-Beli, the city of 

Blaye on the Garonne, the burial-place of Roland = W. blaz'dd, a 

. wolf. A place named Trompe-/o^ is in the neighbourhood. 
Blc'/ieau, near Orleans = W. blacn-avon, before the river. 
Bleouna in the Maritime Alps = W. blaenau, the heights. 
Blitcrrac, Beziers in Languedoc = W. blith-dir, the milk or rich land. 
Borvonis Aquae or Bourbon- Lancy, near Autun = Erse, borbhan, 

murmur ; W. bwrw or berw-van, the place of boiling springs. 
Bourboule in Auvergne = W. bwr-bwll, the boiling pool. 
Bourbourg in French Flanders = W. bwr-bwrcn, the stoccade of the 


Appendix. No. VIII. 253 

Bourg d'Oysans in Dauphine = W. bwrch-wysan, the fort of the 

rushing river. 
La Brr'o/e, a ruined place in Provence = W. hreuawl, mouldering. 
La Brie, a district of dusty soil = W. hnui, brittle. 
Brivas, Brioude in Auvergne = W. brnvawd, broken ground. 
Brivatis Partus, Brest = W. porth-brhvawd. 
Broceliandc, the Forest of, or Brc-kilian in Britanny = W. bro-ke/yn, 

the land of holly. 
Burdigala, Bourdeaux = W. bwrdd-y-Gal, the Board of the Gauls, 

from its opulence. In Brut y Tywysogion, Bwrdyws. 
Caballio, Cavaillon in Provence = W. kcffylau, horses. 
Cabiomagus, Cavaignac in Languedoc = W. cdb-vaes, the field of 

Heraclea Caccabaria, the Gallo-Greek name of S. Tropez, so called 
(I imagine) from its turbulent road-stead. Its Keltic name may 
have been Porth-Ercwlv Cach-aber. 
Cadomum, Caen in Normandy = W. edd-dv, warlike. 
Cagnosc, a ruined Gallic oppidum in Provence = W. cain-wysc, 

white water. 
Camargue, a plain near Marseilles, abounding with wild horses = 

W. cae-march, the horse-field. 
Cane ale in Normandy = W. cann-calav, the white prickle of its 

Cantgwic (iVeum'us.), the town on the plain, Etaples in Picardy. 
Carhaix in Britanny = W. caer-wys, the water fort ? 
Carnac in Britanny = W. cameddawg, the place of cairns. 
Carnoules in Provence = W. carn-wyll, the dark cairn. An ancient 
locality between the Tawy and the Towy was called Carn- 
wyllon. (Nennius.) 
Carpentoracte, Carpentras = \V. caer-pentyrrawc, the summit fort. 
Catalaunum, Chalons-sur-Marne, the scene of many battles = W. 

edd-alazcn or cdd-givahnvn. the field of the foe. 
Kcmenclium. Cimies, near Nice = W. keven-elod, the hill of the 
fairies. The ruined amphitheatre is still called // tiHO delle 
fade, the fairies' bath = W. tynor elod? 

254 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Chambertin in Burgundy, famed for its wine = W. camp-bcrthvn, 

the beautiful field. 
C/itnberris, Auch in Gascony = W. llimpyr, polished. 
Clisson, a castle near Nantes = W. glwys-on, fair water. 
Coligny in Burgundy = W. clynnog, the brake. 
Combrjinont, a village in Dauphine = W. cwm-bre-mivnt, the combe 

of the mountain summit. 
Commercy-sur-Meuse = W. cwm-kymmcr, the combe of the junction 

of rivers. Quimper or Kemper in Britanny = W. kymmer. 
Condate, Rennes in Britanny = W. kyndawd, a cohort. 
Condatis Partus, Libourne in Guienne = W. porth-kyndaivd. 
Condivineum, Nantes in Britanny = W. cwm-kyndwv, the combe of 

the early crop. 
Convinae, Comminges in the Pyrenees = W. kyffiniau, the confines. 
La Crau, a stony plain near Marseilles = W. creigiau, rocks. 
Cuciacnm, Coney, a grand feudal castle = W. enchiawg, frowning. 
Dariobrignm, the old name of Vannes in Britanny = W. ddr-brig, 

the summit of the oaks. 
Dinant in Britanny and in Belgium ; also, the ancient name of 

Ludlow, Salop =- W. din-nant, the town in the hollow. 
Dinia, Digne in Dauphine = W. dinas, the fort. 
Divio, Dijon in Burgundy = W. dwyv-on, the sacred river. 
Divodurnm, Metz in Lorraine = W. dwyv-dwr, the divine water. 
Divona, Cahors in France = W. duw-ffynnon, the sacred well. 
Dombes, an old French principality in a muddy soil = W. dom, mud. 
Doullcns or Dourlans in Picardy = W. dwr-llan, water town. 
Draguignan in Provence = W. draig-y-nant, the dragon, drac or 

devastating torrent ' in the hollow ' ? Or else, a corruption of 

Pons-argentens, Pont-arian, the bridge over the silver river. 
Drenx, near Chartres, the chief seat of the Druids in Gaul = W. 

7'rer Drytv, the Druid's home. 
Duj'ocortori/m, Rheims = W. dwr-gwrt, water court. 
Estrades, a place in Gascony, whose lord, a vassal of the Plan- 
tagenet kings, bore ;he Arabic title of Souldich de 1' Estrade 
(Froissart.) = W. ystrad, the strand or vale. 

Appendix. No, VII J. 255 

Fons-bliaudi, Fontainebleau, near Paris = W. tfvnwai-v-hlaidd, the 

wolf's fountain. 
Frontimacum s Frontignan in Languedoc = W. brou-tuviiunn , the 

hill slope. 
Gallia, Gaul, ancient France = W. getti or giclad-y-gal, the country 

of fair open plains. 
Gtinlannc, a place in Provence = W. gar than, the encampment. 
Gergovia, a city in Auvergne = W. caer-govau, the fort of smiths. 
Gessoriacum, Boulogne-sur-mer. Baxter reads Gressoriacum, which 

in Belgic would be Gresouriawc, the place of broad water. 

The Bretons call a great sea mor-braz, and the Basque for 

water is ura. 
Glandate, Glandeve in Provence = W. glan-daivd, the bank of the 

moraine or deposit. 
Glanum Livii, S. Remi in Provence = W. glan-Llywx. 
Gvatianopolis, Grenoble in Dauphine = W. cacr-Gradlawn. 
Guingamp in Britanny = W. gwyn-gamp, the white field. 
Guise in Picardy = W. gwys, a low bottom. 
Henncbon in Britanny = W. lien-bout, old bridge. 
Hue I goat in Britanny = W. uchel-goed, high wood. 
Hyeres in Provence = W. /r, green. " We landed in Hyeres' Bay, 

and found everything so warm and green that I could quite 

enter into John of Salisbury's feelings.'' (/?. Hurrell Froudc, 

Remains, i. p. J II.) 
la/ines, a town in Berri = W. ia/ain, fair. 
Icu/isma, Angouleme = W. cnkil-va, place of refuge. 
Isarnodorum, an old Gallic town, said to mean ' the iron door.' 

{Life of S. Eugcndus in the Acta Sanctorum.) = W. haearn-dor. 
Golfc Jouan in Provence = W. Ziuan, i.e. the sunny gulf. 
Latin-iron, the ancient name of Loc-Maria-ker in Britanny W. 

IJati-cryri, the eagles' place. 
Lantosquc, St. Martin de, a bath in Provence = W. IJan-iyrddin 

Law7itwysc, the water slope. 
Lectourc in Guienne, on a rock by the Gers = W. llcch-dwr, the 

rock by the water. 

256 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Sylva Ledia, S. Germain-en-Laye = W. coed-llazd, the damp wood. 

Lerins, an isle off Frejus = W. llyr-ynys, isle of the sea. 

Lesneven in Britanny = W. llys-nevyn, the court in the hollow. So, 
Nevyn in Carnarvonshire is in a hollow. 

Letavia, Britanny = W. Ilydaw; Latin, littus, the sea-coast. 

Limonum, Poitiers = W. llzvon, the floods ? 

Limon, Col de, near Tenda = W. bwlch-llumon, a term related to 
Pumlumon or Plinlimmon in Wales. 

Lixona, Luchon in the Pyrenees = W. lluch-on, the sparkling river. 

Ljigdunum, Lyons = W. lliig-din, the city of light. 

Lima, Cluny in Burgundy = W. clyn, a brake ; or llwyn, a grove. 

Lutetia, or, as the emperor Julian writes it, Leuketia, the Gallic 
name of Paris = W. llaith-hyttiau, the damp huts, which ex- 
pressed the dwellings of squatters in an islet on the Seine. 

Luteva, Lodeve in southern France = W. lludw, clay. 

Lnxovia, Luxeuil in the Vosges = lliig-wy, bright water. 

Magalona, Maguelonne in Provence = W. magh or maes-alawn. 

Magdunum, Mehun on the Loire = W. magh-dun, the field fort. 

Mane Meur, near Quiberon in Britanny = W. meini-mawr, the 
great stones. Mena-vawr, the finest rock in the Scillies. 

Marly, near Paris ; Marlioz in Savoy = W. marl, alluvial soil. 

Martigues, in Provence = W. martfo'g, heavy. 

Massz'h'a, Marseilles = W. maes-zl, the field of progress. 

Mastramella, Martigues = W. maes-travael, the field of labour. 

Matisco, Macon = W. mdd-wysc, good water. 

Medttlt, Medoc in Guienne = W. meddw, ' drunken,' from its rich 

Melodunum, Melun = W. din-mael, the fort of steel. 

Merwlacum, Murol, a place on the ' stagnum ingens ' of Lac 
Chambon in Auvergne (Szdom'us Apollinaris) = W. mer-llwch 
or merllyn l standing water. 

Mimate, Mende in Languedoc, on a mountain = W. meivod, a sum- 
mer dwelling. 

Montmorency, near Paris = W. mwnt-mvr-cngc, the mount by the 
angular mere. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 257 

Montrognon, a castle in Auvergne = W. mwnt-rhyn, terrible mount. 

Morbihan in Britanny = W. m6r-bychan, the little sea. 

Morlaix in Britanny = W. mor-Iatth, ' sea-at-ebb ' ? 

Mor/ati, localities in Beam and Britanny = W. ilan-vor, great town. 

Mortain in Normandy, near fine cascades = W. mwrth-an. falling 

Morvan, a forest in Burgundy = W. morva, the marsh ; or mor- 

vatm, the large place. 
Narbo, Narbonne = W. ner-batm, lordly site. 
Nemausus, Nimes in Languedoc = allied to the Erse naomh y 

sacred. Cf. W. Nav, Lord, applied to God. 
Nemctodtirum, Nanterre by Paris = W. nant-y-dwr, water glen. 
O/h'ou/es, a famous ravine in Provence = W. ole-wyll, dark ravine. 
Paol, Kastel, S. Pol de Leon in Britanny = W. Castell Pawl. 
Pen-ar-Bed = W '. pen-ar-byd, the world's end = The Pointe S. 

Mahe, S. Matthew's Point, the most westerly spot in France, 

called S. Matthaeus de Finibus Terrarum, A.D. 1253. 
Pen-hoen = W. pen-ychain. the oxen's head = Paimboeuf on the 

Piskenae, Pezenas in Languedoc = W. pisgen, the linden. 
P/oerme/, near Vannes in Britanny = W. plwyv-Arthmael. 
Poh'gnac, a castle near Le Puy in Auvergne, formerly a temple of 

Apollo =- W. Belinawc, belonging to Belenus. 
Pompadour , an old castle in Limousin = W. pwmpa-dwr, the round 

mass by the water. 
Pont-du-Gard, near Nimes = W. pont-y-garth, the bridge of the hill 


Pontivy in Britanny = W. pont-Dcwi, S. David's bridge. 

Provins in Champagne = W. bro-gwyn, pleasant land. 

Queiras, a fort in Dauphine = W. caer. 

Quey/awie, a hamlet in Dauphine = W. keulan, a hollow. 

Quimper-le in Britanny = W. kemmacs, the field of sports. 

Rethel in Champagne = W. rhyd-tal, the head of the river. 

Phiys, a peninsula near Vannes = W. rhws, cultivated land. 

Ricomagus, Riom in Auvergne = W. rhyg-maes, rye-field. 

258 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Roncevalle in the Pyrenees = W. rhongca, hollow. 

Rothomagus, Rouen in Normandy = Erse, ruadh-vagh; W. rhudd- 
vaes, the red field. 

Ruesium, Rieux in Languedoc = W. rhwys, luxuriance. 

Ruskino, Roussillon, near Spain = W. rliwysg, luxuriant. 

Rutena, Rodez in France = W. rhudd-ddin, the red fort. Also, 
Rutunium or Row ton in Salop : Ruthin in Denbighshire. 

Sarnia, Guernsey = W. sarn, the causeway. 

Scae'r in Britanny = W. esgair, a long ridge of hills. 

Sena, Isle de Sein off Ushant, the sacred isle of the Gallic Druids 
= W. hSn, the venerable. 

Suindunum, Le Mans in Maine = W. swyn-din, the charmed fort. 

Talart, a castle in Provence = W. tdl-garth, the front of the guard. 

Talmont, an ancient domain in Poitou, of which Philippe de Corn- 
mines was prince = W. tdl-mwnt, the mountain's brow. 

Tarare, a difficult pass near Lyons = W. tarv, a scare. 

Tarvanna, Terouenne in Artois = W. tarw-van, the place of bulls. 

Tasgodunum, Mirepoix in Languedoc = W. tasg-ddin, tribute fort. 

Teh Martins, Toulon = W. telyn-Maivrth, the harp of Mars. La 
Ciotat, not far off, was called Kitharistes, the harper. 

Tornodorum, Tonnerre in Burgundy = W. twrn-dwr, the whirling 

Trevultium, Trevoux in Dombes = W. trev-a/tt, town on the steep. 

Tumiac, Butte de, in Britanny = W. tumiawc, on the incline. 

Uxantis insula, the isle of Ouessant off Britanny Armoric, enes- 
cuz, the isle of terror. 

Uxelhdunum, Capdenac in France = W. uchel-ddin, high town. 

Vapincum, Gap in Dauphine = W. chwap-yn-cwm, the gap in the 
combe, from its steep precipices. 

Vellaunodunum, Beaune in Burgundy = W. din- Gwallawn. 

Velovicum, Volvic in Auvergne = W. cwm-gwclw, the pale or sad- 
coloured combe, from its volcanic rocks. 

Ve'nasque, a port in Roussillon, and Venose in Dauphine = W. 
gwen-wysc, white water. 

Ventavon in Provence = W. gwynt-avon, windy-river. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 259 

Vernon in Normandy = W. gwem-on, marsh-river. 
Verodutium, Verdun = W. gwyr- or giver-ddin, soldiers' fort. 
Versaliae, Versailles = W. bers-y-ltai, the stoccade in the clay. 
Vesontio, Besancon = W. gwes-liwnt, ' onward motion,' from its being 

nearly surrounded by the river Doubs. 
Vienna, below Lyons = W. gwy-an, ' the river ' Rhone. 
Virgantia castellum, Briancon in Dauphine = W. cacr-vrigantcd. 

the fort of brigands : briganted in Armoric signifying robbers. 
Vizeliacus, Vezelai in Morvan = W. gwyddeliawc , woodmen's home. 
Vor ganinm, Carhaix in Britanny = W. y vdr-gaint, the great reach 

of land. 

Great Britain : England and Wales. 

The river Abontrns or Humber {Ptolemy, W. Baxter) = W. avon- 
trwst, the loud river. 

Anton, Southampton Water = W. an-tonn, the surging water. 

Bolder in Hants = W. byldwr, the brimming water. 

Brne in Somerset = W. bryw, brisk. 

Camel, by Camelford in Cornwall = W. cam/an, winding, a river 

in North Wales ; the Cam by Cambridge ; the Camlin in Ire- 

Caundle in Dorset = W. cawn-dwll, reed-covered. 

Char in Dorset = W. cor-nant, the small brook. 

Clar-ach, clear water, near Aberystwyth ; the Clare in Gal way, 


Conway in North Wales = Kynwy, i.e. iean-wysc, head water; 

a presumption of the presence of the Gael on its banks. 

Derivenydd, ' river of oaks ' ? the Derwent. 

Duddon in Westmoreland = W. dH-dddn, the dark wave. 

Eamont in Cumberland = W. gwy-mant, the mouth of the water. 

Idumaris, Blackwater in Essex = W. y du >/i,'-r, the black sea. 

Lcnda, the Welland = W. llaxvn-w)\ the full river. 

Lodorc in Cumberland W. gloyw-dwr, clear water. The Lledr 

in Carnarvonshire; the Lcider or Lauder in Scotland. 

Loman in Devon = W. llovan, shooting forth. 

260 Appendix. No. VIII. 

The river Nadder in Salisbury Plain = W. nei'dr, the adder, from 
its winding stream. 

Nenn in Northamptonshire = W. nant, a small stream. 

Ogmore in Glamorgan = W. eog-mor, the salmon water. 

Parret in Somerset = W. Pedryddan. 

Ravenglas in Cumberland = W. yr avon glas, the blue river. 

Roden or Trydonwy in Salop. 

Rydal in Cumberland ; the Rheidiol, by Aberystwyth. 

Stroud in Gloucestershire = W. ystrad, the river basin. 

Ware in Dorset = W. gwdr, placid. 

Wear in Durham = Latin, vidrus; W. givydr, glass. 

Wharf in Yorkshire = W. chwerw, bitter. 

Garienis, now Yare in Norfolk = W. gweni, the marsh river. 
Mountains : Blencathra in Cumberland = blaen-cadair, prominent 

Blorenge in Monmouthshire = W. blawrwyn, hoary. 
Eryri, Snowdon = W. yr eira, the snow. Snow is sira in the 

Samoyede ; yuru, cold, in the Quichua of Peru. In the Erse 

Snowdon is Druym-sneachd, the snow-ridge. 
Glaramara in Cumberland = W. c/awr-mawr, the great cover. 
Helvellyn in Cumberland = W. hela-Velin, Belin's chase. 
Mendip hills in Somerset = W. mwyn-dibyn, mine-precipice. 
Mynydd Kadair, the chair = The Hatteril hills in Herefordshire. 

The Cheddar hill in Somerset also means kadair, the chair. 
Skiddaw in Cumberland = W. ysgwyddan, the shoulders. 

The A?icatites, the Britons of Buckinghamshire = W. an-kelyddon, 
the men of the covert of beech- woods. 

Attacotti, a wild tribe near Glasgow = W. argoedwys, woodmen. 

Brigantes in Yorkshire = W. Armoric, brzganted, brigands. 

Cassii in Middlesex = W. gwassawd, vassals. 

Catieuchlani, those above the Thames = W. cdd-iiwch-lan, the 

warriors of the upper bank. 

Comavii, men of military renown east of the Severn = W. 

coruawr-wyr, the leading tribe. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 2 (>i 

The Dobnni, men of the Cotswold valleys = W. dwvn-wyr, men in 
the hollows. 

Dumnonii, they of Devon = W. dubn or dwvn-wyr, deep glade 


Durotriges, they of Dorset = W. dwr-trig-wyr, dwellers by the 


Gangani, they of Lleyn in Arvon = W. y gaing, the peninsula. 

Ordovikes, they of North Wales = W. gorddwy, the vanguard 

of the Brython against the retreating Gaels. 

Trinobantes, they of Middlesex = W. trin-obant-wys, cultivators 

of the dingles. 
Aballaba, Appleby in Westmoreland = W. aval, apple. 
Abcrnavis, Barnstaple in Devon = W. abcr-na-wysc, the confluence 

of the water. 
Adyn Tor, a hill in Derbyshire, whence formerly the Kelts flung 

down their adyn, wretch or criminal ; a punishment designed at 

Nazareth for our Blessed Lord. (S. Luke.) 
Alauna civitas, Alnwick in Northumberland and Alcester in War- 
wickshire = W. caer-alawn. 
Albion, W. y wen ynys, the white island. 
Amboglanna, Burdoswald in Cumberland = W. glann-avon, the 

river's side. 
Ambrosii Mom, Ambresbury in Wiltshire = W. mynydd Ambyr, 

Ambrose's mount. {Brut y Brcnhinoedd) 
Applcdore, near Romney in Kent = W. avall-dre, apple-town. 
Arundel in Sussex = W. dol-aeron, Arun-dale. 
Avalonia, Glastonbury in Somerset = W. Ynys Avallon, the isle of 

Axelodunmn, Hexham = W. uchcl-ddin, high town. 
Bennavenna, the see of S. Cadoc, Weedon in Northamptonshire = 

W. ben-avon, the head of the Aufona, Avon, or river Nen. 
Bcrnicia, the Wolds of Yorkshire = W. Bryua'cli, the hill-country. 
Blatum Bulgium, Bulness in Cumberland = W. bwlch-llydan, the 

wide gap in the wall of Severus. 
Bodmin in Cornwall = W. Bodwcni. [Mattk. Wcstmonaster.) 

262 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Bolerium promontorium, The Land's End = W. bol-y-rhyn, the 
bulging out of the headland. 

Boscawcn in Cornwall = W. bod-ysgawen, the elder-tree abode. 

Brannodunum, Brancaster in Norfolk = W. Dinas Bran (by Llan- 
gollen in North Wales), the royal fort. Brana in north Italy. 
{P'.iny, Hi. 4.) 

Bremenium, Riechester on the Wall of Hadrian = W. bre-meini, 
the hill of stones. 

Brocavum, Brougham in Westmoreland = W. bribg, the brake. 

Castrum, the common designation of fortified encampments of the 
Romans in Britain, rendered as Caer by the Kymry, thus 

Caer-Andred or Anderida, Newenden in Kent. 

C. Baddon, the city of the baths, Bath. Also called Aquae So/is, 
waters of the sun ; and Caer-Paladur, Pallas' water, Pala-dwr. 

C. Bladdon, Malmesbury in Wiltshire. 

C. Calemion or Camelion {Nennius), Camalot, king Arthur's seat 
in Somerset. Also, Caer-gamlas. {Theophilns Evans) 

C. Kei, Chichester in Sussex. 

C. Colun, Colchester in Essex. 

C. Collwyn, Harlech castle in Merioneth. 

C. Conan, Conisborough in Yorkshire. 

Caer-kysteint, Carnarvon castle ; also, Caer-Segont or Seiont, or Se- 
gontium, the residence of the emperor Constantius, and in A.D. 
750 of Rhodri Vawr, the last king of Wales : " an edifice of 
stupendous magnitude and strength," says Dr. Johnson. Kaer- 
Kystennin is the Kymric rendering of Constantinople. 

C. Dawn {Nennius), Doncaster in Yorkshire. 

C. Dawri or Dor, Dorchester in Dorset. 

C. Droithan (Ussher.), Draiton in Salop. 

C. Dydd, corruptly for C. Dyv, Cardiff in Glamorgan. 

C. Evrawg= Eboracum, York. 

C. ffaivydd, the city of beech-trees, Hereford. 

C. Gainl, Canterbury in Kent. 

C. y- Garrai = Saxon, tho.ig-ceaster, Caistor in Lincolnshire. 

C. Gloyw, the fair city {Camden.), Glevum, Gloucester. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 263 

Caer-Grawnt, Cambridge. 

C. Gwafr, the see of S. Dubricius; also C. Wythelin, Warwick. 

C. Gwent, Chepstow in Monmouthshire. 

C. Gwerdd-Ilatiy the city of the green lawn, or Cacr-bcrllan (a 

name yet known in Wales) ; the Saxon Wcrlam-ccastcr, the 

Roman Verulamiam, S. Alban's. Also, it was C. Municip, the 

Municipium of Nennius. 
C. Gwynt or Vetita Belgarum, Winchester. 
C. Givyrangon, Worcester. 
C. Gybi, the city of S. Kebius, Holyhead. 
C. Gy?ity?i, Venta Ikenorum, an ancient city near Norwich. 
C. Gyrnwy, the city of the Churn, Cirencester. 
C. Leuav, Wallingford in Berkshire. 

C. Liwelydd, Carlisle ; also, Kerdhiel in Britanny. The name re- 
calls Llywel in Radnorshire and Clovelly in Devonshire. 
C. Ltwdaz'n, the moon-shaped city ; also Cacr-ludd, the city of 

king Lud ; and Lwndrys, from Norman Londres London. 
C. Lleon-ar- Wysc in Monmouthshire, the seat of king Arthur. 
C. L/eon-vawr, the city of the legion, Chester. 
C. Ltiit-coit or Lfwyd-goed, the city in the hoary wood, Lincoln. 
C. Llyr or C. Lerion, Leicester. 
C. Maenguid, the city of the quarry (Ne?mius.), Manchester in 

C. Maengwyn or Mancunium, Manchester. There is an Ynys Maen- 

gwyn, near Towyn, Merioneth. 
C. JHedwag, the city of the Medway, Maidstone in Kent. 
C. Odor [y dwr?~\ yn Nant-Baddon, the city of the water in the 

valley of the baths, Bristol. 
C. Pcnhwylcoed {Brut y Brenhinocdd), Exeter ; also, Caer-wysc and 

Pen-caer. Usk in Monmouthshire is Caer-wysc as well. 
C. Pengwerti, the brow of alders, Shrewsbury ; also called Amwythig, 

the pleasant place. 
C. Pensave/coyt, the fort at the head of the wood of the Ivcl 

{Nennitis.), Ilchester in Somerset. 
C. Rhun, Castrum Romani or Conovium on the Conway. 

264 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Caer-Riw {Brut y Tywysogion), Carew castle in Pembrokeshire. 

C. Segent, the see of S. Maucannus, Silchester in Hants. 

C. Septwii, Shaftesbury. 

C. Vcmbyr, and Caerwosso or Caerwysc, the city of water, Oxford. 

C. Vorran, a Kymric town on the Wall of Severus in Northumberland. 

C. Vruach or Uriconium {Dinlle-Vrecon Llywarch Hen calls it), 

Wroxeter, Salop. Its name remains in that of the Wrekin, 

the brig or summit. 
C. Vyrddin, Merlin's or Martin's* city, Carmarthen. Kermartin, 

near Treguier in Britanny, was the home of S. Yves. 
C. Werydd, the green [or Irish] city, Lancaster or Wearmouth. 

(Cunedda Wledig ruled from Caerliwelydd to Caerweir.) 
Calaterium nemus = Calettir, hard land = the Forest of Galtres in 

Yorkshire. Caledonia is also Calatyr. 
Calchvynydd, the chalk hill, a district in mid-England, probably the 

Cotswold range, of which S. Cadvrawd was bishop without a 

see before the Saxons reached the Severn. 
Caled-vryn yn Rhos, the craggy hill in Rhos = Denbigh in North 

Calleva, Kelleu groves (as in Dtl-gelleii) = Silchester. 
Camelford in Cornwall = Cam/an, the scene of Arthur's last battle. 

Cangcanon-acron {Ptolemy) = W. caingc, the branch or peninsula 

of Lleyn in Arvon. The name Lleyn is that of Leinster in 

Ireland, of Lyonness (now submerged) in Cornwall, and of Leon 

in Britanny. 
Cantium = W. caz'nt, an undulating plain, Kent. 
Carbantorigum = W. caer-pant-rhyg, the fort of the rye hollow ; 

Melrose, as Baxter thinks, Glencar as Camden. 
Camoban, a district in Bernicia, where the Triads notice that the 

Kymry or Loegrians "did not become Saxons," that is, retained 

their speech and nationality ; perhaps Craven in Yorkshire. 
Carreg Hydwydd, Hodnet in Salop. [Llwyd.) 
Carreg llwyd yn coed, ' the hoary rock in the wood ' = S. Michael's 

Mount in Cornwall. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 265 

Carvilinm, Wilton in Wiltshire = W. caer-gwilw, the fort of the 

Caste// C6ch yn Gwemvor, the red castle in the great meadow = 

the ancient name of Ruthin in Denbighshire. {Pennant.) 
Cataracte vicus {Beda), Catterick on the Swale = W. Cattraeth, the 

scene of battle in Aneurin's Gododin. 
Cathbregion {Ncnnitis), Cadbury in Somerset. 
Kenionis ostium {Pto/emy), Falmouth haven = W. Abcr-geneu, the 

mouth of the haven. 
KU-gwri, the Wirral in Cheshire. {Camden.) 
Kindovig/a, Chester-on-the-street in Durham {Baxter.) = W. Pen-y- 

weilgi, the head of the sea. 
C/anoventa, Cockermouth in Cumberland = W. glan-went, the fair 

C/anscntnm, Southampton = W. c/awdd Antwn, Antonius' dyke. 
Coit-Andred, Andred's weald (Latin, Anderida), an ancient forest 

of vast extent in Sussex. According to Mr. Barnes, ' the path- 
less wood.' 
Coet-maes, wood field {Camden.), the Vale of Catmose in Rutland. 
Coit-mawr, the great wood {Asser.), Selwood Forest in Somerset. 
Concangii, Kendal in Westmoreland = W. cwm-keingion. {Baxter.) 

The name Kendal is Kymric : Dot-gain, the dale of the Ken. 
Congavata, Rose-castle, near Carlisle = W. cwm-kyvawd. 
Cor-gawr, the giant choir {Le/and.), Stonehenge. 
Cornnbia = W. Kemhv, the horn . or projecting land, Cornwall. 

Also, Kerne, Cornouailles in Britanny. 
Connennos {Pto/emy.), the Isle of Dogs in the Thames = W. Ynys 

y Cun. 
Craig, rock : hence Craven in Yorkshire. Krac is the Arabic 

name of Petra in Arabia, the mount Seir in the Bible. 
Cnnctio, Marlborough in Wiltshire = W. kynnud. Rhyd-kynnyd is 

found in Llywarch Hen. 
Cwm, a deep narrow valley, preserved in Ilfracombe, Wy-combe, &c. 
Kynance Cove in Cornwall = W. kennant, a brook in a hollow. 
Deira, Durham = W. Dcivr. 


266 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Dcmetia, Pembrokeshire = Dyved. Its Kymric chief bore the singu- 
lar title of Pendaran, 'the thunder chief:' which would have 
gratified Nelson, the duke of Bronte. 

Dena, Fforest y, the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire. (Mabinog- 


Derwent- Water in Cumberland = W. dwr-givyn, fair water. 
Deyrnllwg (Nenm'us.) = Vale Royal in Cheshire, anciently extending 

to the forests of Cumberland. 
Digoll = The Long Mynd {mynydd) in Shropshire. 
Dingwarth Bryncich {Nennius), ' the disgrace of Bernicia,' the 

stronghold of the Angles, Bamborough in Northumberland. 
Din-obant or Din-y-pant, the fort in the hollow, Nottingham. 
Do/, the same word as the English ' dale.' It expresses Deal in 

Kent and Dawlish (dol-isa) in Devonshire. (Polwhele) 
Dumnonia = W. Dyv-neint, deep glens, Devonshire ; also, the north 

coast of Britanny. 
Dunmow in Essex = W. din-magh or -maes, the field-fort. {Camden.) 
Durobrabis = W. dwr-brav, fine water ; Rochester. 
Duro-co-briva, the bridge over the dwr-coch (red water) ; Redbourne 

in Hertfordshire. 
Edros, the name given by Ptolemy to the Isle of Bardsey, in his 

time desert W. ynys adar, isle of birds. 
Ehnet or Elved, a Kymric petty state near Leeds, whose last king 

Kertic was driven out by Eadwin of Northumbria. (Beda.) 
Ereinwg, the land of Geraint = Herefordshire. 

Gabrosentum, Gateshead, Durham = W. pen-gavr, the goat's head. 
Garthmarthein, the old name of Brychciniog (Brecknock), the land 

of Brychan, king of Ireland. 
Glannobanta, Bainbridge in Yorkshire or Routchester {Baxter) = 

W. glan-y-pant, the glen of the hollow. 
The Torr of Glastonbury = W. glesynvre, the green summit. 
Gobannium, Abergavenny, Monmouthshire = W. gob-ban, high tu- 
Grongar Hill on the Towy, sung of by the poet Dyer = W. gronn- 
gaer, the round fort. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 267 

Gweuestr, a wild flood said by the poet-prince Gwyddno (in Ar- 
moric, Gueznou) to have drowned his territory, Cantrev-y- 
gwaelod, the Holland of Wales. It may mean 'the fair estuary' 
(given estr) of the Mawddach, or the main ocean. Gwyddno 
mentions Caer-Manddwy as " hiding his head among the clouds." 
I take it to mean Aran Mawddwy, a mountain higher than 
Cadair Idris, seen from the beach at Barmouth at low ebb. 
Gwcly Wyrion Kynan, ' the settlement of Conan's descendants,' the 
ancient name of Eivionydd in Arvon. Such designations are 
landmarks of history. Thus we have Morganwg, ' the land of 
Morgan Mwynvawr,' Glamorgan; Meirionydd, 'the land of Meir- 
ion,' Merioneth (preserved in Britanny by Merionez, near Vali- 
nes) ; and Keredigiawn, ' the land of Keredig, Cardiganshire. 
Gwcnt, ' the fair open country,' Monmouthshire. I take Gwent to 
be the term ' Venta ' applied to several British cities, though 
De Belloguet derives it from W. gwenith, wheat. 
Gwlad yr Hav, the ' land of summer,' Somersetshire : though also 
implying some southern or eastern land whence the Kymry came. 
Gwyr, the peninsula of Gower in Glamorgan : Gowrie in Perthshire. 
Heledd-Ddu, the black salt-pit, Northwich in Cheshire. 
Hclcdd- Wen, the white salt-pit, Nantwich. 
Henllan, Henley-in-Arden in Warwickshire. 
Henllys, old court, Helston in Cornwall. 
Jiipupania, a place near Cardiff (Ptolemy.) = W. Trcv-Iwbwb, the 

alarm-post. (Owen Pughe.) 
Lemanis Partus, Lyme in Kent = W. Pivyth-meinlas, the narrow 

green point. 
Limnns, the isle of Ramsey in Pembrokeshire = W. Ynys Enlliv. 
Llan, 'a clearing in a forest,' then 'a village." then again 'a parish 
church.' Llangollen may serve as the type of a large class. 
With its companion viaduct of Pont-kyssyllt\\ it appears in 
Britanny as Langolen together with Tre-quesseltec not far from 
Ouimper. Somerset offers us Llan-Garannog, Carhampton ; 
Llan-gcneu, Keynsham ; Llan- Gynngar, Congresbury ; and Uan- 
Degwman; the churches of SS. Carantoc, Keyna, Congar, and 

268 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Decuman. Launceston in Cornwall was Llan-Stephan, S. 

Stephen's ; and Leominster in Herefordshire. Llan-llieni, ' S. 

Llctty-dwr, 'the inn upon the water' {Camden?), Bedford. 
Llyn-wys {Nenmus) = Lindesey in Lincolnshire. 
Llys-tywysog, 'the Prince's court,' (Prince Arthur Tudor and Mary, 

afterwards Queen, held court there) : it is the scene of Milton's 

Comus = Ludlow in Salop. 
Lynn in Norfolk = W. llyn, the lake or expansion of the Ouse. 
Macacorion, Deerhurst in Gloucestershire = W. Magh- or Maes-y- 

keirw, the deer field. {Baxter) 
Magiovinium, Dunstable in Bedfordshire = W. Maghiou- or Maesydd- 

gwynion, ' the white ' or chalky ' fields.' 
Malata, the isle of Sheppey in Kent = W. ynys mollt, isle of 

Manaw, the Isle of Man = W. man-aw, place in the water. 
Manduessednm, Manceter = W. man-dwy-eisteddva, place of two 

seats ? 
Marazion in Cornwall = W. marchnad Ion, Jove's market. 
Meddgawd {Nennins) = the isle of Lindisfarne. 
Mcnevia or Mynyw, otherwise Ty Ddewi, the see of S. David. 
Menna or Meneg, the peninsula of the Lizard = W. tnaneg, the 

Mercia or the English March = W. Blaeneu Hoegyr. {Brut y 

Metaris, the Wash in Lincolnshire {Ptolemy) = W. mall-traeth, the 

evil estuary ; also, a run of the sea in Anglesea. 
Minchead in Devonshire = W. Bryn-huel, the tin-mine hill. 
Afona, the Isle of Anglesea = W. Ynys Mon. 
Moricambc, Morecambe Bay in Lancashire = W. mur-gam, the 

crooked sea. 
Mortdunum, Seaton in Devonshire = W. mor-ddin, fort on the sea. 
Ocrinum promontorium, the Lizard Point in Cornwall = W. Pen- 

rhyn Ochrin, the jagged headland. Cf. Ochrina, a mountain 

behind Trieste. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 269 

Pen-ball-cra/g (Camden.), Tynemouth in Northumberland. 
Pcn-ddr, the oaken summit = Margam in Glamorgan. 
Rmdle, a mountain in Lancashire = W. pen-lie, head of the place. 
Pen-hardd-lech, the summit of the fine rock, Hawarden Castle. 

(Brut y Tywysog/on, Annates Wigorn.) 
Pennocrnkinm, Penkridge in Staffordshire = \V. pen-kruc, head of 

the barrow. 
Pen-rhndd, the red head = Penrith in Cumberland, the seat of the 

kings of Cumbria ; also called Penrhyn Rhionydd, the princes' 

Pen-sant, the saint's head (S. John Baptist's in the arms of the 

town) = Penzance in Cornwall. 
Pen-nchel-coit, the high top of the wood = Lostwithiel. 
Penrhyn Penwaed or Pemvyth, the Land's End in Cornwall; also 

called in Cornish Pen-von-las. 
Pons Ael//, W. Pont Una// = Ponteland in Northumberland. 
I\>nt-/vcl-coct, the Ivel bridge in the wood = Ilchester in Somerset. 
Porth-Gwygyr in Mona (Triads.) = Beaumaris ? 
Portk-Peris (i.e. Portns Paridos) = Portsmouth ; also called ' Llong- 

borth ' by Llywarch Hen. 
Portns Adnmi, Ederington, near Shoreham = \V. Porth-y-dwr. 
The Prawle, a headland in Devon = W. brawl, shooting out. 
Rh/godnnnin, W. din-rhyg, the barley town = Ripon in Yorkshire. 
Rntnpinns Portns, Richborough in Kent = W. Porth Rwytin. 
Rutland, W. R/mddlan, red land. Also, Rhuddlan in North 

Segednnnm, W. sycli-ddin, the dry fort = Strigil in Northumberland. 
S/lnr/a, W. Esylhvg, abounding in prospects = South Wales. 
S/hmagus, W. yd-vaes, wheat field = Stowmarket in Suffolk. 
Strata Ikcnornm, W. Ystrad- Ychat'n = Ikenild Street, the Roman 

road from London to Norfolk. 
Strata V/tal/am\ W. Ystrad or Sam Gwythelin = Watling Street, 

the Roman road from London to the north-west. 
Teg-cingl, fair corner ? = Flintshire. 
Thulc Scottonim, the end of the earth, 'ultima Thule ' according to 

270 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Seneca, Ireland = W. Tyleu Isgoed. Perhaps implied by the 
mysterious Tnlan of the Nahoa tribes of central America, 
though Tula occurs on the Holy Sea in Siberia. Baxter ap- 
plies the Welsh name Ynys Tywyll, 'the dark isle,' to the Irish 
Thule. I leave Anglesea to claim a now inapplicable title. 

Tintagcl castle, the birthplace of Arthur in Cornwall = W. tin-dagol, 
the fort of the dewlap, from its situation. {MS. Harl. 433. 
Seint Great.) 

Tintern Abbey in Gwent = W. Din-deym, the prince's fort. 

Totncss in Devon = W. twtnai, dark, the colour of the Dart. 

Tkev = 'homestead,' 'town,' the Saxon time, very frequent in Corn- 
wall, less so in Wales. Yet- we have the Cornish Trelawny 
preserved in Tre-Lownydd, the old name of Newmarket in 
Flintshire (Pennant.) ; and Trevdraeth expresses Rudruth in 
Cornwall and Newport in Pembrokeshire. (Polwhele.) 

Tripontiutn, W. tri-phont, three bridges = Towcester, north Hants. 

Tunnokelum, Boulness in Cumberland = W. din-uchel, high fort. 

Tyno-coch, the red lowland = an old name of Cardiganshire. 

Ty-ogovawg, W. the town of caves (Asser.) = Northampton. 

Uxella, Lostwithiel in Cornwall = W. llys-uchel, high court. 

Vagniacum, Maidstone in Kent = W. cwm-gwaun, the combe in the 

Vainona, Waynfiete in Lincolnshire = W. y wann, marshy ground. 

Van's or Varae in the Itinerary of Antoninus, supposed by Baxter 
to be Bala in Merioneth, who refers to its position and to 
Castell Corndochon ; I would add Caer-gai (Castrum Caii) and 
the Tumulus (Tommen y Bala) = W. war-wysc, above the 

Vecta Insula, the Isle of Wight = W. Ynys Gwyth, the channel 
island. Portus Itius, Whitsand in Picardy = W. Porth-wyth. 

Vendelis, Portland Island = W. gwyn-del, the white hard surface. 

Vencdotia, North Wales = W. Gwynedd, fair country. 

Vergivium Mare, the Irish Sea = in Erse, Feairrghe, the sea ; W. 

Mor-wcrvdJ, a modified form of the Erse. 
Vindenus, Silchester in Hampshire = W. gwyn-ddin, the white city. 

Appendix. No. VIII. z'ji 

I'indogladia, Wimborne in Dorset = W. gwyn-dcu-glcddcu, the 

white two swords or branches of a river. 
Vinovium, Binchester in Durham = W. mhi-</v y the frail brink ? 
Voreda, Old Penrith in Cumberland = W. y vdr-hyd, the sea-wash. 

Cf. Y For A yd, by Rhyl. 
Ynys Devanog = Ramsey Isle in Pembrokeshire. (L/uyd.) 
Ynys Glanawg, 'Insula Glannavo ' in the Epistles of Pope Innocent 

III., Nov. 24, 1199; also, Ynys Seirioel (MS. Harl. 6q6j) = 

Puffin island, off Anglesea. It occurs in the Ystorya Sritit 

Grea/, as doth Bannot or Manod by Festiniog. 
Ynys Pyrr, ' Pyrrhus ' isle = Caldey island in Bristol Channel. 
Ynys Rhiothim, probably from Rutupium hard by, famed for its 

oysters (Asser) = the isle of Thanet. 
Sylinae Insulae (Su/pict'us Sever us. ), the Scilly Isles = W. Ynys Svlin; 

perhaps std-Uch, rocks of the sun. 
Wynander-mcre in Westmoreland W. Llyn-Gwynnant, the lake of 

the fair valley. 

Great Britain : Scotland. 

The river Abravannus or Rian in Galloway = W. Aber-avon. 

Bannock = W. banawg, notable ? 

Brothock = W. brxvth, commotion. 

Kelvin in Clydesdale = W. Kil-gwyn, the fair covert. 

Rntlwcn = W. rhndd-avon, the red river. 

Lakes : Lelannonius lacus, Loch Fine = W. l/illcn-on, the goat's 

Loch-abcr = W. llwch-aber, the confluence of the lake. 
Lock-awe = W. llwch-avon, the lake of the river. 
Loch-lomond = W. Uwch-lummon (Ncnnins.), the beacon lake. 
Mountains: Bcn-clcugh = W . Pen-glog, the skull. 
Ben-lomond = W . Pen-Uumon (Plinlimmon), the beacon head. 
Ben-more = W. Pen-mawr, the great head. 
Ben-ncvis in Inverness = W. Pen-nyv, 'Apenninus nubium, 1 cloudy 


272 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Cairngorm in Banffshire = W. carnedd-gwrm, the dusky cairn. 
Gratnpins mons, the Grampian = W. Pen-Grian, the summit sacred 
to the sun. {Baxter) 

The Horestii, the Keltic dwellers in Angus =fforcstwyr, foresters. 

Maiatae, the Scottish Lowlanders = W. mai-awd, men of the 


Novantes, the men of Galloway = W. novantwys, turbulent. 

Otadini, on the Borders = W. Gododin, the scene of Aneurin's 

song, corrupted into Lothian. 

Selgovae, a tribe in Galloway = Erse, selg; W. hela, hunters. 
Aber, the confluence of waters. Scotland, as well as Wales, abounds 

with this place-name. We have e.g. Abcrbrothock or Arbroath, 
Abercom or Abercwnrig, Abernethy : Brecon, Cardigan, Mon- 
mouth, and Swansea have displaced the names of Aber-Honddu, 
Aber-Teivy, Aber-Mynwy, and Aber-Tawy. Aber survives in 
France as ' Le Havre.' 

Rhodwydd Arderydd, the Knows of Arthuret, a military pass on 
the Esk, defended by Dry won ab Nudd. {Triads, Skene.) 

Argyle = W. Ar-Gwyddyl, the land next the Gael or Irish. 

Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh = Castell Mynydd Agnedd. {Camden) 

Balmoral, the Queen's castle in Scotland = W. Bdl-mwrl, the 
crumbling peak? 

Blantyre in Lanarkshire = W. Blaen-tir, the headland. 

Bute in the isle of Arran = W. Bettws, S. Brandan's cell. 

Caer-Alclwyd, Dunbarton on the Clyde. 

C. Colud {Beda.) = Coldingham. 

C. Eden = Carriden in west Lothian. {Camden.) 

C. Gwerthevin, the home of Merddin ap Morvryn = possibly the 
fort of the Verturiones. 

C. Gwyth {Beda.) = Inch-Keith in the Frith of Forth. 

C. laverock in Dumfriesshire = W. Caer-llavrawg, the round fort ? 
also called Uxelum = W. uchel, the high fort. 

C. Pentallorh = Kirkintilloch, on the Roman Wall. 

C. Verwig {lolo Goch.) = Berwick-on-Tweed. 

Appendix. No. VIII. 273 

Cantirc, the headland of Galloway = W. Pen-tlr, the headland. 

Cateneys, Cauda insula*, the island's end = Caithness. 

Kilkerran lough in Cantire. Cf. Kilgerran castle in Cardiganshire. 

Kinnolsa, the isle of Colonsay = W. canol-nysg, midst of water. 

Kinross in Fifeshire = W. Pen-rhos, head of the marsh. 

Clauinnis, the isle of Lewis = W. llaw-ynys, isle like a hand. 

Coclin, the home of Coel-Godebog = Kyle in Ayrshire. 

Cregidona, W. craig-dicnncn, the rocky hill = Creighton. 

Drumabon, in Pictish ' the back of the river ' = Drummond in 
Strathearne, W. Ystrad-Aeron. 

Dumfries or Dun-frcys in Nithisdale = W. Din-y-ffridd, the hill fort. 

Dundee, on the river Tay = W. Dhi-Tawy. 

Dunkeld in Perthshire = W. Dhi-kelyddon, the fort of the coverts. 

Duns in the March of Scotland = W. Dinas, the fort or city. 

Din Eiddin, Edinburgh. 

Galysten, a place mentioned by Taliesin = on the Gala in Selkirk- 
shire ? 

Glasgow, W. Glds-cwm, the green combe. 

Glenluce in Wigtonshire = W. glyn-llwg, the bright glen. 

Gwenystrad in Strathclyde {Taliesin.) = Strathaven in Lanarkshire. 
Habitancum, Risingham in Otadinis {Baxter.) = W. havod-yn-cwm, 

the shieling or hut in the combe. 
Hebrides, the Western Isles = W. Heledd. 
Inverary in Argyllshire = W. Aber-eira, the confluence of the eira 

or snow river. {Camden) 
Inver- Gordon in Ross-shire = W. Abcr-gorddwvn, the confluence 

with the deep. 
Lanark in Clydesdale = W. llanncrch, a glade. 
Lennox = W. llyvfi-wysc , smooth water. 
Lindores in Fifeshire = W. llyn-dwr, the lake of water. 
Litanomagus, W. llvdan-maes, broad field = Flodden Field. 
Melrose abbey (in old chronicles written Mailros) = W. mael-rhds, 
the profitable moorland. 

Ochiltrc or Uchiltrc castle in Kyle, the ancient seat of the Stuarts 

= W. ucl/el-dre, the high town. 

274 Appendix. No. VIII. 

Orcades, the Orkney isles = W. erch; Armoric, erc*h, snow. 
Penicuik in Midlothian = W. Pcn-Cuawc, from the river Cuawc. 

Penn-Guaul, W. = Gaelic {Ncnnius), Kinneil; the [Roman] Wall's 

End = Kinnoul. 
Pcnrhyn Blathaon = Caithness Point. 

Rhctigonium civitas, W. Rheged = Strathnaver in Galloway. 
Roslyn = W. rhos-lyn, the marsh of the lake. 
Rosse = W. rhos, the moor. 

Scetis {Ptolemy.), W. ysgad ynys, the isle of herrings = Shetland. 
Tarvedrum, W. tarv-drwyn, the scaring headland = Duncansby 

Head in Caithness. 
Ystrad, the Kymric equivalent to 'strath,' the bank of large rivers; 

as e.g. Ystrad C/wyd, Ystrad Ithon, Ystrad Mawr, Ystrad 

Towy (in Wales) = the straths of the Clyde, the Eden, the great 

strath, that of the Towy. 


We have now traced the roving Kelts from the confines of 
India to their final settlement in the green isle of Erin : Gwerddon the 
Kymry call it to this day. It is needless to enlarge on this ground. 
The modern Gwyddyl or Gael present the features of the old 
race, as depicted by the classic Graeco-Latin writers, even more 
completely for good or for evil than do the Kymry themselves. 

The attachment to tribal chieftains, more strikingly exhibited 
by the Scottish Gael, has been replaced by an unswerving devotion 
to the Italian Patriarch of the West, which has survived the feeble 
efforts of the English settlers and the brutal violence of the Puritans. 
The levity and reckless gaiety of the old Gauls they still inherit 
with their French brethren. The Kymry of Wales betray tokens 
of the influence of long subjection to the English domination. 
The harp of Cambria has been silenced by the frown of a sombre 
Puritanism ; and the jargon of political squabbles has a greater at- 
traction for the moderns than the simple melodies of their fore- 
fathers. The wide divergence in religion of the two kindred races 

Appendix. No. VIII. 275 

is attributable to the same origin, a deep-rooted hatred of foreign 
influences hostile to their nationality. In Ireland they clung to the 
Pope, because the new learning had disowned him in London. 
They love ' the sturdy little conventicles ' in Wales, because they 
care not to have their dear native land ticketed by the Saxon as 
'four dioceses in the province of Canterbury.' It may stand in law; 
but it wounds sentiment, and recalls unhappy memories. [See 
chapter viii., section 2, of this Work.] The Welsh translation of 
the Bible shares the eulogies lavished on the English Version, 
which it perhaps too closely copies ; but the current of events defies 
our poor prognostics. Gael and Kymry, transplanted to America, 
learn the manners and share the aspirations of the land of their 
adoption. Yet it is difficult to believe that a language expressing 
the cherished feelings and thoughts of a thousand generations will 
be suffered to perish save with Time ; whilst the extinction of the 
noblest languages of the sons of Japhet the Sanskrit, Hellenic, and 
Latin, save in derived forms rebukes the temerity of our specula- 

Of the four provinces of Erin, the Kymry knew three Ulster, 
Connaught, and Leinster, as Ultw, Conacli, and Llcyn. Of its rivers, 
the Libnius {Ptolemy.) or Liffey appears in North Wales as Llyvni; 
while the Latinized name of the Lagan, Ouinderios, is Kymric, 
meaning ' white water ' {givyn-dwr). The K'ds or retreats of Wales 
figure in Kildare, Kilmore, Kilkenny : Bala, the outlet of a lake, 
in Bally-shannon. The sees of Armagh and Dublin are Dearmagh 
(W. Ddr-vaes, the oak plain), and Dinas Dtilyn (Black-pool fort) ; 
Cloyne, dear for Berkeley's sake, is Cluain-cdncach: W. Glyn-etddcw , 
the ivy glen. Dunmorc headland in Kerry and Pentir- Ganion in 
Antrim, the Fair Head, near Dungannon, are Kymric rather than 



Adrianus = Adran. 

Aelius = Huail. 

Aemilianus = Emlyn. 

Aeternus = Edern, e.g. Edeyrn 

Davod aur. 
Aethcrius = Eithyr, e.g. Eithyr 

ab Llywarch. 
Aetius = Aedd, e.g. Aedd Mawr, 

the Patrician Aetius. 
Agnes, Agnetis = Annes and 

Agricola = Grigyll. 
Albanus = Elvan, e.g. Elvan 

Powys. {Llywarch?) 
Alexius Elyw ? 
Allectus = Elaeth. 
Alpinus or Albinus = Elphin, e.g. 

Elphin ab Gwyddno and Ken- 

ydd ab Elphin, i.e. Kenneth 

mac Alpin, king of Scots. 
Alumnus = Alun. {Taliesin.) 
Amandus = A van. 

Atnbrosius = Emrys. 

Ammonius = Amwn, e.g. Amwn 

Dhu o Lydaw. 
Andragathius = Anarawd, e.g. 

Anarawd Vinddu. 
Antoninus = Anntwn. 
Arcadius = Argad. 
Arc turns = Arthur. 
Aristobulus = Arwystli. 
Artemius = Arthen. (Triads.) 
Arvandus = Gavran. 
Augustinus = Awstin. 
Augustus = Awst. 
Aurelia = Ervil ? Eurddyl ? 
Avitus = Awy. 

Beda = Bedo, e.g. B. Aerddren. 
Benno = Beuno, e.g. B. Gasul- 

Bruno = Brwyno, e.g. B. Hen. 
Caecilius = Seisyll, Anglicanized 

as Cecil. 
Caepio = Kybi. 

Appendix. No. IX. 


Catanus = Caian. 

( 'at'us = Cai. 

Camillus, an Etruscan name ; in 
Erse, Cait-milcad, warrior ; W. 

Camocnae, the Muses = W. can- 
vwyn, pleasant song. 

Caudidiautis, in the Saxon Chron- 
icle ' Condidan ' = W. Kyn- 
ddylan (prince of Powis). 

Carausius Carawn. 

Cams = Car. 

Catellus = Cadell. 

Cato = Cado, e.g. Cado Hen, 
brenin Prydyn. 

Ccitulus = Kedawl. (Gwyddno.) 

Kcntronius = Kyndrwyn, father 
of Kynddylan. {Llywarch.) 

Kerbonianus = Gorwynion. 

Kctfiegtis, Caedicius = Kedig. 

Kikcro, the greatest of Roman 
orators. His name is connected 
with the Welsh kcirch, oats, 
though kikcr meant ' vetches ' 
to the Romans. 

Clara = Llear. 

Claudia = Gwladys. 

Claudius = Gloy w. 

Cluvius = Glywys ? 

Cnet'us = Keneu. 

Coc litis = Coel. 

Cotton = Kynon, Kynan, and in 
its Gascon form ' Kenon.' 

Constantinus = Kystennin. 

Cons fan fins = Kysteint. 

A'vriactis = Curig. 

Cyrillus = Seirioel Wyn. 

Kyrus = Gyrys, e.g. G. o Ial. 

Damianus = Dwyvan. 

Diana = in Erse Bian, nimble. 

Domttintis = Dyvnan. 

Dotiatiaiius = Dunodyn. 

Donatus = Dunawd. 

Ecdicius = Eiddig. 

Egeria = Eigyr, ' maiden.' 

Eleutherius = Elidyr. 

Eligius = Helig. 

Eloqiiius = Illoc ? 

Emidius = Hemeid, Hyveidd. 

Eucratius = Eugrad. 

Eudocius = Wddog ? 

Eugeuius, Eugeudus = Ywein, e.g. 

Owain ab Urien. Gawain, e.g. 

Gawain Douglas. 
Euladius = Euladd. 
Euphrasia = Effros. 
Flavianus = Fflewin. 
Elora = Fflur. 
G alius = Gall. 
Gavidius = Kewydd. 
Gavins = Gawy. 
Germanianus = Garmonyawn. 

[Achau Gxcyr y Goglcdd.) 
Gcrmanus = Garmon. 
Gerontius = Geraint. 
Glyccrius = Gleisiar. {Triads.) 
Gordius = Gordd, ' earnest.' 
Gorgonius = Gwrgant. 
Gradirtts = Gredyv. (Aneurin.) 


Appendix. No. IX. 

Gratialis = Greidiol. 

Gratianus = Armoric, " Gradlon ;" 
W. "Grallon." 

Grains = Gradd. (Taliesin) 

Gregorins = Grygor. 

Helvidianus = Elwyddan. 

Helvidins = Hyhvydd, ' prosper- 

Helvius = Ehvy. 

Hercules, Hercnlcm = Ercwlv. 

Hcrsilia = Esyllt, rendered in, ro- 
mance Estrildis, Isolda, Yseult. 

Hesperins = Ysperi. (Aneurin) 

Hilarius = Eleri, liar, Elian. 

Hitnerins = Emyr (Llydaw). 

Honorins = Ynyr. 

Iannarins = Ionawr. 

Idacins = Iddawg (Corn Prydain). 

Idonens = Iddon and Idno (ab 

Tovins = Ieuav. 

Italicus, {e.g. Priscus Italicus, A.D. 
133) = Eiddilic. (Triads.) 

I talus = Eidal. (Taliesin) 

lulus = Iolo. 
Julianus = Sulien. 
Jnlitta[m] = Elidan. 
Julius = Iwl, e.g. Iwl Caisar, 
Julius Caesar. 

Jupiter, Jovis = Iau or Iou. 
Justinianus = Stinian. 

Justinus = Iestin. 

Laberius, the first Roman who 
trod British soil (Caesar.) = 
Llavyr (a son of Llywarch). 

Latinus = Lledin. (Taliesin.) 
Laudatus = Llawddad. 
Laurentius = Lloren (a son of 

Leo = Llew. 

Liberius = Lliver. (Llywarch.) 
Libius = Llibio. 
Linus = Llieni (bab.) (Addit. 

MSS. 14, 882; Mus. Britannic) 
Livius = Llywy. (Taliesin) 
Lucanus = Llugan. 
Lucia = Lleucu. 
Lucianus = Lleision. 
Lucius = Lies. 
Macaritus = Machreth. 
Magnentius Maenwyn. (Llyw- 
Magnus or Maenius = Maen (a 

son of Llywarch). 
Major, Maurus = Mor. 
Majorianus, Maurianus = Morien 

(Varvaug, a foreign prince. 

Manlius, Mallius = Mael. 
Marcellus = Marchell. 
Marcianus = Meirchion. 
Marcus = March. 
Marianus = Meirion. 
Marinus = Merini. 
Marius = Mair. 
Mars, Martis = Mawrth. 
Martinus Merddin, Myrddin, in 

romance Merlin. 
Matius = Math (ab Mathon- 


Appendix. No. IX. 


Maurclius = Moryal (a brother of 

Mauritius = Meuric. 

Maximus = Macsen. 

Melior = Meilyr, Meileri. 

Mercurius = Merchur. 

Metcllus = Medel (a son of Lly w- 

Metrodorus = Medrawd, in ro- 
mance ' Sir Mordred.' 

Nennius = Nynniaw. 

Octavius = Euddav. 

Olybrius = Elivri, in romance 
rendered Oliver. 

Ovidius = Ovydd. 

Papias = Pabo. 

Pascennius = Pasgen. 

Pater nus = Padarn. 

Patricius = Padrig. 

Paulinus = Peulyn. 

Petronius = Pedrwn. 

Phoebus = Peibiaw. 

Pollio = Pyll (a son of Llywarch.) 

Publicius = Peblig. 

Quinidius = Kenydd. 

Quirinus = Gwrin. 

Regina = Rhiain. 

Romanus = Rhuvon, Rhun. 

Romulus = in Erse Crodamuil, 
' valiant.' 

Ruffinus = Gruffudd. 

Saturuinus = Sadwrnin. 

Saturnus = Sadwrn. 

Scaurus = Ysgaron. (Aneurin.) 

Scholasticus = Yskolan. 

Siptiminnus = Seithenyn. 

Septimius = Seithyn. 

Sergius Serigi (e.g. S. Wyddel). 

Servandus = Servan. 

Sibylla = Sibli Ddoeth. 

Soliuus = Heylin. 

Suetonius Paulinus = Sywidw 
Pawlin. (Thcophilus Evans.) 

Tarquinius = Terwyn, ' strong ;' 
e.g. T. Superbus, Terwyn Sy- 

Telesinus, a Samnite general 
(Plutarch.) = Taliesin. 

Thecla, the virgin martyr, dis- 
ciple of S. Paul = Tegla. 

Theodorus = Tudur, Tudor. 

Theodosius = Tewdws. 

Titan, Tithonus = Tydain. 

Tityrus, the Vergilian shepherd 
= Tityr, 'spinning' or 'whirl- 

Tumus, king of the Rutuli = 
W. teyrn, ' the prince.' 

Ura 1 litis = Urien. 

Urbinus = Erbin (ab Kystennin 

Valentinianus = Balawn. 

Varius = Gwair. 

Vcnilia, a sea-goddess = W. gwen- 
nol, 'the sea gull.' 

Venus, Veneris = Gwener. 

Vergilius = Pheryll. 

Victor = Uthyr, Withur. 

Victorinus = Gwytherin. 

Vigilius = Bugail. 


Appendix. No. IX. 

Virginins = Gwrgeneu. 
Viriathns = Gwriad. 
Virnnnius = Gwron. 

Vitalianus = Gwythelyn. 
Vivianus = Gwiawn. 
Voconius = Gwgawn. 

A few names appear to have been borrowed by the Teutons 
from the Kymry, or used in common. Such I submit are 

Aethehtan = Elystan (Glodrydd). 
Aethered = Edryd. 
Brand = W. Braint (Hir). 
Ceadmon = Cadvan. 
Ceadwalla = Cadwal. 
Cerdic = Keredig. 
Culloch = Kwllwch. 
Donald '= Dyvnwal. 
Edwin = Ednewein. 

Edwold = Idwal. 

Hlodivig, Ltidwig = Clydawg. 

Hngo = Hywgi. 

Kenneth = Kynedda, Kenydd. 

Kenrick = Kyneuric. 

Reginald ' = Rheinallt. 

Rudcric = Rhydderch, Rhodri. 

Withred = Uchdryd. 

A few Bible names too are found naturalized in Kymric speech. 
Such are Addav, Adam ; Ynwch, Enoch ; Jo, Job ; Arawn, Aaron ; 
Sawyl, Saul ; Davydd, David ; Selyn), Solomon ; EM, Elias ; Elisse, 
Elisaeus ; Dciniocl, Daniel ; Iago, James ; Ietian, John ; Tathai, 


In the Prologue to his Welsh grammar, printed at Milan, Griffith 
Roberts opens with a dialogue between himself and Morns (M. 
Clynnog, I take it, bishop-nominate of Bangor, and rector of the 
English College at Rome). The spelling of the original is pre- 

" Er bod yn deg y fangre le'r ydym, ag yn hyfryd gweled y 
dail gwyrddleision yn gyscod rhag y tes, ag yn digrif clowed yr 
auel hon o'r gogleuwynt yn chwythu tan frig y gwinwydd i'n 
lawenychu yn y gwres anrhysymol hwn syd drwm wrth bawb a 
gafod i geni a'i meithrin mewn gwlad cyn oered ag yn tir Cymru 
. . etto ni chynhessa calon cymro wrthynt, megis y gnai wrth 
Ian Dyfrdwy, ne lawr Dyphryn Clwyd, ne wrth ami o leoedd a 
fedrwn i henwi o Faenol Dewi i Gaergybi ym Mon. . . . Mae 
arnaf hiraeth am lawer o bethau a gaid ynghymru, i fwrw'r amser 
heibio yn ddifyr ag yn llawen wrth ochel y tes hirddydd haf. Os 
myfyrio a damunych ne darlain ar ych pen ych hun, chui a gaech 
deuis lie cymwys i hynny, er maint fyddai boethni'r tes ; naill ai 
mewn tai gleision hafaidd, ne ger lawr dwfr rhedegog mewn glyn 
ag irgoed, ne mewn dyffryn llysseuawg, ne mewn cadlas o fedw ne 
o ynn plannedig, ne ar fynydd amlwg awelog, ne mewn rhyw 
arall, lie ni byddai na blinder na lludded wrth wres yr hinon. Ond 
ynghylch y dref hon [Milan], nid oes dim tebyg." 

It seems incredible how in the face of this explicit passage the 
j j 


Appendix. No. X. 

late learned librarian of the British Museum, Mr. Panizzi, could have 
maintained against Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte that Roberts 
printed his book at Meivod in North Wales, where there could 
not have been a printing-press in the reign of Elizabeth, nor vines 
to temper an excessive heat. The Italian scholar could not have 
known Roberts's relation to S. Carlo Borromeo, nor have consulted 
Anthony a Wood's 'Athenae Oxonienses.' 



The list here supplied is confessedly imperfect, yet sufficient to es- 
tablish the existence of a Kymric element in the modern Gallo- 
Roman speech. Zeuss as well as Prichard hold that the old Gallic 
was nearer the Welsh than the Gaelic, save that it retained the 
case-endings of the latter. The sounds of the letters j and u in 
French, as well as the // moutlles in French and Spanish, come 
from the Kymric. (De Bellognct.) The Cis-Alpine priest at Mass 
still pronounces the u in Dens, as a Welshman would if taught 
Latin according to Kymric pronunciation. 

Abrtcot, apricot = bricyll. 

Accablcr, to overwhelm with abuse = cabin, to abuse. 

Agraffe, a clasp - crcvyn. 

Aine, the eldest = hynav. 

Alter, to go = elcd, let him go. 

Allouer, to allow = Iwvio. 

S'Arrcter, to stay = aros. 

Arroye, array, preparation = arlwy. 

Avaler, to swallow = aba//, to perish. 

Avec, with = ac ev, and it. 

Bac/cr, to fasten = bag/u. 

Bagatelle, a toy =s bagadau, strings of beads. 

Balafre, gashed = bala-ffrau, the efflux of an outlet. 

284 Appendix. No. XI. 

Balayer, to sweep = baldu, to drive out. 

Banc, a bench = mainc. 

Bannicre, a banner = batter. 

Baragouin, mendicants' cant or an appeal for = bara gwyn, white 

bread ? 
Baratter, to cheat = brad, treachery. 
Barguigner, to bargain = bargen. 
Bataile, battle = bate/. 
Bateau, a boat = bad. 
Baton, a staff =pastwn. 
Battre, to beat = baeddu. 
Bedeau, a verger = bedw, a birch rod, doubtless the original virga 

of a beadle. 
Belette, a weasel = bele, a martin. 
Bequille, a crutch == bagl. 
Bijou, a jewel = bagadau, strings of beads. 
Blanc, white = gwlan, wool. 

Bid, corn ; Provencal, blad, flour = blawd, fine flour. 
Blonde, fine lace = bliant, fine linen. 
Blur a (Provencal), blue = blazvr, iron-gray. 
Bluter, to sift = blawd, flour. 
Bouc, a goat = bwc/i. 
Boucle, a buckle = bogel, a knot. 
Boudin, a black pudding =poten, intestines. 
Boue, dirt = baw. 

Bottle, a bowl = bol, a belly, a protuberance. 
Bottrasque, a violent wind = bur, violence. 
Bourdon, the bass in music = byrr-don. 
Bouteille, a bottle = bothen. 
Boutique, a shop = bwth, a booth. 
Brave, brave =praff, stout. 
Brebis, a sheep = brcvtt, to bleat. 
Brigand, a robber = briganted (Breton), hill men. 
Brin, a stick, something worthless = prin, scanty; brwyn, a bulrush. 
Bris, fragments = briwsion. 

Appendix. No. XI. 285 

Brodcrie, embroidery = brodio. 

Broue'e, Provencal Br etna, white frost = barrug, fog. 

Brouct, a mess = brywes. 

Broutcr, to browse = briicsion, fragments. 

Broyer, to bruise = brhvo. 

Bruit, a noise = brwth : brwydr, battle. 

Brun, brown = brwyn. 

Brusque, hasty = brysg, quick. 

Cacher, to hide = can, to shut in ; cauad, a cover. 

Caillou, a flint-stone = callestr. 

Cambrer, to bend = cammu. 

Canif, a knife = cnaiv, clipping or shearing. 

Caprice = kiprys, hap-hazard. 

Carder, to card wool = gardio. 

Carillon, a peal of bells = carol, a merry song. 

Chariot, a chariot = carr-rhod, a car on wheels. 

Charogne, carrion, a carcase = kelain. 

Chaussc, hose = coes, a leg. 

Chemin, Italian cammino, a road = cammu, to step. 

C here her, to fetch = cyrchu. 

Cheval, a horse = keffyl. 

Chien, a dog = ki, pi. cwn. 

Chimcre, a simarre (a Mediaeval vesture) = simmwr. 

C homer, to keep holiday = siom, vacant. 

Chitte, a fall = codwm. 

Clabaud, a noisy talker = debar, idle talk. 

Clapitha (Provencal), a stony place = clap, a round mass, from the 

Latin lap-is. 
Claque, clogs = clogsiau. 
Cloche, a bell = clock. 
Coin, a corner = cwyn. 

Comblcr, to heap up = civblhau, to complete. 
Cotret, a small fagot = coed, wood. 
Coucher, to lie down = kysgu, to sleep. 

286 Appendix. No. XI. 

Courroie, a saddle = kyvrwy. 

Cracher, to spit = crach-boeri. 

Craindre, to fear = crynu, to quake. 

Cramoisi, crimson = crau, gore, dark clotted blood. 

Crevasse, a crevice = gravais. 

Cuisse, a thigh = coes, a leg. 

Dague, a dagger = tagu, to choke. 

Darder, to dart = tarddu, to spring as a well. 

Debris, fragments = brhvsion. 

Derechef, again = drachevn. 

Deuil, mourning = dywyl. 

Devise, a device = dyvais. 

Dorenavant, henceforth = o hyn allan. 

Douce, sweet = dws : both from the Latin dulcis. 

Dresser, to repair = trwsiaw. 

Drogue, a drug = drwg, bad. 

Dune, a high bank = tyno. 

Eau, water = wy or gwy. 

Ecarter, to separate ysgarthu, to purge. 

Echine, the chine - kevn, back. 

Eclair, lightning = cglur, clear. 

Ecloppc, lame =s= cloff. 

Ecoufle, a kite = vsglyvu, to prey ; whence also the English word 

4 scuffle.' 
Ecrotder, to crumble = ysgwrllwg^ crackling. 
Ecueil, a reef =ysgyl. 

Ecume, scum =ysgwyv, from the Latin spuma. 
Effroi, fright =ffreuo, to spirt out blood. 
Egratigner, to scratch = craffiniaw. 
Eincutc, an insurrection ysmud. 
Ennui, weariness = anwyd, indisposition. 
Envoyer, to send = anvon. 

Appendix. No. XI. 287 

Fsrarbot, a beetle (bred of corruption) in Latin, wcarabaeui = ys- 

gerbwd, a carcase. 
Escarmouche, a skirmish =ysgarmes. 
Escorner (Walloon), to scorn = ysgorn. 
Escort, a guard of soldiers = gosgordd. 
Espcron, a spur = y spar dun. 
Etanqon, a perch = ystangc / Italian, stanga. 
S'c'tou/wr, to be astonished = svnnu. 
Etourdi, rash =ys-drud, daring ; ystwrdio, to storm. 

Fagot, a fagot =Jfagawd. 

Faix, a burthen = batch. 

Fancr, to faint = gwanhdu. 

Flatter, to flatter = ffladr, foolish talk. 

Fol, an old Gallic term for ' dotard '= ffol. 

Fourrage, fodder = Irish, fcur; W. gioair, grass. 

F"raichc, Italian fresco, fresh =Jfresg. 

Fretta (Italian), haste =ffrwt, abruptly. 

Frillcux, chilly =JfrwyI, a drizzling rain. 

Gabelle, a tax = gavael, a hold, a legal claim. 

Garde, a keep = garth, a hill. 

Gars, a lad = givas. 

Geole, a gaol = gc'ol. 

Glaner, to glean = Uanastr, dispersion. 

G/as, a knell = llais, a voice. 

Gobelin, tapestry, carpet = gobennydd, a cushion. 

Gocland, a sea-gull = gwylan. 

Gourmand, a glutton = gormod, too much. 

Gratter, to scrape = cravu. 

Gres, steps = grisiau. 

Grido (Italian), a cry = grydian; griddvan, a groan. 

Grille, a gridiron = gridyll. 

Grogncr, to grumble = grwug, grunt. 

Gualdo (Italian), a defect = gwall. 

288 Appendix. No. XI. 

Gueret, fallow ground = gweryd, a sward. 
Guc'rir, to heal = gwared; kyweiriaw, to repair. 
Guerre, war = herw, foraging. 
Gueux, a beggar = gwyw, faded. 
Guichet, a wicket = gwicced. 

'Habler, to tell lies = cabin, to detract. 

'Hate, a thicket = cae, an enclosure. 

' Halbran, a young wild duck = holbren, a reproachful term applied 

to a woman. 
' Hamais, armour, harness = harnais. 
'Havir, to scorch = hav, summer. 
'Havre, a haven = aber. 
'Heurt, a hit = hurt, awkward. 
'Heurter, to assault = rhuthro ar. 
'Hoquet, the hiccough = ig, effort. 
'Hone, a spade = rhaw. 
'Houppe, an effort = hwpp. 

'Hourdage, rough masonry, rubble = hwrdd, a push. 
'Housseaux, coarse leggings = hosanau, stockings. 
'Hurter, to push = hyrddu. 
'Hutin, an obstinate fellow = hurtyn, a blockhead. 

Ivraie, tares = evrai. 
Jarret, the ham of a leg = garr. 

Laid, ugly = llaid ) mud. 

Lande, a heath = lawnt. 

Lieu, a place = lie. 

Linotte, a linnet = llinos. 

Lueur, a faint light = lleuvcr, light. 

Maint, a quantity = maint. 

Marcher, to march = march, a horse. 

Menu, very small = man; meinw, delicate ; main, thin. 

Appendix. No. XI. 289 

Miettcs, small crumbs = mwydion; mocthau, dainties. 

Mistral^ a violent wind in the south of France = meistrawl, mas- 
terly, overcoming. 

Modorra (Spanish) = modrondod, lethargy. 

Monccan, a heap = boncyn, a bank or knoll. 

Morfd, unwrought ivory = morvil, a nar-whale, whose tusks supplied 
the Norsemen with supposed ivory. 

Mome, sad = mwm, hot, sultry. 

Mou, molle, soft, sluggish = mwll, heavy warm. 

Mouche, a fly = mwch, mdeh, quick. 

Moiiton, old form moulton, a sheep = mollt, a wether. 

Museau, a snout = miswrn, a mask. 

Navrer, to wound = manawyd, to penetrate with an instrument ; 
in Merionethshire, to hurt. 

Octroi, an impost = occr, usury. 

Ord, filthy = gwrthun, repulsive. 

0m\ yea = i'e. 

Ouir, to hear = oiaw. 

Oultrage, from tdtraguim, an outrage, excess = wttrcs, prodigality, 

Outre, outrageous = uthr. 

Pays, a country -=pywys. 

Pelisse, originally ' an upper vesture of fur ' pi/ys. 

Pcqueno (Spanish), little = bychan. 

Pe'ser, to weigh =pwysaw. 

Petit, little = pittw (a word used in South Wales). 

Piquer, to sting =pigo. 

Pissoir, a pitcher =piser. 

Pois, a weight = pwys. 

Pouffer de rire, to burst with laughing =pwf, a puff. 

Preste, nimble = prest. 

Prenx, 2l brave man = brav. 


290 Appendix. No. XI. 

Rotage, broth = potes. 

Rrud } homme, honest man = gwr prudd. 

Quai, the quay on a river or sea = cae, enclosure. 
Quitter, to quit hold of = gadael. 

Racier, to scrape = rhaclo, to make a noise. 

Rade, a roadstead = rhawdd. 

Ramper, to fawn = rhcmp, excess. 

Rang, a rang = rheng. 

Remorquer, to tow a ship = rlrwymo wrth, to attach to an object. 

Reqtn'n, a shark = rhygn, 'jagged' teeth. 

Re'seau, net-work = rhes, a string. 

Retz {patois), cold = rhew, frost. 

Ricaner, to mock = rhingcian, to snarl. 

Rien, nothing =yr un; i.e. [not] a single thing. 

Rigole, a small trench = rhigol. 

Roche, a rock = rhwch, jagged. 

Rochette, a bishop's dress = rlmchen, a cloke. 

Roder, to rove = rhodiaw. 

Rognon, the kidneys = rhynion, groats. 

Roi, a king = rhi, rhwy. 

Roiaulte, royalty, kingly estate = rhialltwch, display. 

Rompre, to break = rhympio, to break an engagement. 

Rond, round = crwnn. 

Rbtir, to roast = rhostio. 

Roussin (Italian, ronzino), a pack-horse = rhwnsi. 

Route, a way = rhyd, a ford. 

Roil tiers, irregular soldiers = rhawd, a mob. 

Ruse, cunning = kyv-rwys. 

Sale, dirty = salw, vile. 

Soc, a ploughshare = stick. 

Saeur, a sister = chwaer; Persian, khauher. 

Soie (Italian, seta), silk = sidati. 

Appendix. No. XI. 291 

S(jin, care = sivyu, a charm, a remedy. 

Sotlisc, silliness = sot/iach, rubbish. 

Suitpc, potage = swp, a smash. 

Squilla (Italian), a cry = did, a peal of bells. 

Taille, an impost = toll. 

Tailler, to cut = tyllu, to perforate. 

Tambour, a drum = tabourdd. 

Tas, a heap = tds, a hay-stack. 

Teie (Lorrain patois), a house = tai, houses. 

Terne, tarnished = tarnu, to dry. 

Tomber, to fall =J>e?i-dwm/>iati, to nod drowsily. 

Tombereau, a dung-cart = trwmbel. 

Tonncau, a ton = tunnell. 

Toux, a cough = tuchan, to groan. 

Tracas, over-haste = trachwyddo, to stumble. 

Trahison, treachery = trais. 

Travail, labour = travacl. 

Trcille, the trellis of a vineyard traill, a trail. 

Tresor, a treasure = trysor. 

Trogne, a snout = trwyn, nose. 

Trombe, a water-spout = /row, heavy. 

Trotter, to trot = trawd, troed, a foot. 

Trousscr, to truss up = trwsio, to repair. 

Trou, a hole = trivch, an incision. 

Truaud, a beggar = truan, wretched. 

Truie, a sow = twrc/i, a hog. 

Vilain, brutish = milain. 
Voila, behold ! = wcle. 



The English words following appear to be either borrowed from, or 
identical with, corresponding Kymric forms. Where they denote 
objects presented in social life, they are probably Kymric ; where 
expressive of notions common to all nations, they must belong 
equally to Teutonic and Keltic stock. 

Aber = a harbour. 

Agwyr, crooked = awry. 

Alch, an iron grating ; alc/ies, a 

window = an alcove ? 
Baban (Italian, bambino) = a baby. 
Bachgen = a boy ; in Persian, 

Badd=a. bath; e.g. Nantbaddon. 
Bagad = a pack of people. 
Bdl, a bare peak = bald. 
Bale = a balk of land. 
Bale It, proud = bold ; in the old 

Gothic, baltha. 
Baldordd = balderdash. 
Ban, high ground = van : so the 

Caermarthen shire Vans. 
Barr, a summit = bare, branch. 
Bicre = to bicker or contend. 
Btlwg = a billhook. 
Blodau, flowers=to blow, to bloom 
Bloedd, a shout = to blow^ 

Blj's, desire = bliss. 

Bod = an abode. 

Boren, morning = morrow. 

Botas = a boot. 

Bragad = a breed. 

Bragu = to brew. 

Br aw, fear = to bree, a Yorkshire 

term for ' to fright.' 
Brawd = brother ; Sanskrit, bhra- 

Brawdle, a court of justice = to 

Brcg = a breach ; to break. 
Brevu = to bray. 
Brock = a brock or badger. 
Brolt'g = luxuriant, frolic. 
Brwg = a brake. 
Brwys = brushwood. 
Brysg = brisk. 

Bnarth = a byre or cowhouse. 
Bngez'lgt'=a. beagle. 

Appendix. No. XII. 


Bxva = a bow. 
Bivch = a buck. 
Bwlnvmman = to boom ? 
Bwlch = to bulge out. 
Bwn-gler, the tail of the clerks 

ss bungler. 
Bwrch = a borough or fort. 
Bwrw = to pour. 
Bwyd= to bait; meat. 
Byrr-don = the burden of a song. 

Cammawn = a battle, backgam- 
mon ; bachgammawHy a little 

Cappan = a cope. 

Care = car king care. 

Ceccru = to check or rate. 

Ced = advantage, to get. 

Ceintach = the Quinta (a game). 

Celyn (in Saxon holcyn) = holly. 

Cevtiy a back = a chine. 

CVc, a fort ; cicwyry infantry = to 

Clai = clay. 

Clccc = a click. 

C/o = a lock. 

Clock = a clock. 

Clwch = a clough or cliff. 

C/rc\y = gloss. 

Coed = wood; Sanskrit, hnta, a 
tree; English, 'to cut down." 

CoeSy a leg = hose. 

CoggiOy to dissemble = to cog dice. 

ComiaWy ymgomio, to gossip = 

Coppu = a coping-stone. 

Croppa = a bird's crop. 

Ciid= a kite. 

Cwt^ = a coc^-boat. 

Civhwvan = to quaver. 

C7C7/, dogs = hounds. 
Owning = a coney. 

Civt, a hut. 

CwynaWy to complain = to whine. 

Chwant = want (desire). 

Chwaw = a sough, or loud sigh of 

the wind. 
Chived = quoth he. 
Chwcdly a talf = to wheedle. 
Chwcgy sweet =^ whey. 
Chwyly a turning^ wheel. 
Chwirli-givgan = a whirligig. 
Chwistrell =z squirt or syringe. 
Chivy 11 = whin, weeds. 
ChwyVy a swell = a wave ; to heave. 
Chuyrnii = to snore. 
Dadletiy to discourse = to tatlle. 
Dal (Saxon, haldan) = to hold. 
Dantcithus, toothsome = dainty. 
Dcvnyiiy a drop of water = dew. 
Diwyll=\.o till. 
Dewr = dour (Scottish). 
Dos, a drop = a dose. 
Dogtiy a piece = a token. 
D6l = a. dale. 
Dreva, twenty-four = a thrave of 

corn, i.e. 24 sheaves. 
Drylliaw = to drill. 
Duazvg, blackish = dusk. 
Divl= dull. 
Dwim = dun-coloured. 
Du'fidtcr, a loud noise = thunder. 
Esgidj a shoe = a skate. 
Esmwyth = smooth. 
Exvyllys = will. 

Eginoy to spring as grass = to begin. 
Efald = a fold of sheep. 
Ejlaw = a splinter : #/. 
Ffeutur = pewter. 


Appendix. No. XII 

Gahv = to call ; Greek, kalco. 

Gardd = a yard, a garden. 

Gcm\ to be born = to yean. 

Gcvynnau = gyves (fetters). 

Gtd=a kid; giddy. 

Gildiaw = to yield. 

Gldn = clean. 

Glanhdn = to glean. 

Glavyr = to glaver or flatter. 

Glaiv = a glaive or sword. 

Go/eu, light ; in Sanskrit, iwdla 

= to glow. 
Gloyw = glowing. 
Glynnu = to lean ; to cling. 
Glynn = a glen. 
Gobeithio, to hope = hopeth. 
Go/ud, wealth = gold. 
Gordal '=an ordeal. 
Golwg = a look. 
Gosymmerth = the gossamer. 
Govail, a smithy = hovel. 
Gran = the grain of wood. 
Grwndwal = a ground-wall. 
Gr>r = a heron. 
Gwae = woe. 
Gwaint, smart = quaint. 
Gwallt, hair = felt. 
Gwan = weak ; wan. 
Gwanhau to wane. 
Gwdr = fair. 
Gwarched = to guard. 
Grvart/t, a strand = a sandy warth. 

Gwysio = to usher or summon. 
Gwasgti = to squeeze. 

(Saxon, wascan) = to wash. 

Gwdu = to weave. 
Gwawn = the gowan. 
Gwedd, a yoke = to wed. 

Gweddi\ a prayer = the F<?rtfo . 
Gwez7gz\ the sea = a billow ; in 

German, Az'/z\ 
Gwet7ii\ to serve = meiny, a retinue. 
Gwehu, pale = fallow ; sallow. 
Gwe/l, better = w/7. 
Gwerth = worth ; in Saxon, werth. 
Gweyd, saith = quoth. 
Gwiddan = a witch ; ' weazen.' 
Gwtsgi) nimble = to whisk. 
Givldn = wool. 
Gwlanen = flannel. 
Gwtv, a channel = a gulf. 
Gwlyb = glib, slippery. 
Gwlydd= mild. 
Gwydd = wood. 

Gwydd,fe wydd=he knows; to wit. 
Gwyll '= gloom. 
Gwyllt = wild. 
Gwymp = to vamp up. 
Gwyrth, virtue = worth. 
Gwyth = wode ; angry. 
Gyrru (Saxon, yrran) = to run. 
Gyrthiaw = to gird (to attack). 

Hagr = haggard. 

Haearn (Sanskrit, saranci) = iron. 

Hau = to sow. 

Haws, easier = ease. 

Hebog = a hawk ; Saxon, hafoc. 

Herw = to harry. 

Hesg (in Irish, seisg) = sedge. 

Hobelu = to hop. 

Hoeden = a hoyden. 

//o7j (in German, schon) = fine. 

Ho!l= whole, full. 

Hosan hosen. 

Hovio = to hover. 

Hnan = the sun ; Sanskrit, /;/. 

Hwyl = a sail. 

Appendix. No. XII 


Hud = to hood-wink. 

Hustings a whisper or murmur 

= hustings. 
Hwch,a. sow (Persian, X7/X')= a hog. 
Hynt, a way = a hint. 
Hyrddu = to gird (as a ram). 
Inrll an earl ; Scandinavian, jarl. 
Ieuangc = young ; offshoot. 
Iwbwb (a cry of alarm) =to whoop. 
Lawnt = a lawn. 
Llab = a slab. 
Llacc = slack. 
Lladmer = a Latimer or Latiner, 

i.e. interpreter. 
Lladd = to slay. 

Llangc, a lad, adolcscens = lank. 
Marian, clear = a clarion. 
Llaxvdr = clad, clothes. 
Uawr = a floor. 
Z/Vy/, length = a slade, a long 

low-lying meadow. 
Lleipyr = slippery. 
Llewys = sleeves. 
Lit thro = to slidder, to slide. 
Z/m' (in Saxon, hieivc) = hue. 
Llwm, bare = gloom. 
Llwyd, gray = a cloud. 
Llymru = flummery. 
Maeddu = to smite : ys-macddu. 
Maen, a stone = a mine. 
Maenoi = a manor. 
Maer = a mayor. 
JA// = black-/// <7/7. 
March, a horse = a marc. 
Mellt, lightning = to melt. 
Meddyglyn = metheglin, mead. 
Main = a wain. 
Mer = marrow. 
J/ ( \y = mast, acorns. 

A furndwrn, a secret blow=murdcr. 

Mvnipwv = the mumps. 

Myned (Saxon, wendati) = to wend. 

Mynnu, to will, to have a mind 
to = mind. 

Mynwyr = meniver (a rich fur). 

Nwth = a knot. 

Oddiyno = then. 

Osgo = askew, aslant. 

Pawcn = a paw. 

Pevr = brave ; fine : e.g. dogyn <> 
aur pevr, a token of brave 

Pert = pretty. 

Pluog, feathery = a pillow. 

Plygu = to bulge, to bend. 

Pres = brass ; Sanskrit, varishta, 
copper (in the sense of ' ex- 
cellent '). 

Prestl = prattle. 

Pryd, beauty = pride. 

Prysgoed = brushwood. 

Pwcca = Puck (a goblin). 

Rhawr = a roar. 

R/iemp, mischievous = ramping. 

Rhev = rife. 

Rh6ch, grunting = rough. 

Rhodio, to walk = a road. 

Rhudd = ruddy. 

Rhuyg=a. wrack, a wreck. 

Rhydd= rid, to be rid of. 

Rhyg (in Saxon, ryge) = rye. 

Siommi = to sham. 

Siwtrws = in shatters. 

Sorod = dross, trash. 

Swil = shy. 

Swch, a ploughshare=a soc of land. 

Tabwrdd = a tabret . 

Tegan = a toy. 


Appendix. No. XII. 

Tewychu = to thicken ; tough ; 

Tippyn, a particle = a tip : Sanskrit, 

tip, to drop. 
Tramwyo, to traverse = tram. 
Treillio = to trawl or fish with nets. 
Troed, a foot = to tread. 
Trwc /i=through ; a trough ; a truck 
Trwssio = to dress, to truss up. 
Trwy = through. 
Trybedd = a trivet or tripod. 
Ttichan, to groan = to tug. 
Twrv, ysdwrv, a noise = to stir. 
Tyno=dL down or elevated plateau. 
Tysmwy = dismay. 
Tyxvyll, dark = dull. 
Uwch (German, hoch) = high. 
Ust, silence ! = whist. 
Ych = an ox : Sanskrit, ukshan. 

Ysdwrdiaw, to check = sturdy. 

Ysgavael = to scamble, to be ra- 

Ysgarm = a scream. 

Ysgawd (Saxon, scadu)=a shadow. 

Ysglent = slant. 

Ysgrech = a shriek; Ger. schreck. 

Ysgreppan = a scrip. 

Ysgrubliaid, beasts = Ou. from 
ysgrnb, scrubs or shrubs ; that 
is, wild in the bush. 

Ysgnvd, a carcase = a shroud. 

Ysgrwmp (German, sclirumpe) = a. 

Ysgwyd=to scud; Italian, sqtiittire. 

Ysmala, arch, witty = a smile. 

Yspagan, the talons of birds = 
the spokes of a wheel. 

Yspred, refuse-matter = spread.